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Lucy M. Long

[lap dulcimer, mountain dulcimer, Kentucky dulcimer, plucked dulcimer]

Fretted zither traditional to the southern Appalachian mountains of the eastern USA, consisting of a narrow fingerboard attached to a larger soundbox underneath. Variant names include ‘delcumer’, ‘dulcymore’, ‘harmonium’, ‘hog fiddle’, ‘music box’, and ‘harmony box’. Long found only in scattered pockets of tradition, the dulcimer has since the 1950s gained popularity outside the mountains; at the beginning of the 21st century it was being widely used by both amateur and professional musicians in folk-based repertories.

The organological development of the Appalachian dulcimer divides into three periods: transitional (1700 to the mid-1800s), traditional (mid-1800s to 1940), and revival or modern (after 1940). During the transitional period the dulcimer developed in the Shenandoah River Valley region of southwestern Pennsylvania through the blending of British (predominantly Scottish) musical traditions with those of other immigrants, who brought with them the German ...


Fig.1: Appalachian dulcimer, Matthew Hill, USA, late 20th century. Edinburgh University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments (4618)


David Fallows

(It.: ‘impassioned’, ‘passionate’)

A performance direction denoting an impassioned style. Although the title ‘Sonata appassionata’ for Beethoven's op.57 is not known any earlier than the 1838 four-hand arrangement published by Cranz of Hamburg, Beethoven did use the word several times. The slow movement of his Piano Sonata in A op.2 no.2 is marked largo appassionato; that of the String Quartet in F op.18 no.1 adagio affettuoso ed appassionato; that of the Piano Sonata in B♭ op.106 adagio sostenuto: appassionato e con molto sentimento; the main section of the first movement of his Piano Sonata in C minor op.111 is marked allegro con brio ed appassionato; and the finale of his String Quartet in A minor op.132 is marked allegro appassionato. The term was defined in Koch's Musikalisches Lexikon of 1802, and many later composers used it, primarily as an expression mark: Schubert marked the opening of his posthumous trio movement (d897) ...


Ellen Highstein

revised by Anya Laurence

(b Elmer, NJ, Nov 22, 1952).

American violist and violinist. Born into a family of amateur musicians, he began his studies with Max Aronoff, first at the New School of Music in Philadelphia then at the Curtis Institute, and with Joseph Di Pasquale. He was the winner of the Young Concert Artists International Auditions. By the age of 15 he was playing engagements ranging from popular music and church concerts to solo appearances with the Philadelphia Orchestra. He became assistant principal violist with the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra in 1970 and the following year made his Carnegie Hall recital debut. From 1975 to 1977 he was a member of the Lenox Quartet and was on the faculty of SUNY, Binghamton, NY, from 1972 to 1979. He also taught at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, the University of New Mexico, and Carnegie Mellon University.

Appel has given recitals at Alice Tully Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and has appeared at the Marlboro Festival in Vermont. In demand as a chamber musician he is a regular guest artist with Tashi. He is interested in many different areas of music and gave the world premiere of Ezra Lademan’s ...


Helen Metzelaar

[Christina Adriana Arendina]

(b Rotterdam, Dec 26, 1884; d The Hague, Dec 5, 1938). Dutch composer and pianist. After studying at the Royal Conservatory in The Hague (1899–1906), she began her career as a piano accompanist for various choirs in The Hague, but increasingly turned to composition. She studied composition with F.E.A. Koeberg and later with Johan Wagenaar, whom she often consulted throughout her life. Together with the soprano Lena van Diggelen she founded a quintet, which gave first performances of many of her songs. Her first major work, the symphonic poem Pêcheurs d’Islande, was first performed in 1912 by the Utrecht City Orchestra, as was her Noordzee-symfonie in 1925. In 1923 Jubileum-lied, written for Queen Wilhelmina’s 25th anniversary, was awarded a prize by the Nederlandsche Volkszang-bond in Utrecht. In the 1920s Appeldoorn wrote choral works for the popular community singing evenings in The Hague of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor den Volkszang, conducted by Arnold Spoel. Her choral works, including ...


(b c1480–88; d after 1558). South Netherlandish composer and singer. The earliest known archival documents mention him in 1518 as a singer and in 1519 as the choirmaster at St Jacob in Bruges. After 1519, contemporary publications by Attaingnant and Moderne are the only source of evidence of his activity until February 1536, when he became a singer in Mary of Hungary's chapel choir in Brussels. Soon afterwards, in October 1537, he succeeded Jehan Gossins (who had died earlier that year) as master of the choirboys. In this function, which was indistinguishable from that of maître de la chapelle, Appenzeller served more than 15 years, composing many works for the Brussels chapel. The composer is last mentioned in Mary of Hungary's service in December 1551 in a list of chapel members who accompanied Mary to Augsburg and Munich. It would seem, however, that he continued to serve her until she relinquished her position in ...


Manfred Boetzkes


(b Geneva, Sept 1, 1862; d Nyon, Feb 29, 1928). Swiss theatrical theorist and stage designer. He studied at Geneva (1879–89), and at the conservatories of Leipzig and Dresden, at the same time acquainting himself with contemporary theatrical practice by attendance at the Bayreuth Festival (from 1882), and the court opera houses of Dresden (1889) and Vienna (1890). After 1890 he pursued his interests as a writer and artist and led a secluded existence in the vicinity of Lake Geneva.

Like many contemporary artists Appia reacted against the economic and social conditions of his day, registering a Romantic protest by aspiring to a theatrical art independent of reality and determined solely by the creative imagination of the artist. Wagner’s music dramas were the focal point of his ideas. Whereas Wagner’s music and text as a product of the ‘first and primordial idea of creation’ was to his mind free from the conventions of the real world, its stage representation had been taken over by the ‘conventional influence of the milieu’. For Appia, the solution followed on from the insight that in Wagner the music constituted not only the time element but also that of space, taking on ‘bodily form’ in the staging itself. However, this could come about only if there were a hierarchical order of the factors of presentation to guarantee that the music, as the prime revelation of the artist’s soul, would determine all the relationships on the stage. Appia’s hierarchical synthesis – a departure from the equal participation of the arts in Wagner’s ...


Jürg Stenzl

(b Turin, May 7, 1894; d Geneva, Feb 12, 1961). Swiss conductor. He studied the violin with Marteau in Geneva, Rémy and Capet in Paris (1908–13) and César Thomson at the Brussels Conservatory (1920), gaining a premier prix. He became leader of the Geneva Opera House orchestra, and made his début as an international soloist. From 1928 to 1943 he held masterclasses at the conservatories of Lausanne and La Chaux-de-Fonds. While leader of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (1932–5) he also began, in 1935, to conduct. In 1938 Geneva radio engaged him as permanent conductor; in addition to contemporary music, he championed French and Italian music of the 17th and 18th centuries, particularly the operas of Lully and Rameau, of which he was considered a stylish and elegant interpreter. He also introduced the Jeunesses Musicales into Switzerland. In 1952 he was appointed Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur. His writings include a number of essays on French Classical music (mainly in ...


Matteo Sansone

[Aspri, Orsola]

(b Rome, c1807; d Rome, Sept 30, 1884). Italian composer, singer and conductor. After her father’s death, her mother married the violinist Andrea Aspri and Appignani adopted her stepfather’s surname and used Orsola as her first name. She studied with Valentino Fioravanti. In 1833 she sang Smeton in a performance of Donizetti’s Anna Bolena, given by the Roman Accademia Filarmonica at Palazzo Lancellotti; already a member of that academy, she was offered honorary membership of the Accademia di S Cecilia, Rome, in 1842. As a conductor she was active in Rome and Florence (1839). She was also a singing teacher and had among her pupils the tenor Settimio Malvezzi. She married Count Girolamo Cenci-Bolognetti. Her melodrammi include Le avventure di una giornata (1827), I pirati (1843) and Clara di Clevers (1876); she also wrote a Sinfonia, a cantata La redenzione di Roma...


Robert N. Freeman


A genre of 18th-century Austrian cloister theatre: a compact, Latin operetta or semi-dramatic cantata in one act or part, of a congratulatory character. It consisted of a series of solo ariosos or arias alternating with recitative, with at least one ensemble number (duet, trio or quartet), as well as a final chorus that usually functioned as an encomiastic licenza (see Licenza). The arias, ensembles and choruses were cast predominantly in da capo form, and the whole was introduced by an orchestral overture (‘intrada’, ‘introduzione’, ‘sinfonia’) that typically followed the Italian three-movement pattern. The weight of the concluding chorus and the elaborate scoring (a feature possibly derived from the Italian serenata) were characteristic. Joseph Haydn’s Applausus hXXIVa:6, composed in 1768 for the Cistercian monastery at Zwettl, is in many respects representative.

The applausus was often performed scenically on a stage with costumes. It may have evolved out of the musical prologue and epilogue encasing the acts of the old Baroque cloister drama (...


Hugh Davies

revised by Anne Beetem Acker

Microcomputer designed by Steve Jobs (b San Francisco, 25 Feb 1955; d Palo Alto, 5 Oct 2011) with Steve Wozniak (b San Jose, CA, 11 Aug 1950) and manufactured in various versions from 1977 until 1993 by Apple Computer Inc. of Cupertino, California. It has been widely used in musical and other contexts. The Apple II consists of a single box for the logic circuitry (based on the MOS 6502 microprocessor) with an integral alphanumeric keyboard, and attached peripherals typically including a visual display unit, two disc drives, a printer, and joysticks. The original Apple II included a monophonic speaker and one-bit sound capability that could be made to sound like two or three simultaneous voices.

For higher-quality music production, by 1981 other firms began to produce various circuit boards (sound cards) to plug into the Apple II. Examples include ALF Products’ synthesizer card and Mountain Computer’s popular 16-oscillator digital synthesizer with software. Two commercially produced digital synthesizers with polyphonic keyboards, the alphaSyntauri (...


Apple’s CEO Steve Jobs demonstrates iTunes, San Francisco, 2009.


Kenneth Winters

(b Toronto, April 3, 1918, d Toronto, April 20, 2000). Canadian composer and arts administrator. He studied the piano with Boris Berlin, and theory and composition with Healey Willan, Ernest MacMillan and Leo Smith, before continuing composition studies with Roy Harris and Bernard Wagenaar in New York (1940–41). For the next eight years, Applebaum worked for the National Film Board of Canada, producing some 250 film scores. During this period he became increasingly concerned with improving the position of professional musicians in Canada. His combined interests in creative and socio-economic development led to a career that influenced every aspect of Canadian music. During the 1960s he served as consultant for CBC television and chair of the planning committee for the National Arts Centre, Ottawa. His 1965 Proposal for the Musical Development of the Capital Region led to the formation of the National Arts Centre Orchestra and the University of Ottawa music department. Throughout the 1970s he served as executive director of the Ontario Arts Council and in ...


James Bash

(b Chicago, IL, Oct 13, 1967). American composer, pianist, and educator. Applebaum grew up in a musical family in Chicago. His father, Bob Applebaum, a high school physics teacher, studied classical music and composes. Applebaum graduated from Carleton College (BM 1989); his senior thesis took him to Mexico City to interview Conlon Nancarrow. He received his Masters (1992) and his Doctorate (1996) in composition from the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), studying with Brian Ferneyhough, Joji Yuasa, RAND STEIGER, and ROGER REYNOLDS. He taught at USCD, Mississippi State University, and Carleton College before his current faculty position at Stanford University, where he also serves as the founding director of the Stanford Improvisation Collective.

Applebaum’s solo, chamber, choral, orchestral, operatic, and electro-acoustic work has been performed throughout the United States, Europe, South America, Africa, and Asia at numerous new music festivals. His music is mercurial, highly detailed, disciplined, and exacting, but it also features improvisational and whimsical aspects. As such, he is considered as much in the experimentalist camp exemplified by composers such as Cage and Zappa as part of the European modernist lineage represented by his principal teacher Brian Ferneyhough. He has drawn inspiration from jazz pioneers and maverick composers such as Nancarrow and Partch, who found it necessary to use or invent unusual instruments to realize their artistic visions....


Roger Bowers

(d Lincoln, 1563/4). English church musician and composer. He was appointed organist and Master of the Choristers at Lincoln Cathedral in June 1537, but moved to Oxford in the autumn of 1538 to become informator choristarum at Magdalen College. Thomas Whythorne was then one of the choristers and, writing c1593, he loyally listed his three successive choirmasters – Appleby, Preston and John Sheppard – among the famous musicians of his time. Appleby returned to his former appointment at Lincoln in the autumn of 1541 and held it until 1550, and yet again from 1559 until succeeded by William Byrd in March 1563. His whereabouts between 1550 and 1559 are unknown; he died in 1563 or 1564.

His surviving compositions are both for the Latin rite. A five-part Magnificat setting for men's voices, now lacking the tenor, is in GB-Cu Peterhouse 471–4 (ed. N. Sandon, Newton Abbot, 1995); its part-writing is rough in places, but on occasions its resort to points of imitation can be quite deft. A setting of the mass, described as ‘for a mene’ and for four men’s voices, is in ...


John Cowley and Howard Rye

(b Jamaica, c1900; d after 1954). Jamaican tenor saxophonist, clarinetist, and bandleader. He moved to Great Britain around 1924 and performed in dance bands there and in Europe until the early 1930s. He played in London with West Indian jazz musicians, including Leslie Thompson’s Emperors of Jazz (...


Colby Leider


(b Los Angeles, Jan 4, 1939). American composer. Born into a family of musicians, he studied the piano and began composing as a child. He attended Reed College (BA 1961) and studied privately in Berkeley with Imbrie (1961–2). While at the University of Oregon (MA 1965), he worked with Homer Keller and began composing electronic music, an interest that led him to the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (1965–6), where his teachers included Ussachevsky. After teaching for a year at Oakland University (Rochester, Michigan), he joined the music department at Dartmouth College (1967), where he founded the Bregman Electronic Music Studio. In the 1970s he collaborated on the development of the Synclavier, a polyphonic digital synthesizer used in live performance. Based on the Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer designed for use at the Bregman Studio, the Synclavier was the first commercially manufactured instrument to use microcomputers. Appleton has also served as director of the Stiftelsen Elektronmusikstudion, Stockholm (...


Barbara Owen

(b Boston, Dec 26, 1785; d Reading, MA, July 11, 1872). American organ builder. Apprenticed as a young man to a Boston cabinet maker, Appleton entered the workshop of William Marcellus Goodrich in 1805. From 1810 to 1820 both men were associated with the Franklin Musical Warehouse, building church and chamber organs, pianos and claviorgans. During this period Appleton assisted Goodrich in building organs, but also made pianos in partnership with Lewis and Alpheus Babcock (Babcock, Appleton & Babcock, 1811–14) and Charles and Elna Hayt (Hayts, Babcock & Appleton, 1814–15). In 1821 Appleton became an independent organ builder, quickly gaining a reputation and securing important commissions. Between 1847 and 1850 Thomas D. Warren was his partner, having served with him as an apprentice; in the latter year Appleton moved his workshop from Boston to Reading, Massachusetts, where he worked until his retirement in 1868. Appleton’s most important work was carried out between ...


Mark Miller

(b Cleethorpes, England, Aug 26, 1928). Canadian vibraphonist of English birth. After playing drums in English dance bands and in orchestras of the Royal Air Force he moved first to Bermuda and then to Toronto (1951). There he took up vibraphone, and worked in nightclubs and on radio and television with Calvin Jackson (recording in 1954–5) and as a leader (from 1957). He was the host of a television series, “Peter Appleyard Presents” (1977–9), seen in syndication throughout North America. In the 1970s he toured occasionally with Benny Goodman and in 1972 took part in the recording of On Stage with Benny Goodman and his Sextet (Lon. 44182–3); he later formed a tribute band with fellow Goodman alumni which toured in Canada (1986) and Britain (1987). He has also performed in the USA with Peanuts Hucko and Mel Tormé and at many jazz parties. His own recordings include ...


David D. Boyden

(Ger. Applicatur; Lat. applicatio)

In violin playing, a term used mainly in the 18th century for position playing or position fingering. Halb Applicatur (literally, ‘half position’) meant either 2nd position or, collectively, 2nd, 4th and 6th positions. Ganz Applicatur (literally, ‘whole position’) meant 3rd, 5th and 7th positions. Vermischte Applicatur (mixed position) was a term employed when ‘now the whole, now the half position is used’ (Leopold Mozart, ...