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Rudolf Klein

(b Mödling, nr Vienna, Aug 15, 1888; d Vienna, Oct 27, 1982). Austrian music historian and critic. While he was a law student in Vienna he also studied musicology with Adler. He graduated in law in 1911, and completed his musical education in Salzburg after World War I, with Felix Petyrek (piano) and Bernhard Paumgartner (conducting and instrumentation). He began his work as a music critic in Salzburg (1922) and wrote for the Vienna Neue Freie Presse (1926–38). After a break in exile in London (1939–46), he was music critic of the newspaper Neues Österreich (1946–67) while working as a judge. He was also a regular contributor to the Österreichische Musikzeitschrift. As a music historian he studied the Austrian composer Julius Bittner, the writings of Viennese music critics before the 1848 revolution, and Maria Theresia von Paradis, the blind pianist of Mozart's time (for his articles ...


John A. Emerson

(b Durango, Vizcaya, Nov 2, 1863; d Motrico, Guipúzcoa, Sept 17, 1900). Spanish musicologist and music journalist. In 1878 he entered the Augustinian order at Valladolid, where he received his early musical training, and in 1888 he went to the monastery of Silos, near Burgos, devoting himself to the study of Gregorian chant reform as advocated by the Benedictine monks of Solesmes in France. In 1889 he participated in the music section of the first Congresso Católico of Madrid. Uriarte's major work, the Tratado teórico-práctico de canto gregoriano, is not only a treatise on the elements of Gregorian chant, but a panegyric on the need for modern restoration based on the methods of Joseph Pothier of the Solesmes school and the resolutions calling for reform adopted at the Madrid Congress of 1890. Essentially, these reforms included the gradual abolition of the 19th-century Medicean liturgical books then used in Spain, the use of Pothier's newly revised chant books which were based upon the original medieval sources, and the performance of these corrected melodies in a free, non-mensural rhythmic style. Uriarte was a prolific music journalist and contributed many articles on chant reform, music aesthetics and criticism, and opera, particularly to the ...


M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

[Vanderstraeten, Edmond ]

(b Oudenaarde, Dec 3, 1826; d Oudenaarde, Nov 25, 1895). Belgian musicologist, critic and librarian . After studying classics in Aalst and philosophy at the University of Ghent, he returned to Oudenaarde, where he directed several opera performances and began his research into local archives. In 1857 he went to Brussels, where he studied harmony with Bosselet and counterpoint and palaeography with Fétis, becoming his private secretary. On Fétis's recommendation he was appointed music critic for Le nord and in 1859 joined the catalogue department of the Bibliothèque Royale. He also wrote reviews for L'écho du parlement, L'étoile belge and other publications. Subsequently he did research at the Algemeen Rijksarchief in Brussels (1862–75) and in Italy, France and Spain. He represented the Belgian government on several missions; at Weimar in 1870 he attended performances of Wagner's operas and supported them enthusiastically in his report, Muzikale feesten van Weimar...


Jean Gribenski

(b Nogent-sur-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Dec 21, 1933). French musicologist and critic. After studying the piano and music history (1941–59), he was a student in Paris at the Institut d’Etudes Politiques (1952–5) and at the Sorbonne (1952–7). In addition to the freelance work that he has pursued for much of his career, he has worked for Radio France, becoming a producer and editor for the French Musique channel in 1974. From 1979 to 1989 he was chairman of the Association Peuple et Culture and, after its foundation in 1987, was appointed the first chairman of the Association Proquartet, an organization that is playing an important part in the revival of the string quartet in France.

Vignal’s main field of study is the music of the Classical period, particularly the Viennese classicism of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and their contemporaries. He is regarded as the foremost modern French specialist on Haydn; his work ...


F. Alberto Gallo

revised by Gianluca D’Agostino

(b Florence, 1325; d ?1405). Italian chronicler . He completed his law studies in Florence in 1360, was chancellor of the city of Perugia 1376–81, and was lecturer on Dante in the University of Florence 1391–1404. His writings include a continuation of the Nuova cronica (ed. G.C. Galletti, Florence, 1847), begun by his uncle Giovanni and continued by his father Matteo, a commentary (surviving incomplete) on Dante's Commedia, and the two-volume Liber de origine civitatis Florentiae et eiusdem famosis civibus (ed. G.C. Galletti, Florence, 1847; ed. G. Tanturli, Padua, 1997). The second volume mentions several 14th-century musicians, including Bartolo, Lorenzo da Firenze, Giovanni da Cascia and Jacopo da Bologna; it also includes a biography of Francesco Landini. For the latter this is the most detailed account to survive (although some of it is now thought to be spurious) and was used as a source of information for references to the composer throughout the 15th century....


Heinrich Hüschen

(b nr Heidelberg, 1577; d Amsterdam, March 19, 1649). Dutch polymath and writer on music of German birth . He received a master’s degree and a doctorate from the University of Leiden. He became rector of the grammar school at Dordrecht in 1600 and director of the theological college at Leiden in 1615 but in 1619 he was suspended as an Arminian. He held professorships at the University of Leiden and at the newly established Athenaeum Illustre, Amsterdam. When he was in England in 1629 Charles I granted him a private audience in recognition of his learning.

Vossius wrote many theological, philological and historical works, a complete edition of which was published in six volumes over 40 years after his death (Amsterdam, 1695–1701). Five of his works (all published at Amsterdam) contain observations on music: De theologia gentili (1642); De artis poeticae natura et constitutione (...


Miloš Velimirović

(b Voznesensk, Kostroma province, 5/Sept 17, 1838; d Kostroma, 8/Dec 21, 1910). Russian writer on church music . Voznesensky graduated from the Kostroma Seminary in 1860 and from the Moscow Theological Academy in 1864. He served as teacher of chant in the Kostroma Seminary until 1883, when he became an inspector of the Riga Seminary until 1894; he then served as head priest of the cathedral of the Trinity, Kostroma. In the late 1880s and in the 1890s he published several volumes of studies dealing with the different varieties of chant in Russian churches. His works are basically compilations, and eclectic in nature. He did only a minimal amount of original research on the historical evolution of Russian chant, but he was among the first in Russia to investigate the melodic traditions of south-western Russian provenance from the 17th and 18th centuries preserved in Western staff notation. He translated into Russian a treatise of the ‘method’ of the Greco-Slavonic chanting originally written in Latin by Ioan de Castro (Rome, ...


Thomas Bauman

(b Weimar, Jan 23, 1762; d Weimar, June 26, 1827). German writer . A copyist’s son from a large family, he was mostly self-educated as a youth. Later he studied law at Jena and Erlangen, then supported himself and his siblings by his pen. Goethe, who lived with and subsequently married Vulpius’s sister Christiane, tried to help him secure various positions. Vulpius translated and adapted Italian and German opera texts for the Bellomo company at Weimar during the 1780s, and supplied over two dozen new versions of previously composed operas to the Weimar court theatre, under Goethe’s direction from 1791 to 1817. On obtaining a position in the Weimar library in 1797, Vulpius turned to cultural-historical studies. The University of Jena conferred the PhD on him in 1809, and in 1816 he was knighted by the Weimar court. Vulpius’s original librettos, like his popular novels, show a decided taste for the sentimental, picaresque and supernatural. During the 1790s his revisions of several of Schikaneder’s librettos – by no means improvements – sparked a war of words between the two....


Nicholas Carolan

(b Dublin, 1761; d Dublin, 1810). Irish antiquary . He was influenced by contemporary European interest in exotic music, and wrote the first book on Irish music Historical Memoirs of the Irish Bards (Dublin, 1786, enlarged 2/1818) when he was 24 and a treasury clerk in Dublin Castle. Romantic in sensibility, prolix in style and largely derived from printed sources in English (Walker knew no Irish), the work nonetheless preserves original information researched by him, particularly in relation to the harper Turlough Carolan, and has served as a model for later writers. It also contains some of the earliest translations into English of Gaelic heroic lays. The appendixes include contributions from fellow antiquaries and an interesting group of 15 melodies which range from bagpipe laments and a plough tune to Gaelic song airs and harp tunes. An extra 28 melodies in the posthumous second edition are all from contemporary printed sources....


J.A. Fuller Maitland

revised by David Charlton and Suzanne M. Lodato

(b Brno, Nov 16, 1860; d Vienna, April 24, 1917). Austrian writer on music . He studied law and philosophy in Vienna, Heidelberg and Tübingen (1878–85), and graduated in philosophy at Tübingen in 1885 and law at Berne in 1886. After the publication in 1886 of his Ästhetik der Tonkunst he became a lecturer in philosophy in Freiburg. From 1890 to 1895 he studied in London, and in 1896 he went to the University of Vienna to lecture on the psychology and aesthetics of music. In 1908 he was made an extraordinary (unsalaried) professor, and in 1911 a salaried university professor. He taught the aesthetics of music in the conservatory of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (1900–02) and also wrote music articles and reviews for Die Zeit (1896–1904).

According to Graf (1974), Wallaschek's appointment in 1896 to the University of Vienna marks the beginning of the field of comparative musicology. Noted for his positivistic and empirical approach to musicological study, in ...


Konrad Boehmer

(b Erfurt, April 21, 1864; d Munich, June 14, 1920). German social economist and sociologist . He held professorial appointments in economics and sociology at the universities of Berlin (1893), Freiburg (1894), Heidelberg (1897–1903) and Munich (1920). He is regarded as the founder of comprehensive sociology which he developed from the social theories of Hegel, Comte and Marx and the historical philosophies of Dilthey, Windelband and Simmel. He avoided monocausal interpretations and stressed the concrete relationships between a spiritual climate and the corresponding material (economic and political) historical data. The range of his writings reflects his sharp distinction between the sociologist’s freedom of evaluation and socially relevant comment (which he considered a non-scientific process and not a task of the sociologist), for the conservative outlook of his political writings frequently conflicts with the perspective of his scientific works. In his only substantial musico-sociological work, ‘Die rationalen und soziologischen Grundlagen der Musik’ (Eng. trans., ...


Arthur Jacobs

(b London, Nov 14, 1933). English translator. With Michael Scott, he made a free adaptation of Donizetti’s Le convenienze e inconvenienze teatrali in its one-act form (as The Prima Donna’s Mother is a Drag) for a production at the Camden Festival in 1972. The following year he provided an English version of Offenbach’s ...


Joseph E. Morgan

(b Milwaukee, WI, 1948). American music critic and scholar. He earned a BFA in clarinet from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and continued his studies at the University of Cincinnati Conservatory of Music where he earned a MM and a PhD in 1979. While completing his doctoral work he began his career in music journalism.

During his tenure as music critic at the Cincinnati Post (1974–8) and the St Louis Globe-Democrat (1978–84) Wierzbicki was prolific, writing more than 4000 reviews. In the late 80s his work appeared frequently in the review pages of national publications such as Opera News, Opera Quarterly, and High Fidelity. After an early affiliation with the NPR station in St Louis, writing for the weekly program “Music of Our Time” (1982–7), Wierzbicki achieved a national audience on NPR’s syndicated program “Performance Today” (1986–91).

After retiring from music journalism in the 90s, Wierzbicki pursued an academic career, publishing numerous scholarly articles and books, including one with the American Composer series on Elliott Carter (Chicago, ...


Clement A. Miller

[Jobst ]

(b Resel, Värmland, c1486; d Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 12, 1552). German humanist, physician, writer and musician . The generally accepted birthdate for him is about 1486, but according to Pietzsch it is 1501. In 1516 he entered the University of Frankfurt an der Oder, where he probably studied music under Johann Volckmar. After graduating he taught music from 1522 to 1539. In 1524 Willich became professor of Greek and in 1540 professor of medicine. Although he retained his connection with the university until his death, he was frequently called to other countries (such as Poland and Hungary) because of his renown as a physician. He corresponded with Erasmus and was personally acquainted with Luther, Melanchthon and Glarean. More than 60 writings on philology, antiquity, philosophy, theology, law, medicine, mathematics and music, some of which remained current into the 18th century, gave Willich a position as one of the outstanding German humanists of his time. An ardent lutenist, he founded about ...


(b Vacha, 1501; d Mainz, Feb 16, 1573). German theologian . He studied theology in Erfurt from 1516 to 1517, and in 1520 he continued his studies in Wittenberg with Luther. He was ordained in Merseburg and received a curacy in his home community of Vacha. When in 1524 he became a Lutheran and married, he forfeited his ecclesiastical office and worked as town clerk in Vacha. For some years he was a Lutheran pastor in Wenigen-Lupitz and in Niemegk. However, intensive study of the writings of the Church Fathers caused him to turn away from Lutheranism, and by 1533 he was a Catholic preacher in Eisleben. Many apologetic writings followed in which he supported the Old Church and its service. He was summoned to the court in Dresden by the Catholic Duke Georg the Bearded of Saxony, but lost this appointment with the death of the duke and the ensuing Reformation in Dresden in ...


(b Potsdam, Nov 13, 1848; d Bayreuth, June 2, 1938). German writer on music . His mother was the daughter of the Berlin architect and artist Karl Friedrich Schinkel; his father, Alfred von Wolzogen (1823–83), was for a time director of the Schwerin court theatre. Following his mother's death in 1850, Hans was brought up by Schinkel relatives at the Berlin Bauakademie, founded and built by his grandfather. He had no formal musical training, though both parents had studied singing with F.W. Jähns (the biographer of Weber). After being parted from his father in infancy, he rejoined him at the age of 14 in Breslau, where he began to develop a passion for theatre and opera. A performance of Tannhäuser there in 1864 made little impression, but two years later he heard it again in Berlin, along with Lohengrin; these experiences marked the beginning of what was to become a lifelong dedication to Wagner's works and ideology. As a student in Berlin (...


Iosif Genrikhovich Rayskin

(b Groznïy, May 4, 1936). Russian musicologist and music critic. In 1960 he graduated from the Moscow Conservatory having studied theory with Mazel′ and became a theory teacher at the music college in Makhachkala, Daghestan. He was chief editor of the theory department at the journal Sovetskaya muzïka (1963–6). He was a senior academic officer at the Daghestan Institute for the History of Language and Literature (1973–98), a branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, and in 1976 was appointed curator of Shostakovich's family archives. He gained the Kandidat degree in 1986, and was awarded the title Honoured Representative of the Arts of Daghestan. He became chief editor of the publishing house DSCH in 1993.

Yakubov has published more than 1000 writings, many of which have been translated. His main interests are Russian contemporary music, musical ethnography, the problems of musical performance and the works of Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Schnittke, Boris Chaykovsky and composers from Daghestan. As a result of his research in the Shostakovich archives, he has restored a number of the composer's ballet scores and prepared a scholarly edition of the cantata ...


David Scott

(b Northwich, Cheshire, May 17, 1912; d York, May 9, 2004). English writer on music and music educationist . He was educated at Christ’s Hospital (1924–30) and read English, music and history as an organ scholar at Selwyn College, Cambridge (1930–34; MusB 1933). He was director of music at Stranmillis Teachers Training College, Belfast, from 1934 until 1937, when he took the MusD at Trinity College, Dublin. From 1937 to 1944 he was music adviser to the city of Stoke on Trent. In 1944 he became director of music at Wolverhampton College of Technology; there he also formed a choir which gave many performances, particularly of lesser-known works by Handel. Since 1970 he has been a visiting scholar and lecturer at numerous colleges in the USA.

Young was an exceptionally fluent and prolific writer. His books include short popular biographies and several volumes for younger readers. Many of his more substantial writings are based on a lively, fresh and industrious, if not always highly discriminating, examination of source material; these include original research on Elgar and useful surveys of the British choral tradition and British music generally. As a composer Young was equally prolific: his works include a Fugal Concerto for two pianos and strings (...


Tamara Nikolayevna Levaya

(b Pavlodar, Yekaterinoslav province, 9/Dec 22, 1906; d Moscow, June 27, 1992). Russian musicologist and critic . He studied the theory of music at Kharkiv Conservatory under S.S. Bogatïryov and later studied the theory and history of music with Ivanov-Boretsky and composition with Zhilyayev at the Moscow Conservatory, graduating in 1931. He took the Kandidat degree in 1942 with a dissertation on Tchaikovsky and the doctorate in 1968 with a dissertation on Schumann. In the late 1920s and early 1930s he was a member of the Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians (RAPM) and, as music critic, was on the editorial staff for the journals Proletarskiy muzïkant (‘The Proletarian Musician’) and Za proletarskuyu muzïku (‘For Proletarian Music’). He began teaching the history of music at the Moscow Conservatory in 1931. He was forced to leave his post in 1937 and despite being quickly reinstated was once again dismissed in ...


Ian Mikyska

(b Brno, 13 March 1966). Czech composer, pedagogue, and writer on music, son of zdeněk zouhar. He studied composition at the Janáček Academy of Music and Performing Arts (JAMU) in Brno (with Miloš Ištván and alois piňos) and musicology at the Masaryk University, followed by post-graduate studies at the Hochschule für Musik und darstellende Kunst Graz (with Herman Markus Preßl and younghi pagh-paan) and JAMU. He remains an external pedagogue at both these institutions, as well as being active as a researcher at the Palacký University Olomouc (vice-dean starting in 2010), Ostrava University, and Masaryk University.

His brand of postmodernism is surprisingly respectful, using disparate materials in a serious manner, and generally staying with a few pieces of material for the duration of a piece or movement. Often composed in an additive, evolutionary structure, his works are sonically reminiscent of New York post-minimalism, but are very European in their approach to expressivity and emotional intensity. This approach includes both the intense rhythms of ...