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Asta-Rose Alcaide

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Eleanor Selfridge-Field

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Antonio Lolli: drawing by Hardrich (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz)

Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Berlin

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Manuel Carlos De Brito

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Anne Schnoebelen

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Arnold Myers and Eugenia Mitroulia

Family of three- or four-valve brass instruments whose general shape, with upturned bell, resembles somewhat the saxophone. In terms of acoustical design and mouthpiece antoniophones do not differ from equivalent standard brass band instruments. This model of instrument, sometimes said to be a redesign of the Courtois Koenig horn, was first produced in 1867 in Paris by Antoine Courtois (d 1880), after whom it is named. Other firms who produced antoniophones were Thibouville-Lamy in Paris, Boosey & Co. in London and Missenharter in New York. The Boosey instruments, produced in sizes ranging from E♭ soprano (cornet equivalent) to E♭ bass (tuba), were given the trade name ‘Orpheon’ and a set of five made in 1887 was used by the Patrick S. Gilmore Band in the USA, where antoniophones were sold by J. Howard Foote among others. Another set of five, produced by Boosey in 1888–9, was played by the Stoneham family quintet in Australia....

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Fig.1: Orpheon alto [antoniophone] in B-flat, Boosey and Co., London, 1889. Edinburgh University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments (4501)

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Sven Hansell

revised by Emilia Zanetti

(b ?Milan, c1692; d Milan, 1776). Italian theorist and composer. He was living in Holland in the mid-1730s but then moved to London, where he stayed for more than two decades and wrote his treatise L’Arte armonica: or, A Treatise on the Composition of Musick (1760). It was published in an anonymous English translation, which the Monthly Review found lacking in purity and elegance of style but intelligible and valuable for advanced students of music. In many respects it is an up-to-date and sophisticated presentation of theory, for instance in its use of Corelli’s op.5 no.1 to illustrate the transformation of chord progressions into melodies and counterpoint. About 1770 Antoniotto returned to Milan, where he gave Giovenale Sacchi his scheme for creating dissonances by sustaining chords until all the notes of the scale sound together. Fétis, the most important source of information on Antoniotto, reported that he died in Milan in ...

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George Leotsakos

(b Athens, Feb 10, 1935). Greek composer. He studied the violin, singing and composition at the National Conservatory, Athens (1947–58); he also studied composition with Papaioannou at the Hellenic Conservatory, Athens (1956–61). His studies were continued with Günther Bialas at the Munich Musikhochschule, where he gained his first experience in electronic music. He made a tour of the USA in 1966 and spent the year 1968 in Berlin. In 1967 he founded the Hellenic Group of Contemporary Music in Athens. He taught composition and orchestration at the universities of Stanford (1969–70) – where he founded the ‘Alea II’ ensemble – and Utah (1970), at the Philadelphia College of the Performing Arts as professor (1970–78), and at Tanglewood (1974–85), where he was also assistant director of contemporary activities. In 1979 he was appointed professor of composition at the University of Boston and in ...

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Mikaela Minga

(b Tirana, Albania, April 12, 1949; d Tirana, Sept 28, 2012). Albanian cellist. His parents were acclaimed artists. His father, Kristaq Antoniu, was a singer, actor, and stage director. His mother, Androniqi Zengo, was a painter. Between 1967 and 1973 Antoniu completed his cello studies at the Albanian Higher Institute of Arts (Instituti i Lartë i Arteve), with Y. Skënderi and M. Denizi. During this time he became one of the most acclaimed cello soloists in Albania of both chamber music and solo works, being the first performer of pieces by Albanian composers such as Ç. Zadeja, F. Ibrahimi, K. Laro, S. Kushta, T. Gaqi, and A. Peçi,. Antoniu gave numerous concerts, primarily in Albania, though a few abroad. He participated in the most important musical events of his time and made radio recordings. In his repertory are included cello pieces from Classic and Romantic European composers. Antoniu was appointed professor at the High Institute of Arts and taught there for more than thirty years....

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Mikaela Minga

[Antoniu, Christache]

(b Bucharest, Romania, Dec 25, 1907; d Tirana, Albania, March 17, 1979). Tenor, actor, and stage director. He studied at the Mimodramatic High School of Bucharest and then in Rome, with M. Polverosi. In Romania, he had a successful career as an actor and singer. He was in the movie industry in the 1920s and early 30s, playing in more than 15 films, including Ciocoii (1931), Iancu Jianu, (1928), and Maiorul Mura (1927). In the meantime, he worked in the Alhambra theater as a singer and stage director of operettas. In the mid 1930s, Antoniu moved to Albania and pursued a singing career. He made only one cinematic appearance in 1943, for the short film documentary Takimi në liqen (‘Meeting at the Lake’). He was a dramatic tenor, with a baritone quality in his voice. This led him to explore a large range of operatic characters from both the Western opera repertory and the Albanian one. He performed and recorded Albanian traditional or folk songs, handled with an operatic vocal posture and arranged with western harmonies. His son, Gjergj Antoniu was a prominent Albanian cellist....

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Antony  

Shana Goldin-Perschbacher

[Hegarty, Antony]

(b Chichester, England, 1971). American singer-songwriter and pianist. After the Hegarty family moved to San Jose, Ccalifornia, in 1981, Antony studied experimental theater at New York University, formed a performance collective with Johanna Constantine, and collaborated with filmmaker William Basinski (Life on Mars, 1997) and rock icon Lou Reed (The Raven, Sire, 2003; Animal Serenade, RCA, 2004). Antony has become the world’s most famous transgender musician. Male-bodied and feminine-identified, Antony retains his birth name and uses masculine pronouns professionally. His band, Antony and the Johnsons (formed in 1996), is named after the murdered African American transgender activist Marsha P. Johnson.

Antony’s vocal depth, resonance, and melismatic grace evoke African American musical traditions. His tremulous vibrato and seemingly self-imposed limitations (also evident in his amateurish piano playing) express the grave earthly burdens of his lyrics. His eclectic work has been influenced by the AIDS-ravaged New York art scene (Peter Hujar), British synth-pop (Marc Almond), soul (Nina Simone, Boy George), and experimental underground music (Diamanda Galás). His band includes vocals, piano, drums, guitar, bass, cello, violin, and horns, he regularly appears with an orchestra, and he released an album of live symphonic performances with the Danish National Chamber Orchestra featuring arrangements by Nico Muhly, Rob Moose, Maxim Moston, and himself (...

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Barbara B. Heyman

Opera in three acts, op.40, by Samuel Barber to a libretto by Franco Zeffirelli after William Shakespeare ’s play; New York, Metropolitan Opera, 16 September 1966.

Commissioned for the opening of the new opera house at Lincoln Center, the original version of Antony and Cleopatra consisted entirely of Shakespeare’s words ( see also Cleopatra ), which Franco Zeffirelli condensed to 16 scenes set in Rome and Egypt, plus one scene aboard a Roman galley omitted in the revised version. Antony (bass-baritone) leaves Egypt and his mistress, the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra (soprano). Returning to Rome, he is pressed to marry Octavia, sister of Octavius Caesar (tenor). When he goes to Cleopatra instead, Caesar declares war and defeats him. Antony kills himself and Cleopatra commits suicide soon after.

The alternating geographical settings are mirrored in the character of the music: sinuous melodies, luminescent harmonies and exotic orchestral timbres in the Egyptian scenes and for Cleopatra contrast with the angular declamations and driving, irregular rhythms of the brash ‘Roman’ music. Conventional forms support the dramatic action: a fugato and ominous passacaglia, for example, dominate the tense meeting of Antony and Caesar in the Roman Senate (Act 1 scene ii). Recurring motives reinforce dramatic associations through transformation or expansion, giving audible unity to the opera: the Prologue’s brass fanfare opens the Roman scenes in Acts 1 and 2; Cleopatra’s serpentine phrase ‘If this be love indeed’ returns in the orchestral accompaniment to her suicide; her spine- chilling ‘my man of men’ (Act 1 scene iii) returns as the climax of her death scene in Act 3; the haunting choral evocation ‘Cleopatra’ accompanies the vision of her barge on the Nile and pervades the orchestral texture as well. Unusual instrumental combinations are strikingly effective: an electronic instrument and double bass provide an eerie background to the ‘Music i’ the air’ episode, and a solo flute and timpani are chilling accompaniment to the suicides of Antony and Enobarbus. Some of the most sensuous and soaring lyrical passages were composed especially for Leontyne Price, who created the role of Cleopatra. Two arias – ‘Give me some music’ (from Act 1) and the suicide monologue ‘Give me my robe, put on my crown, I have immortal longings in me’ (from Act 3) – were expanded in ...

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Michaela Freemanová and Geoffrey Chew

(fl 1760–1806). Czech composer. He was a teacher in Nemyčeves near Jičín (1760–92), then in Kopidlno. Most of his work output consists of church music, but he also wrote the Opera de rebellione boëmica rusticorum, which deals with the great peasant rebellion in East Bohemia of 1775. The work seems to have gained popularity in its time: it appears in several musical collections, and also as a spoken drama. The opera is composed in a late Baroque idiom, with Rococo features; to highlight the contrast between the lives of peasants and the nobility, it uses elements of folk and art music.

J. Němeček: Lidové zpěvohry a písně z doby roboty [Folk Singspiels and songs from the time of serfdom] (Prague, 1954)T. Volek: ‘První české zpěvohry’ [The first Czech Singspiels], Dějiny českého divadla [History of Czech theatre], vol.1: Od počátku do sklonku osmnáctého století [From the Beginning to the end of the 18th century], ed. ...

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Gerhard Conrad

(b Pforzheim, Germany, Oct 6, 1929). German soprano, tenor, and bass saxophonist. After receiving three lessons on guitar from a member of the Reinhardt clan he played in dance bands until 1950. He then contacted Sidney Bechet in Paris and learned to play soprano saxophone. He played in Germany with the arranger and bandleader Ernst Simon and also with American soldiers. In ...

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Antunes  

John Koster and Gerhard Doderer

Portuguese family of harpsichord and piano makers . Manuel Antunes (1707–96) and Joaquim José Antunes (1731–1811), the only children of Julião Antunes, a maker of string instruments who served in the royal chapel, shared a workshop in Lisbon. Two harpsichords, dated 1758 (in the Museu da Música, Lisbon) and 1785 (in the Finchcocks collection, Goudhurst, Kent), are signed by J.J. Antunes. Other Antunes instruments are signed only with the surname, including a grand piano of 1767 (in the Shrine to Music Museum, Vermillion, South Dakota) and a harpsichord of 1789 (in the Museu da Música, Lisbon); these were presumably made by both brothers working together. The harpsichords each have a single manual with two 8′ stops. In 1760 Manuel Antunes received a ten-year privilege for making pianos. The surviving example is virtually identical to Antunes harpsichords in design and construction, except for its action, which is very similar to that of Bartolomeo Cristofori. Manuel's grandson, João Baptista Antunes (...

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Gerard Béhague

(de Freitas)

(b Rio de Janeiro, April 23, 1942). Brazilian composer. He studied the violin, conducting and composition at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro with Carlos de Almeida, Morelenbaum, Siqueira and de Carvalho (1958–68), as well as composition with Guerra-Peixe. He also took the BSc in physics (1965), stimulating him to construct electronic equipment and pursue research into the relationship between colour and sound; he founded a studio of ‘chromo-musical’ research and composed a series of works entitled Cromoplastofonias. In 1969–70 he was at the Di Tella Institute in Buenos Aires, working in the electronic music studio and studying further with Ginastera, de Pablo, Francisco Kröpfl, Umberto Eco and Gandini. He continued his electronic studies at the University of Utrecht in 1970, and in 1972–3 worked with the Groupe de Recherches Musicales in Paris with Schaeffer, Reibel and Bayle; concurrently he studied musical aesthetics with Daniel Charles at the Sorbonne, completing a doctoral degree in ...

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Antwerp  

Godelieve Spiessens

(Flem. Antwerpen; Fr. Anvers)

City in Belgium. For centuries it has been an important musical centre and has played a leading role in the music of the Low Countries. Around 1410 the choir school of the church of Our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk; later the cathedral) began to develop an active musical life. Up to the 17th century its choirmasters, organists and singers included such composers as Pullois, Ockeghem, Barbireau, Obrecht, Waelrant, Gérard de Turnhout, Séverin Cornet, Pevernage, Opitiis and John Bull; in addition Rore, Lassus and Monte all spent some time in the city. Secular music was promoted by the establishment of the town players (before 1430) and the formation of a musicians’ guild (c1500). Musicians who either came from Antwerp or were active there outside the cathedral included the composers Faignient, Hèle, Canis, Verdonck, Luython and Messaus, and the lute virtuosos Adriaenssen, Huet and Hove. Music printing flourished after 1540...