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Guido M. Gatti and John C.G. Waterhouse

[Parma, Ildebrando da]

(b Parma, Sept 20, 1880; d Rome, Feb 13, 1968). Italian composer, conductor and critic. He was the most respected and influential of the more conservative Italian musicians of his generation.

The son of a piano teacher, Pizzetti spent most of his childhood (from 1884) in Reggio Emilia. While at school there he showed less inclination towards music than towards the theatre, writing plays for casual performance among his schoolmates. In 1895, however, he entered the Parma Conservatory, where he studied under Telesforo Righi, a modest but outstanding teacher of harmony and counterpoint, and gained his composition diploma in 1901. Meanwhile he became conversant with 15th- and 16th-century Italian instrumental and choral music performed and expounded by Giovanni Tebaldini, one of the pioneers of Italian musicology, who directed the conservatory from 1897 and took a personal interest his development. Pizzetti’s leanings towards the theatre by no means diminished, and he grew more and more anxious to compose an opera. Various early attempts, mostly unfinished, already showed his preference for heroic subjects, exalted romantic characters and large-scale construction....


Ivan Čavlović

(b Županja, March 6, 1905; d Sarajevo, March 28, 1979). Bosnian-Herzegovinian composer, conductor, pianist, and critic. He studied composition in the class of Blagoje Bersa, conducting in the class of Fran Lhotka, and the piano in the class of Svetislav Stančić at the Academy of Music in Zagreb, graduating in 1927. From 1927 to 1928 he studied composition with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum de Paris, and from 1928 to 1929 with Joseph Marx in Vienna.

From 1930 he made his mark conducting several choral ensembles in Zagreb, including Oratorijski zbor sv. Marka, Sloga, Lisinski, and Zagrebački madrigalisti. From 1947 he worked in Sarajevo as a conductor at the Sarajevo Opera House and the Sarajevo Philharmonic Orchestra. From 1955 he taught conducting at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo. He was very active as an accompanist, historian, and critic. He wrote the first historical studies of music in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as many articles for newspapers, magazines, radio, and TV programmes. His rather modest composing legacy is permeated with folk elements, within formal designs of (neo)-classical orientation. He also made arrangements of the works of other Bosnian-Herzegovinian composers (notably Franjo Maćojevksi and Bogomir Kačerovski) to meet the particular needs of local performance contexts....


Karl Stapleton

(b Klatovy, Aug 14, 1837; d Prague, July 19, 1888). Czech composer, pianist and critic. His early musical training was with his father, an organist, and the composer Měchura. After studying law at Prague University (1854–63) he became a court official, but most of his life was devoted to music. He attended Smetana's piano school (1854–5), later becoming a lifelong friend and powerful advocate of Smetana's music. He was a co-founder of the Prague Hlahol choral society (1861), the publishing house Hudební Matice (1871) and the Jednota pro Komorní Hudbu (Society for Chamber Music, 1877). He was music critic of Národní listy (1865–78), editor of Hudební listy (1870-72) and Dalibor (1873–5), and of several collected editions of Czech songs and choruses, including Vesna, Záboj and Hlahol. During the 1870s his free musical soirées provided a valuable platform for performances of works by developing Czech composers, including Dvořák and Fibich. He composed many popular and idiomatic Czech songs and choruses....


Robert Stevenson

(b Zamora, Michoacán, Sept 29, 1900; d Mexico City, Dec 3, 1991). Mexican music critic, scholar, pianist and composer . After studying the piano with Antonio Gomezanda in Mexico City, she was a pupil of André Schaeffner, Lazare Lévy and Alfred Cortot in Paris. She gave début piano recitals in New York City in 1938 and in Paris in 1948. Upon resettling in 1949 in Mexico City, she assisted Adolfo Salazar as writer for the newspaper Novedades and contributed extensively to Mexican and foreign journals. In 1963 she established Heterofonía, Mexico’s longest running musicological journal, and was its editor until her decease.

La mujer mexicana en la música (Mexico City, 1958); repr. in Heterofonía, nos.104–5 (1991), 5–99 Ludwig van Beethoven (Mexico City, 1970) ‘Mexico’, VintonD ‘Mexican Women in Music’, LAMR, 4 (1983), 120–31 I. Farfán Cano: ‘En los ámbitos de la música’, Inter-American Music Review, 12/1 (1991), 1–2...


Henri Vanhulst

(b Liège, July 30, 1877; d Liège, April 30, 1952). Belgian composer, pianist and critic. He studied at the Liège Conservatory with his father Jean-Théodore Radoux, and in 1907 he won the Belgian Prix de Rome with his cantata Geneviève de Brabant. Appointed professor of harmony at the Liège Conservatoire in 1905, he was inspector of music education from 1930 to 1942. He founded a piano quartet, and was for a long time active as a music critic. His interest in Walloon folk music resulted in the publication of several collections of songs with his own accompaniments. He employed leitmotifs, and his vocal style is clearly influenced by Wagner, as is the composer’s use of the orchestra to comment on the actions and emotions of the characters. His musical style is thus hardly original, but he was at his best in his operas and choral works, where his lyrical facility was most pleasing....


Meredith Ellis Little

(fl early 18th century). French dancing-master and author. He was dancing-master to Elisabetta Farnese (1692–1766), who became Queen of Spain on her marriage to Philip V in 1714. Rameau wrote two important works on French court dance, both published in Paris in 1725. The first, entitled Le maître à danser, is the most authoritative exposition of the early 18th-century French style of dancing, a style which was performed throughout Europe because of its elegance and refinement. The book was read and approved by Louis Pécour, dancing-master for the Paris Opéra, and may thus be taken to represent the central French practice of its day. It gives a clear and detailed account of such matters as the correct way to stand, move and ask a lady to dance, etiquette at court balls and the movements and steps of dances, as well as a complete description of the minuet. It is directed primarily towards the needs of social dancing, and does not discuss virtuoso practices peculiar to ballet. The book, which was several times reprinted, contains many excellent drawings which clarify the verbal descriptions. John Essex translated it into English in ...


(b Stockholm, Nov 30, 1884; d Stockholm, May 11, 1947). Swedish composer, conductor and critic. He studied composition with Lindegren (1903–4) and with Pfitzner in Berlin (1905–6), where he had singing lessons with Hey (1905–6), continuing these latter studies in Munich (1906–7). As a music critic he worked for the Svenska dagbladet (1907–9), the Stockholms dagblad (1910–14, 1927–30), the Dagens nyheter (1920–21), and the Nya dagligt allehanda (1938–42). In the decade after 1910 he was active as a singing teacher, and he was press adviser at the Swedish Royal Opera from 1930 to 1936. He made his conducting début in 1915 and was chief conductor of the Göteborg Orchestral Society (1922–5); later he made guest appearances with various orchestras. He was a founder of the Society of Swedish Composers (...


Jehoash Hirshberg

(b Russia, 1899; d Tel Aviv, 1968). Israeli critic, choral conductor and composer of Russian birth. In 1925, soon after his emigration to Palestine, he was appointed music critic of the newly founded socialist daily Davar, a position he retained throughout his life. He changed his surname from Rabinowitz to the more Hebrew Ravina in 1930. His frequent and detailed reviews, which insisted on a high standard of performance and programming, and sought a genuine Jewish musical style, were highly influential. In an attempt to bring music to the people, he collaborated with David Shor on an ambitious education project that included public lectures, the publication of popular music appreciation booklets and song anthologies, and the establishment of a nation-wide network of amateur choirs. He was also a strong supporter of contemporary music in Palestine. His many songs (around 60), mostly written for young children, were intended as part of a newly composed folksong repertory....


Ralph Scott Grover

(b Northampton, May 23, 1901; d Gerrards Cross, Feb 14, 1986). English composer, critic, pianist and teacher.

Born into a poor working-class family, Rubbra was fortunate in having music-loving parents. His mother’s pure soprano voice was prominent in her church choir, and she was in demand locally as a soloist. He began piano lessons at eight, transferring later to a teacher who added instruction in harmony and counterpoint. In his uncle’s music shop he discovered the music of Cyril Scott and Debussy. Leaving school at 14 to help his family financially, he worked as an office boy, then a railway clerk. At 17 he organized an all-Scott concert in Northampton, prompting the composer to accept him as a private pupil. In 1920 he won a composition scholarship to Reading University for study with Holst, and also piano with Evlyn Howard-Jones. In 1921 Rubbra won an open scholarship to the Royal College of Music where his teachers were, Holst, Howard-Jones (privately) and R.O. Morris in counterpoint; Vaughan Williams was used as a substitute during Holst’s absences. Of Rubbra’s earliest compositions, some of his songs were published during his RCM days. One, ...


Daniel Zager

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Robert (D.) ]

(b New York, c1945). American writer. He studied clarinet and drums and played drums in workshops with Jaki Byard (1968–71) and Cedar Walton (1972). In the 1960s and 1970s he wrote for American and European periodicals, including Down Beat, Jazz Journal, and Jazz Forum, and in 1975 he began publishing the monthly magazine Cadence, which in the following years printed many wide-ranging interviews with jazz and blues musicians and reviews of recordings. Later he formed Cadence Jazz Records (1980), which by the late 1990s had issued more than 100 recordings; North Country Record Distribution (1983), which distributes the jazz and blues recordings of more than 900 small independent labels; Cadence Jazz Books (1992), which publishes reference books, histories, and discographies; and CIMP (1996), for which he had produced about 100 recordings by the turn of the century. He donated his extensive indexed collection of books and journals, covering jazz and blues literature in the English language, to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture of the New York Public Library (...