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Article

Michel Huglo

revised by David Hiley

[antiphonal, antiphonary] (from Lat. antiphona; antiphonarius [liber], antiphonarium, antiphonale)

Liturgical book of the Western Church containing the antiphons and other choir chants sung at the services of the Divine Office .

Although the word antiphona as a term for a liturgical chant can be traced back to the 3rd century, the term antiphonarius (rarely also antiphonale – see below) for a book of chants first appears in the 8th century. In his Dialogus ecclesiasticae institutionis Archbishop Egbert of York (d 766) refers to an ‘antiphonarium’ and even ‘antiphonaria’ of Gregory the Great (d 604), which he had seen in Rome in the 730s ( PL , lxxxix, 440–42). The term was also used in Carolingian library catalogues from the end of the 8th century:Catalogue from St Wandrille de Fontenelle in Normandy, compiled between 787 and 806 (‘antiphonarii romanae ecclesiae’; G. Becker: Catalogi bibliothecarum antiqui, Bonn, 1885/R, §4, no.21);Catalogue from St Riquier in Picardy, in 831 (‘antiphonarii sex’: ibid., §11, no.238);Catalogue from Cologne, in the 9th century (ibid., §16, nos.7, 18, 33);Catalogue from St Gallen in the mid-9th century (‘antiphonarii III et veteres II’; ...

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Small, relatively thick Cymbals, of clear, definite pitch. Up to about 12 cm in diameter and commonly played in pairs, they are often called ‘finger cymbals’ and held each in one hand or looped to a finger and thumb of one hand. Sets of up to 13 (one chromatic octave) can be mounted on a frame and struck with light metal hammers. In modern parlance they are often called ...

Article

Martin Picker

(b ?Venice, fl early 16th century). Italian composer. 15 frottolas and 2 laudi are attributed to ‘A. de Antiquis’ (sometimes abbreviated to ‘A. de A.’) in the collections of Ottaviano Petrucci and Andrea Antico. Petrucci appended ‘Venetus’ to Antiquis's name in Frottole libro quinto (RISM 15056), and once in Laude libro secondo (RISM 1508³) gave his name in full. Many scholars have attempted to identify Antiquis with Andrea Antico, engraver, publisher and composer from Montona; however, Antico never signed himself ‘Venetus’ and it seems likely that different people are involved. Einstein cited Antiquis's setting of the sonnet Io mi parto as the first printed example of the polyphonic working out of an entire composition of the frottola type and an important precursor of the madrigal.

all for 4 voices

Article

Donna G. Cardamone

(b Corato; d Bari, after 1608). Italian composer and anthologist. Antiquis was associated with the basilica of S Nicola, Bari, for most of his career, first as cleric (from 1565), then as canon and choirmaster. From 1606 to 1608 he was chaplain and singing teacher of the Conservatorio dei Poveri di Gesù Cristo in Naples. His two anthologies of 1574 (dedicated to the banker Daniello Centurione) contain 13 of his own villanellas and 31 by various musicians employed in Bari, among them Pomponio Nenna and Stefano Felis. His villanellas usually open homorhythmically and proceed in lightly imitative textures. Two books of madrigals by Antiquis are listed in the catalogue of the library of Federico Franzini, compiled in 1676 (Mischiati nos.XII:26–7); they do not survive. He also published a number of instrumental bicinia in anthologies.

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An unnamed Beneventan bishop credited in the 12th-century Calixtine manuscript ( E-SC ) with a conductus, Jacobe sancte tuum repetito, that appears in both monophonic and polyphonic settings. The attribution may be fictitious, particularly since the Beneventan see was an archbishopric from 969.

J. López-Calo: La música en la Catedral de Santiago...

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Jacqueline Gachet

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Jacqueline Gachet

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Roger J.V. Cotte

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Roger J.V. Cotte

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Elisabeth Cook

[Maria Antonia Josefa Johanna ]

(b Vienna, Nov 2, 1755; d Paris, Oct 16, 1793). Queen of France and patron of opera . The daughter of Emperor Franz I of Austria, she received her early tuition from Gluck (clavecin and singing) and Noverre (dance and deportment). As dauphine (1770) and later queen of France (1774), she supported a great many artists working within the field of opera. The success of Gluck’s Iphigénie en Aulide at the Opéra in 1774 was due largely to the presence of the entire court at the première and to the dauphine’s enthusiastic applause for individual numbers. Accused of favouring Austrian interests too overtly, she was obliged to welcome Piccinni to Paris, and later favoured Sacchini until further criticism forced her to support native composers: for celebrations at Fontainebleau in 1786 Lemoyne’s Phèdre was staged in preference to Sacchini’s Oedipe à Colone. Works by Grétry (...

Article

Peter Schwalm

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b Zurich, May 24, 1937). Swiss drummer. He began learning the rudiments of drumming in a Swiss marching band at the age of nine and discovered jazz as a teenager. After playing with a local dixieland band for two years from the age of 16, and studying at the music academy in Zurich from the age of 17, he began his professional career in 1956 in Paris, where he worked with Bill Coleman (recording in Zurich, 1957), Albert Nicholas (recording in Zurich, 1958), and various French musicians. Between 1957 and 1961 he was a member of the Swiss dixieland group the Tremble Kids (with which he recorded in 1957, 1961–3, and 1971–5) and worked with other European groups. In 1962 he moved to Stuttgart, Germany, and played for five years in the big band of Süddeutscher Rundfunk under Erwin Lehn; he recorded with Wolfgang Dauner (...

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Dieter Härtwig

(b Dresden, Dec 27, 1755; d Dresden, June 6, 1836). German prince and amateur composer. The third son of Friedrich Christian of Saxony and the noted patron and composer Maria Antonia Walpurgis, he was originally intended for the Catholic priesthood, but in 1781 he married Maria Antonia of Sardinia, and after her death Maria Theresa of Austria (1787). Peter August was responsible for Anton's musical education, and he was later tutored by the court musician A. Schmiedel. He produced his first major composition, the cantata Montagnes, ode di Fénélon in 1772. Throughout most of his life he remained outside government, and instead pursued his favourite pastimes, musical composition and genealogy. On the death of his brother King Friedrich August I in 1827 he succeeded to the throne of Saxony. Religious controversies and his advancing age led to a co-regency with his nephew Friedrich August in 1830...