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John M. Schechter

Afro-Cuban vessel rattle. It is constructed of two 15-cm-long metal cones soldered together not at the 3 cm diameter bases but at the vertices. They contain small stones, hard seeds, or shot, which resound when the instrument is shaken by one hand holding it at the centre. It is used in Arará or Dahomeyan rites to honour the deities Achetó and Ogún, respectively. Nowadays it is rare. The similar ...



Laurel Fay

Opera in four acts by Armen Tigran Tigranyan , orchestrated by G. Ya. Burkovich, to his own libretto after Hovhannes T’umanyan’s poem; Alexandrapol (now Kumayrï), People’s City Hall, 4 /17 August 1912.

Anush was the first opera to receive its première in Armenia, in amateur productions which helped to disseminate its popular melodies. It also helped establish the foundations for a national operatic style. In 1935 it was revived for Erevan in a revised version (in five acts and reorchestrated) given by the Spendiaryan Armenian Theatre of Opera and Ballet; the same company later performed Anush in Moscow at the Bol’shoy (22 October 1939). T’umanyan’s lyric poem – a timeless tragedy of lovers sacrificed on the altar of social prejudice – to which Tigranyan turned in 1908 was rich in local colour and atmosphere, features enhanced by the music. Although only one folksong is quoted, Tigranyan’s score is permeated with traces of Armenian folklore: modal melodic inflections and ornate embellishments, song forms, improvisatory flexibility, evocative instrumental colour and native drumming styles, and the traditional forms of wedding and ritual music....



James Blades

revised by James Holland

(Fr. enclume; Ger. Amboss; It. incudine)

In the orchestra, a percussion instrument of indefinite pitch; it is classified as a struck idiophone. It may consist of one or two metal bars mounted on a resonating frame, a small length of steel tube or scaffolding, or an actual blacksmith's anvil. The latter is used but rarely an account of its great weight, the substitutes providing a realistic sound. In each case, although definable notes are produced, they are not usually prescribed. Praetorius illustrated a blacksmith's anvil struck with a sledgehammer in his Theatrum instrumentorum (1620). An earlier reference to the instrument occurs in Agricola's Musica instrumentalis deudsch (1529). In the Anvil Chorus of Verdi's Il trovatore two anvils (incudini) are required. Wagner scored for one anvil in the forging song in Siegfried, and for 18 in Das Rheingold. Other notable instances of the use of the anvil in orchestral scores include Auber's ...


Tiziana Morsanuto

(fl 1566–8). Composer active in Italy. His known works comprise six madrigals in two anthologies edited by Giulio Bonagiunta: five for four voices (in RISM 1566²) and one for five voices (in 1568¹6). Though his name suggests Italian origin, it is possible that he can be identified with the Flemish musician Adriano Haville who occasionally served Guidubaldo II della Rovere, Duke of Urbino. Bonagiunta was himself a native of nearby S Ginesio, as was the poet Annibale Caro to whose memory one of the anthologies (...


Alexander Silbiger

[Ansalone, Anzelonus]

Italian family of musicians, teachers and composers. 14 members of this Neapolitan family over four generations were active in the late 16th century and up to the middle of the 17th, notably as wind players. Many of them were employed in the royal chapel at Naples, and several members of the third generation taught in the city’s conservatories. The three members of this generation discussed below, of whom the first and third at least were cousins, were also composers; all three, together with at least one other member of the family, died as a result of the plague of 1656. Giacinto (b Naples, 13 March 1606; d Castelnuovo, 6 July 1656) was from 1630 until his death director of the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini and also maestro di cappella of the chiesa di Monteoliveto. His only extant print is Psalmi de vespere a quattro voci, con un Laudate pueri alla venetiana...




Geoffrey Chew

revised by Denise Davidson Greaves

(Gk.: ‘singer’, ‘bard’)

A term used by Homer to describe performers of epics (e.g. Phemius and Demodocus in the Odyssey) who sang and accompanied themselves on the Phorminx or kitharis ( see Kithara ). The language, musical accompaniment and details of performing practice of the aoidoi were transmitted orally, and their formulaic practice is believed to underlie the hexameter poetry of the Iliad and Odyssey themselves. Modern studies have explored the similarities between the practice of the aoidoi and that of the modern southern Slav singers of heroic epic accompanied by the gusli (see Lord). (In these oral traditions, each telling of a story – even the same story by the same performer – is likely to differ in detail.) Aoidoi were presumably independent artisans, although the Odyssey suggests that individuals could be linked to specific households.

The precise relationship between the early aoidoi and later performers of epic is not clear. There is evidence that the early kitharodes performed Homeric and other epic poetry (...


Gary W. Kennedy

(b Tokyo, Sept 19, 1957). Japanese double bass player. His father was a film producer and his mother a kabuki dancer. He learned shamisen and taiko and received classical lessons on piano and guitar; later he took up double bass, and by the age of 17 he was performing on this instrument in jazz clubs around Tokyo. In 1976 he left Japan and studied film making at Ohio University and the Art Institute of Chicago (BA 1983, MA 1985). From 1978 he played electric bass guitar in local rock and “no-wave” bands, but he returned to jazz and the acoustic instrument in 1987. As an unaccompanied soloist he has performed regularly, augmenting his own playing with looped recordings of double bass and sounds derived from various objects such as soda bottles and chopsticks. In addition he has led Power Trio, with Paul Kim playing buk (a traditional Korean drum) and Mwata Bowden on saxophone (Kim was occasionally replaced by Afifi Phillard on drums), and Urban Reception, a trio with Francis Wong and the drummer Dave Pavkovic, which recorded in ...



Konin Aka

Scraper of the Baule and Agni-Morofwe peoples of Ivory Coast. A serrated stick passes through a hole pierced in a nut; the right hand moves the nut along the stick against which the left hand occasionally presses a small resonator. The instrument, played only by women and young girls, is used for rhythmic accompaniment to singing for amusement....



Laurence Libin

[aeolsklavier] (Ger.: ‘aeolian piano’)

Keyboard instrument invented about 1822 by Schortmann of Buttelstedt near Weimar. The quiet tone, similar to that of an aeolian harp, was said to be produced by currents of air striking a series of flexible upright wooden rods; the wind was supplied by pedal-operated bellows. It was used in concerts by the military music director C.T. Theuss in Weimar but soon became obsolete. It was reportedly a development of Eschenbach’s slightly earlier free-reed ‘Äoline’ and similar to Baudet’s ‘Piano chanteur’ (...





David P. McAllester

revised by Anne Dhu McLucas

Native Americans of northwestern, north-central, and southeastern New Mexico, southeastern Arizona, the southern Plains, and northern Mexico. Numbering about 53,330 (according to the 1990 census), they are divided into six tribes, all southern Athapaskan: Jicarilla, Lipan, Kiowa-Apache, Mescalero, Chiricahua, and Western Apache (of whom four internal subdivisions are recognized: White Mountain, San Carlos, Cibecue, and Tonto groups). All speak Apachean dialects closely related to the Athapaskan language of the NAVAJO, and, more distantly, to Athapaskan languages in Oregon, California, and Canada. In many respects the Apache culture is a conservative form of the way of life of their Navajo neighbors. This similarity extends in some respects to their music.

Like that of almost all Native Americans, the traditional music of the Apache is almost entirely vocal, often with rattle or drum accompaniment. A chorus–verse–chorus alternation, an old Athapaskan musical form, is found in most Apache traditional music, both popular and sacred. The Apache vocal style is strikingly nasal and rises to falsetto in some of the highly melodic choruses. The verses, more like chants, are sung with a choppy, almost parlando delivery. Some syllables are sharply emphasized and others suddenly muffled or swallowed. The tonal system very often incorporates major or minor triads. Choruses utilize triadic shapes as well as octave leaps. When singing together, the ensemble is loosely unison, with much individual variation allowed....


Jann Pasler

The nickname of an informal Parisian group of musicians, poets, painters, critics and music lovers. Members of the group, born mostly in the mid-1870s, included the composers Ravel, Delage, Séverac, Ladmirault, Florent Schmitt, Edouard Bénédictus and (after 1910) Igor Stravinsky, as well as the pianist Ricardo Viñes, the conductor and composer D.E. Inghelbrecht, the poets Léon-Paul Fargue and Tristan Klingsor and the critics Emile Vuillermoz and M.-D. Calvocoressi. In their independence, their creative freedom and their desire to revolutionize conventional norms, some thought they resembled American Indians, anarchists, or the similarly-named hoodlums from Belleville who roamed the grands boulevards at night.

It was music, especially Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande, that first drew the group together. They attended each performance of the opera in spring 1902 as a kind of sacred battalion to assure a positive response. They then began to meet on Saturday nights at the Montmartre apartment of the set-designer Paul Sordes. From ...


Jay W. Junker

[Afat, Alfred Aiu]

(b Honolulu, Mar 19, 1919; d Honolulu, Jan 30, 1960). Hawaiian pop singer. In many ways, Apaka was the first modern pop star in Hawaiian music. His warm baritone reflected the enormous impact of Bing Crosby’s crooning in Hawaii during the 1930s, but also evoked comparisons with Elvis Presley and Marty Robbins a generation later, especially when they sang Hawaiian repertoire. Apaka’s good looks, trademark red carnation lei and easygoing charm attracted mainstream media, and he was one of the few Hawaiian artists to appear regularly on national programs in the 1950s. Romantic ballads were Apaka’s forte, especially hapa haole songs such as “Beyond the Reef” and “Lovely Hula Hands.” Much of his Hawaiian-language repertoire was similarly nahenahe (sweet) though he also performed up-tempo songs and novelties. Instrumental support tended to reflect the then-thriving Waikiki lounge scene with amplified steel guitar, ukulele, rhythm guitar, string bass and sometimes vibraphone and percussion....



Geneviève Dournon

Variable tension chordophone of Rajasthan, north India. It has a cylindrical body, originally of wood or gourd but now commonly a tin can with ends removed. A skin is stretched over the lower end. A straight wooden neck about 60 cm long, affixed along the body, has a large movable peg through its upper part. A metal string extends from the peg to the centre of the skin. The musician plucks the string with one hand, using either fingers or a plectrum, and with the other hand turns the peg to vary the pitch. The apang provides rhythmic support for devotional songs. It is used in the Udaipur region, notably by the Bhil, a tribal people of the Aravalli hills (southwestern Rajasthan). See also Ektār.

K. Kothari: Folk Musical Instruments of Rajasthan (Borunda, 1977) B.C. Deva: Musical Instruments of India (Calcutta, 1978), 147ff C.J. Adkins and others: ‘Frequency Doubling Chordophones’, ...


Marysol Quevedo

(b Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Dec 11, 1955). American literary scholar. She studied Spanish and Comparative Literature at Indiana University (BA 1978), and earned the MA (1980) and PhD (1983) in Spanish from Harvard University. Aparicio’s research focuses on languages, cultural hybridity, and transnationalism in Latino and Latina culture. She examines the role of popular music in defining the cultural changes, hybridity and cultural politics in Latin American popular culture. She is the author of Listening to Salsa (1998), co-editor of two volumes of essays: Musical Migrations (New York, 2003) and Tropicalizations (Hanover, NY, 1997), and has published many articles. She received the Modern Languages Association’s Katherine Kovac Singer Award for the best book in Hispanic Studies and the Best Book Award from the International Association for the Study of Popular Music for Listening to Salsa. Aparicio has taught at Stanford University, University of Arizona, University of Michigan, and University of Illinois at Chicago, and currently holds the position of professor of Spanish and Portuguese and director of the Latina and Latino Studies Program at Northwestern University....



John Reeves White

revised by John Caldwell

(b Konitz, West Prussia [now Chojnice, Poland], Oct 10, 1893; d Bloomington, IN, March 14, 1988). American musicologist of German origin. He studied mathematics at the universities of Bonn and Munich (1912–14) and, after war service, at the University of Berlin (1918–22). Active as a pianist and music teacher, his interests turned to musicology while he was at the Freie Schulgemeinde at Wickersdorf (1922–8) and he was largely self-taught as a musicologist. He took the doctorate in Berlin in 1936, the year of his emigration to the USA, with a dissertation on 15th- and 16th-century tonality. He was a lecturer at Harvard University (1938–42) and professor of musicology at Indiana University, Bloomington (1950–70); he was made professor emeritus in 1963, though he continued to teach until 1970, and was awarded an honorary doctorate in 1972.

When Apel arrived in the USA he was just beginning his productive years and his career was thereafter essentially ‘American’. His first large books in English, addressed to students in a newly expanding subject, were remarkable for their timeliness and durability. ...