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(b Glarus, Feb 5, 1505; d Glarus, Feb 28, 1572). Swiss statesman, historian and collector of music. From his studies with Zwingli and with Glarean in Basle (1516–17) he developed a special enthusiasm for music. With Glarean’s help he studied the theorist's system of 12 modes and analysed a large repertory of the period 1460–1520, which included the work of Glarean and others. (He may not, however, have seen a completed draft of Glarean's Dodekachordon, as has sometimes been suggested.) After Tschudi had classified the repertory, grouping compositions together by genre, number of voice parts and the mode of their tenors, he began (probably after 1540) to assemble his own songbook ( CH-SGs 463). The extant discantus and altus partbooks include 87 Latin pieces, 49 lieder, 30 chansons, 16 canzonas, four pieces without title and one pavan. Tschudi attributed 94 of the works to 37 composers, citing in an index the national and sometimes regional origins of 25 contributors. Concordances identifying 19 other composers raise the number of attributable compositions to 122. Tschudi's attributions to composers attached to the French court during the second decade of the 16th century probably came from Glarean, who lived in Paris from ...


Melinda Berlász

(b Poroszló, Apr 5, 1927; d Budapest, Nov 6, 1992). Hungarian choirmaster, composer and folksong collector. After Lajos Bárdos, Vass was the last figure of great consequence in the history of the Hungarian choral movement linked with the name of Kodály. He completed his secondary education at a teacher-training college in Debrecen (1941–6), after which he studied composition and singing at the Liszt Academy of Music; he graduated in 1951. His composition teachers were Veress and Ferenc Farkas. He held appointments as conductor (from 1949) and artistic director (1953–7) of the Hungarian Army Art Ensemble, conductor of the Hungarian State Male-Voice (1957–8) and Steel Sound (1960–64) choirs and as chief conductor of the Art Ensemble of the Ironworkers' Union (1964–92).

As choirmaster he was a faithful interpreter of the works of Kodály and Bartók and a disseminator of more recent Hungarian choral works. With his choirs he raised the standard of Hungarian singing to an international level, as attested by the many prizes he won at international competitions. His dynamic personality was well suited to the dissemination of musical knowledge. (He was, among other things, a well-known personality on Hungarian television and radio.) Additionally, he played an important role in the Hungarian folk music revival of the 1970s. Understandably, vocal music lies at the centre of his output. His musical language developed gradually from the early folksong adaptations to a style involving discernible use of dodecaphonic technique. He was awarded the Erkel Prize (...


Gerard Béhague

(b Cañuelas, nr Buenos Aires, April 14, 1898; d Buenos Aires, Feb 10, 1966). Argentine musicologist and folklorist . He first studied harmony and composition with Gilardi, but soon turned exclusively to musicology. As head of musicology at the Argentine Museum of Natural Sciences (1926) and folklore expert at Buenos Aires University (1933), he dedicated himself to the systematic study of South American traditional music, dances and musical instruments. He founded and directed the Institute of Musicology (1931) under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and undertook a series of field trips throughout Argentina and other South American countries, collecting several thousand items of folk music and dance. He received several grants, including the research grant from the National Commission for Culture (1937) and a UNESCO grant for studies in Europe. In 1947 he was awarded the First National History and Folklore Prize for his publications....


John Tyrrell

(b Brno, June 30, 1898; d Brno, Nov 30, 1979). Czech musicologist and folklorist . He studied with Helfert at Brno University (1921–6), taking the doctorate with a dissertation on Rieger. Until 1928 he worked under Helfert in the music section of the Moravian Museum; he then became head of the music division of Brno Radio (1928–45), which he helped to develop to a high standard, particularly increasing its educational role in the promotion of folk and art music. After the war he was director of the Brno University library (1945–53) and then head of the Brno Institute for Ethnography and Folklore at the Czech Academy of Sciences (1953–70); he also lectured on folk studies at the university (1954–9). Although Vetterl's writings reflect his work in libraries and the radio, where he undertook valuable cataloguing projects, his chief interest was folksong. In ...


Viorel Cosma

revised by Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Mânerău, Arad district, Dec 17, 1863; d Lugoj, Feb 7, 1931). Romanian composer, choral conductor, and folklorist. He began his musical studies at the Conservatorium der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Arad (Austro-Hungarian Empire) (1880–81), and continued them in Caransebeş (1885) and at the Conservatory of Music and Declamation, Iaşi (1890–91). In Iaşi he studied harmony, composition, and choral conducting with Gavriil Musicescu, a well-trained musician who had studied in Saint Petersburg. He was a music teacher and choir conductor (with the Reuniunea română de muzică şi cântări (‘Romanian Convention for Music and Song’) in Lugoj), and he managed the most important local institution dedicated to the promotion of national culture – the Asociaţia corurilor şi fanfarelor române din Banat (‘The Choral and Brass Band Society of Banat’, 1888–1927). He was a passionate folklore collector active in Western Transylvania and the Banat (he had connections with Bartók, Musicescu, and Kiriac-Georgescu). His exclusively choral compositions are representative of both lay works (folklore adaptations, patriotic songs, etc.) and religious ones, inspired by the Orthodox chanting music from the Banat. His first collection of choruses, ...


Maria Domokos

(b Hetes, nr Kaposvár, April 1, 1859; d Dunavecse, nr Dunaújváros, Sept 22, 1945). Hungarian folklorist . After graduating in literature and linguistics from Budapest University (1877–84), he worked as employee and subsequently director of the stenography department of the Hungarian parliament, 1889–1921. He was a founding member and the first secretary of the Hungarian Ethnographic Society (1896). In the course of his extensive fieldwork he used his shorthand skills to transcribe and fit the folksong texts to the melodies which at that time were recorded on an Edison phonograph. His new method, which he demonstrated at the international music congress held at the Paris World Exposition in 1900 (Congrès international de musique: Paris 1900), gained him wider recognition. Most of the melodies from his phonograph cylinders were transcribed by Bartók who, along with Kodály, greatly appreciated his work.

‘Élő nyelvemlékek’ [Living linguistic monuments], ...


John Tyrrell

(Ignác František)[Voyachek, Ignaty Kasparovich ]

(b Zlín, Moravia, Dec 4, 1825; d Tsarskoye Selo [now Pushkin], 27 Jan/Feb 9, 1916). Czech musician, active in Russia . He was brought up in Vsetín, where his father obtained a teaching post in 1830, and in Brno, as a chorister of the Augustinian monastery (from 1838). He studied for a year at the University of Vienna (1845–6) and founded a Slavonic student choral society, for which he wrote a large number of male-voice choruses. After working as a music tutor (1846–8) to the family of Count Bethlen in Hermannstadt, Transylvania (now Sibiu, Romania), he returned to Brno, conducting Czech concerts of the Brno Männergesangsverein. He returned to Vienna and in 1852 helped compile a collection of Valachian and Slovak folksongs (he had begun collecting folksongs himself in 1838). In Vienna he got to know the Russian composer Aleksey Fyodorovich L′vov, who obtained a post for him (...


Miloš Velimirović

(b Voznesensk, Kostroma province, 5/Sept 17, 1838; d Kostroma, 8/Dec 21, 1910). Russian writer on church music . Voznesensky graduated from the Kostroma Seminary in 1860 and from the Moscow Theological Academy in 1864. He served as teacher of chant in the Kostroma Seminary until 1883, when he became an inspector of the Riga Seminary until 1894; he then served as head priest of the cathedral of the Trinity, Kostroma. In the late 1880s and in the 1890s he published several volumes of studies dealing with the different varieties of chant in Russian churches. His works are basically compilations, and eclectic in nature. He did only a minimal amount of original research on the historical evolution of Russian chant, but he was among the first in Russia to investigate the melodic traditions of south-western Russian provenance from the 17th and 18th centuries preserved in Western staff notation. He translated into Russian a treatise of the ‘method’ of the Greco-Slavonic chanting originally written in Latin by Ioan de Castro (Rome, ...


(b c1730; d London, 1794). English collector and editor. He was secretary of the Noblemen’s and Gentlemen’s Catch Club from its foundation in 1761 until his death. On inheriting the estate of Edmund Horne, a Captain of Marines, he changed his name to Warren-Horne.

He spent much of his life acquiring, copying and publishing music, both for the Catch Club and for his own benefit. He was responsible for the most complete collection of glees, canons, catches and madrigals published in the 18th century, which became known as ‘Warren’s Collection’ and was a standard source of such music for many years. In addition to hundreds of contemporary pieces it contained a number of older works. The Apollonian Harmony, probably also compiled by Warren, contained many 16th-century madrigals. His most ambitious effort, however, was a large anthology of Renaissance choral music in six volumes. 100 copies were projected in ...


Elisabeth Lebeau

revised by Fiona Clampin


(b Guebwiller, Nov 9, 1821; d Trottberg, nr Guebwiller, May 20, 1910). French folklorist, bibliographer and composer. Destined by his father for a career in industry he studied chemistry, but in 1843 ran away to Paris to study music. He was accepted at the Conservatoire shortly thereafter despite his lack of musical training and studied composition (with Halévy), harmony and singing. After leaving the Conservatoire he earned his living by teaching music, and from 1850 to 1855 he was the choir conductor of the Société Ste Cécile, founded and directed by F.-J.-B. Seghers; there Weckerlin gained familiarity with major choral works and was able to have his own compositions performed. Several operas and orchestral works also helped to make his name in the 1850s. In 1863 he became librarian and archivist of the Société des Compositeurs de Musique. He was appointed clerk to the librarian of the Conservatoire in ...


Oldřich Pukl

(b Prague, Feb 13, 1862; d Prague, April 4, 1944). Czech composer and folksong collector. He studied in Prague at the conservatory (1873–8) and the organ school (1878–81) and privately with Fibich. He was organist of St Štěpán and choirmaster at the main synagogue of Prague (1881–2), a teacher at the music school of the Moravan choral society in Kroměříž (1882–3), a violinist in the National Theatre orchestra, Prague (1883–6) and conductor of the Švanda Theatre Company in Prague and Brno (1886–7). Subsequently he edited the monthly Hudební květy (1895–9), conducted the Academic Orchestra (1898) and worked as an accompanist (1896–1904), mainly for the violinist František Ondříček. From 1896 to the end of his life he gave most of his attention to collecting and arranging folksongs, particularly those of the Chodsko region, south Bohemia. Weis’s large and varied output was influenced mostly by Smetana and Dvořák and included three operas in Czech, two in German and six German operettas. His only work to have stood the test of time, however was the 15-volume collection ...


Matt Meacham

[Joseph T. ]

(b Sutherland, Ashe County, NC, March 16, 1938). American Folklorist and folk music presenter. Raised in northeastern Tennessee, Wilson developed interests in the humanities and in Upland Southern musical traditions early in life. He went to Nashville in 1960 and worked in various capacities in the country music industry. Disenchanted with the commercialism of the music business he moved to Birmingham in 1962, where he worked as a journalist covering the Civil Rights Movement. Beginning in 1966 he held positions with philanthropic and public relations firms, eventually becoming vice-president of Oram International in New York. While there he facilitated recording and performance opportunities for Southern vernacular musicians.

In 1976 Wilson became executive director of the nonprofit National Council for the Traditional Arts (NCTA). During his tenure, NCTA produced the annual National Folk Festival and other major festivals, numerous recordings, and influential national and international performance tours featuring a wide variety of artistic traditions. Since ...


Richard Will

(b Sedalia, MO, Aug 14, 1943; d Murfreesboro, KY, Feb 9, 2006). American music historian and folklorist. He studied English at Southwest Missouri University (BA 1965) and the University of Kansas (MA 1967, PhD 1970), and taught at Middle Tennessee State University from 1970 until his retirement in 2005. Beginning with books on country music in Tennessee and Kentucky, he became one of the most prolific and influential historians of Southern American music. Though his particular focus was country music of the 1920s and 30s, his interests ranged from the Civil War through the 20th century and across genres including gospel music, blues, ballads, old-time fiddling traditions, and bluegrass. In addition to authoring and co-authoring many books, he also edited and co-edited several collections of essays and the Country Music Annual (2000–02). He wrote the script for the television documentary series American Roots Music...


Albi Rosenthal

(b Berlin, Aug 1, 1877; d Berlin, Oct 26, 1930). German music collector and critic . After taking a degree at Leipzig University in jurisprudence (1899) and practising as a lawyer for some years, he studied musicology with Fleischer, Klatte, Kretzschmar and Wolf at Berlin (1906–9). Though he published some articles on music history and music bibliography, he was active mainly as a music critic, and became a chairman of the Verband Deutscher Musikkritiker and secretary of the Gesellschaft für Ästhetik. His most conspicuous achievement was the methodical amassing of a music library of manuscripts and printed source material from the Middle Ages to the 20th century and a comprehensive collection of writings about music. After trying unsuccessfully to find a buyer for the whole collection at 650,000 marks, Wolffheim had the library auctioned by the firms of Martin Breslauer and Leo Liepmannssohn of Berlin on ...


Kenneth Elliott

(fl 1560–92). Scottish clergyman . He compiled an important set of partbooks, sometimes known as the St Andrews Psalter or ‘Thomas Wode’s Partbooks’, containing Scottish (and other) music of the 16th century. A canon of Lindores Abbey before the Reformation (1560), Wood joined the reformers, settled in St Andrews in 1562, became vicar there in 1575, and is frequently mentioned in Kirk Session Registers until 1592. His duplicate sets of partbooks (EIRE-Dtc, GB-Eu , Lbl , US-Wgu ) contain the 106 four-voice psalm settings by David Peebles (1562–6), canticles by Angus, Kemp and Blackhall (1566–9), and motets, anthems, psalms, songs and instrumental pieces – Scottish, English and continental (copied from 1569 to 1592) – together with illuminating and entertaining comments by Wood on many of the items. Between 1606 and about 1625 further additions to the partbooks were made by other hands.

H. Scott, ed: ...


Cynthia Adams Hoover

(b Potsdam, Germany, Nov 15, 1855; d Washington, DC, Nov 14, 1938). American collector of and dealer in keyboard instruments. His father, Christian, had a music business in Trenton, New Jersey, from c1858 to 1861, and in Washington from 1863 to 1868 and again in 1883; Worch and his brother Emil took this over in 1883, and after Emil’s death his widow and Hugo continued the business as Hugo Worch & Co. from 1884 until 1895. After 1895 the firm of Hugo Worch sold instruments (including pianos sold under the Worch name but manufactured elsewhere), sheet music, and, as tastes changed, phonographs, recordings, and radios. The firm went out of business in 1960 on the retirement of Hans Hugo Worch, who had bought it from his brother Carl and sister Paulina in 1954.

In the 1880s Worch began collecting keyboard instruments that showed the development of the American piano industry from the 1790s to ...


Olga Manulkina

(b Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Nov 28, 1926). Russian composer and folksong collector. She was greatly influenced by her mother, the pianist, composer and music theorist, Nadezhda Bogolyubova. Yel′cheva studied with Sergey Vol′fenson at the Musorgsky College, Leningrad, during World War II; she then attended the Leningrad Conservatory, where she studied the piano with Aleksandr Kamensky (graduating in 1950) and composition with O.S. Chishko (graduating in 1958). In 1953 and 1956 she participated in folksong expeditions to the Pskov region, to northern Russia and to the lower reaches of the river Pechora. Since 1965 she has collected songs independently in the Ivanovo region; she published her edition of collected folksongs in 1968 and in the late 1970s recorded her own performances of some of these. Most of her original compositions reflect her two main concerns: impressions of war and Russian folk culture. She writes in a traditional style based on folk tunes....


Robert Stevenson

revised by Israel J. Katz

[Don Preciso ]

( b Dima, Durango, Dec 27, 1756; d Madrid, March 24, 1826). Basque folklorist and historian . He had his secondary education in Morúa, Alava province, where he studied music, literature and history, and perfected the Castilian language. Early in 1775 he began copying historic documents in the archives of Vitoria and in July of that year went to Madrid to train as a public notary. He worked as such at Madrid from 1783 to 1799 and again from 1800 to 1813. In 1792 he entered the literary controversy caused by Crotalogía o Ciencia de las castañuelas (Madrid, 1789), Juan Fernández de Rojas’s mock-heroic treatise on playing the castanets. In the midst of numerous contributions to the Diario de Madrid signed with fanciful pseudonyms he published there in 1795 an essay, under the name Don Preciso, on contradanzas and other popular diversions of Francophile Spaniards, the 86-word title of which begins ...


Mariya Ivanovna Roditeleva

(b Leningrad, Feb 22, 1936). Russian ethnomusicologist and folklorist. He studied composition at the Leningrad College of Musical Education with Ustvol′skaya (diploma, 1955), and philology, folklore (with Vladimir Propp) and linguistics at Leningrad University (BA 1958). He obtained graduate degrees in ethnomusicology (1960) and composition (1961) at the Leningrad Conservatory, and in 1960 joined the staff at the Leningrad Institute for the History of the Arts, where he took the kandidat degree in ethnography and folklore in 1964 and later served as head of the folklore department until 1995. During the 1970s and 80s he conducted fieldwork in regions throughout the USSR. He obtained a further doctoral degree at the Kiev Institute of the Arts, Ethnography and Folklore in 1981 and served as department chair at the Pedagogical University, Leningrad, 1989–93.

Zemtsovsky was appointed visiting professor at UCLA in 1994. He then became a research fellow at the University of Wisconsin (...


Barbara Krader

revised by Zdravko Blažeković

(b Vratišinec, Međimurje, Croatia, Jan 22, 1890; d Zagreb, Dec 12, 1976). Croatian folksong collector . At Zagreb he graduated from the Theological Faculty (1914) and took a doctorate in law in 1919; he studied music privately, and until World War II practised law and published many legal studies. Subsequently he was the curator of the Zagreb Ethnographic Museum (1945–8), then worked for the Institute for Traditional Arts (1948–64; director 1948–52), and also lectured on traditional music at the Zagreb Academy of Music (1949–68). He first collected folksongs in Međimurje (then Muraköz, Hungary) in 1908, more intensively after 1920. The important collection published in 1924–5 led to correspondence with Bartók concerning archaic Hungarian song types and Yugoslav folk music in general (Béla Bartók: Letters, ed. J. Demény, Budapest, 1971).

From the 1940s Žganec devoted his full energies to folk music collecting and research (chiefly for the Institute of Folk Art in Zagreb), using a tape recorder from ...