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Hugh de Ferranti, Shigeo Kishibe, David W. Hughes, W. Adriaansz, Robin Thompson, Charles Rowe, Donald P. Berger, W. Malm, W.P. Malm, David Waterhouse, Allan Marett, Richard Emmert, Fumio Koizumi, Kazuyuki Tanimoto, Masakata Kanazawa, Linda Fujie and Elizabeth Falconer

In 

Article

Trân Văn Khê

revised by Nguyen Thuyet Phong

(Cộng Hòa Xã Hội Chủ Nghĩa Việt Nam)

Country on the east coast of the indo-Chinese peninsula.

Vietnam is the most culturally diverse country in mainland South-east Asia, comprising 54 ethnic groups. The largest of these is the Việt or Kinh, living in the lowland areas along the Pacific coast and in the deltas of the Sông Hồng (Red River) and the Cửu Long (Mekong). The rest of the ethnic groups live mainly in the highlands and mountains that separate Vietnam from China, Laos and Cambodia.

Over four millennia of legends and recorded history are in evidence at about 300 prehistoric sites, as well as in numerous historical folk tales (Phan, Hà and Hoàng, 35). All traditional folk tales preceding recorded history originated in the original land of the Việt, comprising the valley of the Sông Hồng where the Biển Đông (Eastern Sea) and the mountains meet. As the Việt moved from the mountains to the river areas, water joined mountains as the main topic of narratives and songs....

Article

Fumio Koizumi

revised by David W. Hughes

In 

Article

Regula Qureshi, Harold S. Powers, Jonathan Katz, Richard Widdess, Gordon Geekie, Alastair Dick, Devdan Sen, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Peter Manuel, Robert Simon, Joseph J. Palackal, Soniya K. Brar, M. Whitney Kelting, Edward O. Henry, Maria Lord, Alison Arnold, Warren Pinckney, Kapila Vatsyayan and Bonnie C. Wade

In 

Article

Philip Yampolsky, Dr Sumarsam, Lisa Gold, Tilman Seebass, Benjamin Brinner, Michael Crawford, Simon Cook, Matthew Isaac Cohen, Marc Perlman, Virginia Gorlinski, Margaret J. Kartomi, Christopher Basile, R. Anderson Sutton and Franki Raden

In 

Article

Regula Qureshi, Harold S. Powers, Jonathan Katz, Richard Widdess, Gordon Geekie, Alastair Dick, Devdan Sen, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Peter Manuel, Robert Simon, Joseph J. Palackal, Soniya K. Brar, M. Whitney Kelting, Edward O. Henry, Maria Lord, Alison Arnold, Warren Pinckney, Kapila Vatsyayan and Bonnie C. Wade

In 

Article

Philip Yampolsky, Dr Sumarsam, Lisa Gold, Tilman Seebass, Benjamin Brinner, Michael Crawford, Simon Cook, Matthew Isaac Cohen, Marc Perlman, Virginia Gorlinski, Margaret J. Kartomi, Christopher Basile, R. Anderson Sutton and Franki Raden

In 

Article

Hugh de Ferranti, Shigeo Kishibe, David W. Hughes, W. Adriaansz, Robin Thompson, Charles Rowe, Donald P. Berger, W. Malm, W.P. Malm, David Waterhouse, Allan Marett, Richard Emmert, Fumio Koizumi, Kazuyuki Tanimoto, Masakata Kanazawa, Linda Fujie and Elizabeth Falconer

In 

Article

Bonnie C. Wade

In 

Article

Jean Lambert

(Arab. Jumhūriyyat al-Yaman)

Country in the Middle East. Located in southern Arabia, it has an area of 555,000 km². Yemen was previously divided into two states but was unified in 1990. Its music is rooted in an ancient culture (see Arab music, §I, 2, (i)) and has features in common with neighbouring traditions (seeSaudi Arabia, Kingdom of, Oman and Arabian Gulf). Sedentary farmers, Bedouin nomads (seeBedouin music), fishermen and townspeople make up a complex society, with a huge variety of musical styles and contexts for performance. The population of 18·2 million (2000 estimate) is predominantly Muslim (both Sunni and Shi‘a). For details of Yemeni Jewish music in Israel, see Jewish music,§V, 3(i)(a).

The highlands and Hadramawt are the main regions and the best known for popular music (fig.1). The zār ceremony and Sufi music occur in various regions.

This region is the historical heart of Yemen. Music is important in all aspects of life. Work-songs include the ...

Article

Jim Samson

Former country in south-east Europe. It existed in several forms between 1918 and 2006. It was established in 1918 as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, through an amalgamation of south Slav territories of the former Habsburg Empire and the two independent kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro. International recognition came in 1922, and the country was re-named the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. In 1941 this ‘first Yugoslavia’ was invaded by the Axis powers, and two years later the partisans declared a Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, recognized by the king in 1944. The monarchy was abolished in 1945, and a year later the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia, now expanded by territories acquired from Italy, was established under the communist administration of Josip Broz Tito. This ‘second Yugoslavia’ comprised six Socialist Republics ( Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Hercegovina, and Macedonia) as well as two Socialist Autonomous Provinces of Serbia (...

Article

Moya Aliya Malamusi and Moses Yotamu

Country in south-central Africa. It has an area of 752,610 km² and a population of 9·87 million (2000 estimate). It was a British colony from 1895 to 1953, and after 1911 it was known as Northern Rhodesia. Part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963, it became an independent republic in 1964.

Except for small hunter-gatherer groups in the south-west who cross the borders with Namibia and Angola and speak a San language, all the peoples of present-day Zambia speak Bantu languages. Seven Zambian languages are officially approved by the Ministry of Education and are used in schools: Cinyanja (Nyanja), Icibemba (Bemba), Kaonde, Lunda, Luvale, Silozi (spoken by the Lozi) and Tonga.

Before 700 ce much of the south was occupied by San hunter-gatherers. When Bantu-language speakers migrated to areas of central and southern Zambia c300–400 ce from the north-east, Bantu-San interaction began. According to Gerhard Kubik (...

Article

Thomas Turino

Country in southern Africa. It has an area of 390,759 km². The most vibrant forms of contemporary Zimbabwean music draw on indigenous traditions of the Shona, Ndebele and various minority linguistic groups; syncretic genres that emerged during the colonial period; music of Christian churches; and a variety of urban popular styles. European classical music has a relatively small presence, mainly among the white élite and the post-independence black élite. Chishona (Shona) is the mother tongue for approximately 71% and Sindebele (Ndebele) for 16% of a population of 12·39 million (2000 estimate). Many people also speak English, the former colonial language and now an official language. Europeans and Asians, the two largest foreign groups, comprise no more than 2% of the population. The majority of Zimbabweans live as agriculturalists/herders and farm labourers in rural areas, and 20% of the population live in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe’s two largest cities. For the black working class, there is much movement between urban townships and rural homesteads; both indigenous music styles and urban popular traditions are performed in the townships and countryside. There is a major collection of audio and video recordings of indigenous and urban popular music and dance in the National Archives of Zimbabwe in Harare....