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Jeffry Mark

revised by David Charlton

(b Kassel, Feb 23, 1754; d Kassel, Jan 30, 1832). German composer and author. The son of a tax official, Apell was employed in the treasury at Kassel; however he also had some musical instruction from local court musicians. Once settled in his profession, Apell concentrated on both composition (public performances date from 1780) and conducting; he founded and directed a philharmonic society. He received many honours in the course of his career, including honorary membership of the Accademia Filarmonica di Bologna and the Swedish Royal Academy of Music in Stockholm. For the mass composed in 1800 for Pope Pius VII he received the Order of the Golden Spur. From 1815 he was vice-president of the Kassel Academy of Fine Arts. In 1792 Count Wilhelm IX (later Elector Wilhelm I) made him Intendant of the court theatre, and he remained at Kassel throughout the wars with France. Shortly after Elector Wilhelm II took office in ...

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Fig.1: Apentemma. Virtual Instrument Museum, http://www.wesleyan.edu/music/vim

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Antoine Gindt

(b Athens, Dec 23, 1945). French composer of Greek birth. Since taking up residence in Paris in 1963, Aperghis has pursued an original and independent career, dividing his activity between composition in the traditional sense and music theatre based on improvisation. His explorations in the latter field date from 1971, when he composed La tragique histoire du nécromancien Hiéronimo et de son miroir for the Avignon Festival, which has regularly featured his work ever since.

He founded the Atelier Théâtre et Musique (ATEM) in 1976 at Bagnolet, moving to the Théâtre Nanterre-Amandiers, Nanterre, in 1991. In this connection, he has completely revised his practice as a composer. Calling equally on musicians and actors, his music theatre works are inspired by everyday life, by social realities transposed to a poetic world that is often also absurd and satirical and which develops as rehearsals progress. All the ingredients (vocal, instrumental, gestural, scenic) have equal status and contribute to the dramaturgy of these stage works, regardless of any pre-existing text. Between ...

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David Fallows

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David Fallows

(It.: ‘open’, ‘clear’, ‘frank’, ‘bold’, ‘plain’)

In medieval music, particularly in the Estampie but also in the Ductia and in many song forms, aperto and chiuso are used in the same sense as the modern words ‘prima volta’ and ‘seconda volta’. Normally the open ending (aperto) was on a less final pitch than the closed ending....

Article

David Fallows

(It.: ‘open’, ‘clear’, ‘frank’, ‘bold’, ‘plain’)

A word used several times by Mozart in the tempo designation allegro aperto. Examples are the first movements of the Violin Concerto in A k219 and the Piano Concerto in B♭ k238, as well as two strikingly similar early arias: ‘Per la gloria in questo seno’ from Ascanio in Alba...

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Apesō  

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Barry Kernfeld and Gary W. Kennedy

(Noah )

(b Berkeley, CA, Aug 21, 1960). American bandleader, tenor saxophonist, composer, percussionist, and pianist. He played percussion and piano from an early age, took up drums while in elementary school, and began piano lessons when he was nine. In 1975 he formed his own improvisation group, the Berkeley Arts Company, and in 1977 he founded the Hieroglyphics Ensemble, which initially consisted of 16 reed and brass players and himself on drums; the following year he added other instruments to form a rhythm section. Having moved to New York state (c1979) he played percussion and drums in Karl Berger’s Woodstock Workshop Orchestra, and he toured and recorded with the group in Europe with Don Cherry as guest soloist (1979). Under Warren Smith (ii) he performed in the Composer’s Workshop Ensemble, and he played keyboards in Carla Bley’s Burning Sensations and worked briefly with Eddie Jefferson. In ...

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[aphyartsa]

Short-necked bowed lute of Abkhazia. The pear-shaped body with arched back extends into an unfretted neck surmounted by a flat circular pegdisk. Two gut strings are affixed to a short tailpiece, cross a tall bridge below a small circular soundhole, and are tuned a 5th apart by pegs inserted from the back. The instrument’s total length is about 70 to 80 cm. It is held vertically with the body between the knees, and bowed with a high-arched bow, its hair tightened by the fingers of the bowing hand. It is played mostly by men to accompany epic, ceremonial, and domestic songs, and to perform dance tunes....

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Jürg Stenzl

(b Berching, nr Eichstätt, c1500; d Berne, aut. 1554). German music printer and publisher. He settled in Basle, where he worked as a bookbinder and was given citizenship on 3 April 1527, having been admitted to the Saffran Guild on 10 December 1525. He seems to have been associated with the Reformation at an early stage; he attended the religious debates held in Berne in 1528, and it was possibly at this time that he met the Berne precentor Cosmos Alder. In 1536 he published three four-part songs by Alder, in a book of songs produced jointly with Peter Schoeffer in Strasbourg; in 1553 he also published hymns by Alder. From the middle of 1533 to 1537 he printed numerous Reformation writings (e.g. by W.F. Capito and M. Bucer) in Strasbourg, and he and Schoeffer jointly published works on music theory and practice, their association probably stemming from Apiarius’s thorough knowledge of music and his contact with composers. On ...

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Apinti  

J. Richard Haefer

[apintie]

Single-headed conical drum of Ashanti origin, used by Maroon groups and rural and urban black Surinamese people. It is about 35 cm tall with a diameter of 12 cm at the head and 6 cm at the foot. The tanned-hide head is held on a hoop with cord lacing and is struck by bare hands. Larger versions (up to 70 cm) were used in the past. Nowadays a commercial conga drum may be substituted.

Less often among the same people, the term refers to a small double-headed cylindrical drum with hoop and lacing, played with a stick on one head and a hand on the other. It is used by Ndjuka (Aukan) and Matuay Bush people to accompany song and dance genres, and rural and urban black groups use it for the kawina, a popular Creole call-and-response music and dance genre.

Other Surinam drums include the agida (adjida, single-headed and about 3 m long), used in the ...

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J. Richard Haefer

Common Brazilian end-blown whistle of metal, plastic, or wood (sometimes called a pea whistle because it often contains a loose pellet). Often it is †-shaped, with holes in the ends of the arms that permit two or more pitches to be sounded. Usually suspended from a cord around the neck, it is blown by the band director during a samba performance to signal directions and trigger excitement....

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Lyn Davies

(b Collinstown, April 14, 1916; d Robertsbridge, May 27, 2004). Irish composer of Welsh origin. He was a chorister at Christ Church, Oxford, and Hereford Cathedral. Parental opposition saw to it that he qualified in medicine before turning to music. Private instruction from Rawsthorne and Hadley as well as an astute awareness of contemporary English music helped to clarify his musical thinking, and he was influenced early on by Warlock and Van Dieren. (After the death of Van Dieren’s son in 1975, ApIvor was responsible for arranging many of the composer’s manuscripts for publication.) ApIvor’s Chaucer Songs (1936), Alas Parting (1936–7) and 19 Songs (1936–40) all combine an assured technique with a discriminating taste for the finest poetry. Like so many composers of his generation, his career was severely set back by the war, but even during his six years of inactivity, he was able to begin the libretto to his opera ...

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Paul David, Dennis Libby and Zofia Chechlińska

In 

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Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

Ancient Greek god. The origins of Apollo remain uncertain. In myth he is the child of Leto and Zeus. His worship may have come into Greece from Macedonia; or possibly it travelled westward from Asia Minor. Often he was termed ‘Lykeios’: if the epithet means ‘wolf-god’, he may originally have been a god of shepherds. This hypothesis would explain an active concern with music. It leaves unexplained the fact that he is constantly shown in art and literature with the kithara or lyra rather than the shepherd’s panpipes (syrinx) or the aulos, although several Greek writers did associate him with reed-blown instruments (e.g. Euripides, Alcestis, 576–7).

The Homeric evidence indicates that Apollo's nature was complex. In the early passages of Iliad, book i, as the avenging archer-god, he angrily sends shafts of pestilence upon the Greek host, while at its close (603–4) he appears as the lyre-god accompanying the Muses' song; and in the ...

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Gary W. Kennedy

Record company and label. It was established in New York in 1944 by Hy Siegel and Ted Gottlieb and sold a few years later to Ike and Bess Berman. Its early catalogue consisted of jazz, blues, rhythm-and-blues, and gospel music, but by the early 1950s it was focusing on the latter two styles; around 1961 it was again sold and thereafter specialized in gospel. Early recordings included items by Coleman Hawkins, Illinois Jacquet, Dinah Washington, Sir Charles Thompson (with Charlie Parker among his sidemen), Arnett Cobb, Pete Johnson, Willis “Gator” Jackson, and Wynonie Harris. Blues and jazz numbering series were from 351 and 751 respectively, with the first series featuring some small swing groups and primarily singers and the latter series offering mainly small swing and rhythm-and-blues groups. At some point in the 1980s Apollo’s blues and jazz catalogue was purchased by Delmark, which in the early 1990s inaugurated a comprehensive series of reissues on compact disc....

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