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John A. Emerson

(b Neuilly-sur-Seine, March 30, 1860; d Paris, Feb 28, 1913). French scholar of Gregorian chant. He studied composition under Massenet at the Paris Conservatoire, but his interest soon turned to medieval chant, particularly to the study of the early theorists and Gregorian notation. With Le rythme du chant dit grégorien (1898) he established himself as one of the most important early mensuralists. He advocated a modern restoration of Gregorian chant rhythm based on the fixed mensural principle that a neumatic group in early Gregorian notation is a rhythmic beat. According to this theory, known as ‘neume-temps’, each individual neume structure is equivalent in time value to a modern crotchet. Such single-note neumes as the punctum and virga have the duration of a crotchet; each note of the two-note neumes podatus and clivis are quavers; the three-note climacus is a triplet; in the various four-note neumes each note has the value of a semiquaver, etc. Like most of the early mensuralists and the Solesmes scholars, Houdard based most of his work on the early St Gallen manuscripts. His rhythmic theories quickly brought him into direct opposition with the Solesmes school, and ‘le rythme houdardiste’ was sharply attacked by Adrien Vigourel (...


Helga de la Motte-Haber

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Chur, Oct 24, 1893; d Berlin, July 13, 1943). German musicologist and psychologist of Swiss origin. At Munich University he studied musicology under Sandberger and Kroyer and philosophy and psychology under Külpe and Becher, taking the doctorate under Kroyer in 1917 with a dissertation on Ivo de Vento. After failing to complete the Habilitation in musicology he nevertheless became assistant lecturer in the institute of psychology (1920) and completed the Habilitation in psychology the same year with a work on musical expression; subsequently (1926) he became reader. The German Academy commissioned him to collect and record old Bavarian folksongs (from 1925) and in 1937–8 he served as director of the newly established folk music department at the Staatliches Institut für Deutsche Musikforschung in Berlin during a leave of absence from Munich. After his return to Munich (1938) he again taught psychology at the university and was named supernumerary professor in ...


D.H. Turner

[Humphrey Vaughan]

(b London, April 15, 1889; d Nashdom, Sept 8, 1974). English musicologist. Educated at Westminster School (1901–5), Keble College, Oxford (1908–11; BA 1911, MA 1915), and Ely Theological College (1911–12), he was ordained deacon in 1912 and priest in 1913. Between 1912 and 1922 he served as curate and choir director of various London churches and from 1915 to 1920 was clerical secretary of the Society of the Faith. In 1922 he joined the Anglican Benedictine community at Pershore Abbey and was professed the following year; he was director of music at Pershore (which in 1926 moved to Nashdom Abbey, Buckinghamshire) from 1922 to 1945 and prior from 1936 to 1945. He was long associated with the Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society, serving as honorary secretary and treasurer (1926–35), chairman of council (1950–60) and from 1949 as vice-president. From ...


Hugh Cobbe

(b London, July 28, 1857; d Temple Combe, Somerset, Jan 2, 1942). English musicologist. Educated at Tonbridge School, he joined the staff of the Department of Manuscripts at the British Museum as an assistant in 1882 and remained there until his retirement in 1922. He was responsible for cataloguing music manuscripts and in this capacity compiled the monumental Catalogue of Manuscript Music in the British Museum, which included all music manuscripts acquired before 1908. This catalogue was one of the earliest of its kind and widely welcomed as such. His basic principle for cataloguing the material, grouping works of a particular genre together, was perhaps misconceived, but the work is of immense value for the wealth of information that it contains about the collections, particularly in its comprehensive indexes.

Though his literary output, apart from the catalogue, was small his musical interests were wide. He and his Hungarian-born first wife held fashionable drawing-room concerts in the early years of the 20th century. He was chairman of the London branch of the Internationale Mozart-Gemeinde from its foundation in ...


Bruce Carr

(b London, Nov 4, 1814; d London, Aug 12, 1887). English music scholar. He earned his living as a clerk to a firm of solicitors. In 1832 he joined the Sacred Harmonic Society; in 1853 he was appointed its librarian and began to compile a Catalogue of the Library of the Sacred Harmonic Society (London, 1862, rev. 2/1872, suppl. 1882). He also published An Account of the Musical Celebrations on St Cecilia’s Day in the Sixteenth, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (1857) and a collection of Christmas carols, with many of their airs, as Songs of the Nativity (1864/R). He wrote a reminiscence of Templeton & Malibran (London, 1880) ‘with original letters & anecdotes’, and contributed many careful and conscientious biographical articles to the first edition of Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians (London, 1879–89).

DNB (L.M. Middleton...


John Tyrrell

(b Prague, Feb 28, 1894; d Prague, Dec 2, 1959). Czech musicologist. His musicological studies under Nejedlý and Otakar Zich at Prague University (from 1913) were interrupted by four years of military service. After taking the doctorate in 1920 with a dissertation on the history of instrumental music in 17th-century Bohemia, he became music critic for the daily newspaper Tribuna (1920–28) and worked as librarian at the Prague Conservatory (1922–8). From 1925 he also served as Nejedlý’s assistant, and completed his Habilitation in 1927 with a work on Czech notation. Promotion was delayed by the prevailing economic conditions until 1935, when he was appointed assistant professor, taking over more of Nejedlý’s duties from 1938. The German occupation and closing of the Czech universities (1939) halted Hutter’s teaching career, although he continued to publish. He was imprisoned by the Gestapo on 6 July 1944...


Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Israel J. Katz

(b Filzburg, nr Libau [now Liepāja, Latvia], June 11, 1882; d Johannesburg, Aug 15, 1938). Jewish cantor and musicologist of Russian birth. Raised in a traditional German Jewish environment, he trained as a cantor in Libau; he also studied briefly at Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) where he met Eduard Birnbaum. Later he studied at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin and at the conservatory and university in Leipzig; his claim to have studied at both institutions with Kretzschmar (history), Zöllner (composition) and Jadassohn (harmony) remains unsubstantiated. He served as cantor at the Adat Jeshurun congregation, Leipzig (1902). From 1903 to 1905 he was a cantor at Regensburg and then after a year in Johannesburg he was persuaded by the president of the Zionist movement, David Wolffsohn, to emigrate to Jerusalem, where he lived from 1906 to 1921. These were decisive years for Idelsohn's research into the diverse musical traditions of the Sephardi and ‘Oriental’ Jewish communities and Muslim and Christian sects. Although his plans in ...


John S. Weissmann

(b Budapest, Dec 7, 1878; d Budapest, June 6, 1956). Hungarian musicologist of French descent. After qualifying at the Budapest School of Commerce (1895) he became a bank clerk and started studying music seriously, learning the piano and theory at the Budapest Conservatory (1895–9) and the flute privately. He joined the staff of the Hungarian National Museum (1897), of which he subsequently became general secretary (1920–24), and in 1908 began a course (interrupted by war service, 1914–18) at the arts faculty of Budapest University, where he took the doctorate in 1921 with a dissertation on the notation of the Pray Manuscript. Having served for ten years as principal librarian of the Széchényi Library (1924–34), where he organized the music department, he became secretary of the Hungarian Royal Academy of Music (1934–43) and co-editor, with Bartha, of Musicologia Hungarica. In ...


Richard Jackson

(b Monson, ME, Aug 20, 1874; d Nashville, TN, Jan 19, 1953). American folksong scholar. He was educated at Dresden Conservatory (1897–8), Vanderbilt University, the universities of Munich and Bonn and the University of Chicago, where he took the doctorate in 1911 with a dissertation on Romantic literature. Shortly after joining the German department of Vanderbilt University in 1918 he became interested in the music of the large southern singing groups such as the Sacred Harp Singers (together with Alan Lomax he made recordings of their performances, 1942). His study of the music, as found in collections published in the early 19th century, resulted in the book White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands (Chapel Hill, NC, 1933/R), which introduced an important body of American folk music to scholarly and general readers. It was followed by two collections of the music, namely Spiritual Folk-Songs of Early America...


Alfred Grant Goodman

(b Pyritz [now Pyrzyce, Poland], March 14, 1845; d Berlin, Nov 9, 1912). German musicologist. He studied music with Heinrich Bellermann, and history, at the University of Berlin (1863–70), taking the doctorate in 1870 with a dissertation on mensural notation in the 12th and 13th centuries; he completed the Habilitation in 1872 at the newly founded Strasbourg University and taught there as an external lecturer. In 1875 he was appointed reader and organized a department which included an extensive research library. At that time he was also conductor of the Akademische Gesangsverein and composed numerous a cappella works intended for liturgical as well as concert performance. From 1897 to 1905 he was professor of musicology, the only person to hold such a post at a German university at the time.

In his writings Jacobsthal concentrated mainly on the music of the Middle Ages; his chief work deals with chromatic alteration in Western chant. His studies of Palestrina's works reveal them as a source for German Romanticism and identify their value in the context of 16th-century polyphonic style. These ideas were not recognized until the 1920s, when they established a new musicological perspective. Jacobsthal developed an approach to musicology which used research methods from history and philology, thereby paving the way for the research of medieval music undertaken by his pupils Friedrich Ludwig and Peter Wagner....


Janna Saslaw

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Aug 13, 1831; d Leipzig, Feb 1, 1902). German composer, theorist, teacher and conductor. He studied first in Breslau and later at the Leipzig Conservatory. He left Leipzig to study the piano with Liszt in Weimar (1849–52); there he heard Wagner's Lohengrin, which greatly impressed him. After returning to Leipzig, he studied with E.F. Richter and privately with Moritz Hauptmann. Jadassohn taught the piano in Leipzig, then conducted the synagogue choir (1865), the Psalterion choral society (1866) and the Musikverein Euterpe concerts (1867–9). In 1871 he was appointed teacher of harmony, counterpoint, composition and piano at the conservatory, and in 1893 named royal professor. His students included Busoni, George Chadwick, Delius, Grieg, Karg-Elert and Felix Weingartner.

Although successful as a performer, theorist and teacher, Jadassohn considered himself primarily a composer. He wrote works for piano, chamber ensemble, orchestra, chorus and solo voices, comprising over 140 opus numbers, but was perhaps best known for his canonic compositions: the Serenade for Orchestra op.35, two serenades for piano opp.8 and 125, the ballet music op.58 and the vocal duets opp.9, 36, 38 and 43. He also edited and arranged works by Bach, Brahms, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Schubert, Schumann, Wagner and others....


Alec Hyatt King

(b Kiel, June 16, 1813; d Göttingen, Sept 9, 1869). German philologist, archaeologist and musicographer. After attending the universities of Kiel, Leipzig and Berlin, Jahn rapidly became one of the leading classical scholars of his day, in the study of Greek mythology, in textual criticism – he published editions of Persius and Juvenal – and in archaeology, in which he made a notable contribution to the history of Greek vase-painting. He became professor at Greifswald in 1842 and director of the archaeological museum at Leipzig in 1847, but involvement in the political unrest of 1848–9 caused his dismissal. In 1851 he edited in vocal score the second version (1806) of Beethoven's Leonore. In 1855 he went to Bonn as professor of philology and archaeology and retained this post until shortly before his death.

It is remarkable that such a dedicated career should have left Jahn any time for extended work on music, although in his youth it had rivalled his passion for the classics. While his family had wide musical contacts and he was active as a performer, he seems to have had little academic training in music, which makes his biography of Mozart all the more remarkable an achievement. The preface explains how the idea of writing it came from a conversation with Gustav Hartenstein at Mendelssohn's funeral on ...


John Warrack

(b Berlin, Jan 2, 1809; d Berlin, Aug 8, 1888). German scholar, singing teacher and composer. He studied singing with Charles Detroit and sang as a treble in the chorus of the Royal Opera, studying further with Stümer and Lemm. Deciding against a career as an opera singer, he studied theory and composition with Louis Gorzizky. In 1835 he declined a post as music director in Halberstadt in view of his growing reputation as a singing teacher in Berlin. He founded the Jähnsscher Gesangverein in 1845 and conducted it until 1870, introducing much contemporary music. He was made royal music director in 1849; later he taught declamation at Scharwenka’s conservatory. At the same time, he undertook the work by which he is now best known, the systematic collection, collation and classification of Weber’s works and the publication of a thematic catalogue, Carl Maria von Weber in seinen Werken...


R.P. Winnington-Ingram

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Schweinfurt, May 22, 1836; d Adelboden, Sept 4, 1899). German writer on ancient Greek music. After studying at Erlangen, Göttingen, and Berlin, where he taught for a time, he held posts in Gymnasien at Landsberg, Saargemünd and Strasbourg. He was outstandingly well equipped both as classical scholar and as musician, and between 1859 and 1899 he published numerous articles on fundamental aspects of his subject; many of these articles are still valuable. A major contribution was his admirable Musici scriptores graeci (1895), which remains the standard text for many of the technical theoretical treatises (see Greece §I); this volume also included a summary list of manuscripts, now superseded by RISM, B/XI (1988). In 1899 Jan published as a supplement a collection of editions and transcriptions of the then-known fragments of ancient Greek music, which was not superseded until the appearance of Egert Pöhlmann's ...


Irena Poniatowska

(b Zarzecka Wola, nr Leżajsk, 1781; d Zaczernie, Aug 5, 1844). Polish musician, theorist and painter. He studied singing and the violin in Rzeszów, Lwów and Kamieniec, and was a boy soprano in the parish church of Leżajsk, where he later became a clerk; he was also a teacher for the Rzeszów starost at Żyznów near Jasło. He then studied philosophy and theology at Lwów University. After being ordained as a priest in 1807 he served under Bishop Gołuchowski of Przemyśl at Rzeszów, where he also founded and directed a school for organists. In 1811 he moved to Wojutycze, in 1814 to Przybyszówka and in 1823 he took over the parish of Zaczernie.

Jarmusiewicz is known particularly for his book Nowy system muzyki (‘A new system of music’, 1843), in which he expounded his theories of harmony, based on the functional significance of chords: the tonic, subdominant and dominant chords are termed ‘primary’ functions (‘funkcja’), and from these are derived a series of ‘secondary’ functions. In this respect, and in the theory of ...


Christian Hannick

(b Marseilles, Feb 6, 1866; d Hautecombe, Savoy, Feb 15, 1933). French musicologist. After studying at the Marseilles Conservatoire, he entered the Benedictine abbey of Hautecombe in Savoy and became organist there. He spent the years 1896–8 in the Middle East, where he studied the liturgical chant of the Catholic Syrians and Maronites. The study of Syrian music was a first step in his investigation into the rhythm of Christian chant. In his Etudes sur le rythme grégorien Jeannin adopted a mensuralist approach to the problem of rhythm in chant performance and attacked the equalist interpretation of the monks of Solesmes (see Plainchant). His transcriptions, using bar-lines which mark off bars of varying length, illustrate his basic principle: that Gregorian chant consists of short and long notes which are combined in groups of variable length, and in which the tonic accent of the word normally takes the place of the metrical accent and is often treated as long....


José López-Calo

(b Tinhela de Monforte, Oct 21, 1894; d Coimbra, Mar 28, 1986). Portuguese musicologist. He trained as a military musician, and became a bandmaster in 1929. Throughout his life he studied music history and carried out some notable research, mostly on Portuguese music. He compiled valuable descriptive catalogues of important Portuguese music manuscripts (in the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa and elsewhere) and editions of Portuguese music (e.g. Duarte Lobo, Lopes Morago and Manuel Mendes). Of his other published studies, that on Bach's Brandenburg Concertos (1954) is the most impressive; all are marked by accuracy of scholarship and style, and are vital to a knowledge of Portuguese music history.

Um inédito musical: o ‘Te Deum’ do licenciado Lopes Morago (Lisbon, 1940) ‘Nótulas sôbre a música na Sé de Viseu’, Beira Alta, 1 (1942), 7, 49, 107, 149; ii (1943), 82; iii (1944), 3–34, 93, 207–36 ‘O “Libro delle Muse”’, ...


Kimberly Greene

(b Branford, CT, Oct 22, 1746; d New Haven, CT, June 5, 1823). American tunebook compiler, composer, clock maker, and engraver. An influential compiler of tunebooks in the 1780s and 1790s, he included established English and American favorites in his books and introduced the works of such new American composers as Lewis Edson and Daniel Reed. His significant compilations are The Chorister’s Companion (1782/R), which was issued in collaboration with the publisher Amos Doolittle; a 48-page supplement to The Chorister’s Companion entitled “Part Third” (1783); A Collection of Favorite Psalm Tunes (1787); The Federal Harmony (1793); and The New Haven Collection of Sacred Music (1818). Jocelin helped to create a distinctive New England idiom which is representative of early American psalmody; his publications are counted among the important early American tunebooks. Details about his life remain scarce. However, Eli Whitney served as his partner in the manufacture of clocks, and his sons Simeon Jr. and Nathaniel, an aspiring portrait painter and active abolitionist, bought several firms in ...


(b Hamburg, Aug 2, 1887; d Hamburg, Oct 19, 1970). German music educationist. After attending teachers’ training college (1902–8) and working as a teacher in Hamburg, he studied musicology at the Musikhochschule in Leipzig (1920–21) and was appointed professor at the Berlin Akademie für Kirchen- und Schulmusik in 1923. Jöde simultaneously contributed significantly to the Jugendmusikbewegung by founding amateur music societies called Musikantengilde, which aimed to create a sense of community through music, and editing the journals Die Laute and Die Musikantengilde. Also in 1923 he was named director of the music school that was affiliated with the academy; his influential book Das schaffende Kind der Musik was published in 1928 and he served as head of the Volks- und Jugendmusikpflege programme at the academy from 1930. In 1936 he was found guilty of making sexual overtures to several female students and dismissed; these charges, although justified, were most likely made public because Nazi officials suspected Jöde of being a socialist. Temporarily ostracized, he worked intermittently as a broadcaster in Munich, but after applying for Nazi party membership in ...


David Hiley

[Franz-Xaver Karl ]

(b Waldsee, Dec 1, 1874; d Beuron, Jan 4, 1955). German musicologist. After schooling in Riedlingen he studied at the Benedictine abbeys of Prague, Seckau and (from 1893) Beuron, where he was a pupil of the Kantor Ambrosius Kienle and the organist Raphael Molitor, and where he took his vows in 1894. He also studied theology at the Cucujães monastery, Portugal (1896–1900, ordained 1898), whence he was recalled to Beuron during the illness of Kienle (1900), whom he succeeded as first Kantor (1905–49). Having studied briefly with the monks from Solesmes in Appuldurcombe, Isle of Wight (1904), he helped to found the church music school of Gregoriushaus near Beuron (1906), where he taught until World War I. He also served as prior of the abbey (1913–33) and as lecturer (1925) and professor (...