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Piero Rattalino

(b Turin, Sept 26, 1941). Italian violinist and conductor. He studied the violin with Luigi d’Ambrosio at the Naples Conservatory, took the diploma in 1956 and a postgraduate course with Yvonne Astruc at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, Siena. He won the international competitions at Vercelli (1955) and Geneva (1956), and in 1958 both the RAI Spring Trophy and the Premio Paganini international violin competition at Genoa. He toured throughout Europe and North and South America and soon became one of the best-known and most admired Italian violinists of his generation. An instinctive player with an easy, agile and brilliant technique, he is an all-round musician with a repertory ranging from Vivaldi and Bach to contemporary composers, many of whom have written works for him, including Franco Donatoni (Argot for solo violin, 1979) and Xenakis (Dikhtas, 1980). He is considered a fine interpreter of Paganini (whose 24 capriccios and six concertos he has recorded). Accardo has developed an interest in chamber music and is one of the organizers of the ensemble music week held at Naples each year; in ...

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(It.: ‘hastening’, ‘quickening’; gerund of accelerare)

A direction to increase the speed of a musical performance, often over a fairly long passage. It is usually abbreviated to accel., and is in practice much rarer than its contrary, rallentando. Koch (Musikalisches Lexikon, 1802), translating it as eilend, drew attention to terms he considered more common at the time, ...

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Accent  

Matthias Thiemel

The prominence given to a note or notes in performance by a perceptible alteration (usually increase) in volume (‘dynamic accent’); a lengthening of duration or a brief preceding silence of articulation (‘agogic accent’); an added ornament or pitch inflection of a melodic note (‘pitch accent’); or by any combination of these. The term is also used for any of the notational signs used to indicate that such prominence is required. On instruments capable of immediate dynamic nuance, including the voice and most strings, wind and percussion, an increase of volume is usually the chief element in this prominence, commonly at the start (with a more assertive effect), but alternatively just after the start (with a more insinuating effect, for which one specific term is Sforzando). On instruments not capable of much if any dynamic nuance, such as the harpsichord and the organ, prominence of this type can be given, and an effect of dynamic accentuation simulated, by agogic accents. In principle, any quality that distinguishes notes from their predecessors and successors can produce a ‘subjective’ or ‘perceptible’ accent....

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Accento  

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Accentual iambic hymn

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Matthias Thiemel

The use of Periodicals, in musical performance, real or imagined. The term may refer to particular notes or chords, or more comprehensively to an entire performance; in the modern Western tradition, accentuation, together with phrasing, articulation, dynamics etc. contributes to ‘expression’, and in vocal settings since the 16th century at least this has often been taken to imply a responsibility of conforming expressively to the spoken accentuation of the text.

Over the centuries composers and theorists have offered more or less precise guidelines for accentuation. Some 13th-century writers (Anonymus 4, Franco of Cologne, Odington and Lambertus) stated that singers should moderate dissonances occurring at points of emphasis or at the beginnings of compositions. Keyboard composers up to the early 18th century advocated the use of ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ fingers on ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ beats. In general, however, polyphonic music of the Renaissance and Baroque periods is characterized by freedom in the accentuation implied by the separate parts: Rousseau observed that ‘there are as many accents as there are modifications of the voice; and there are as many kinds of accent as there are differences between such modifications’ (...

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(Lat.).

A term used in the 16th century (e.g. Ornithoparchus, Musicae activae micrologus, 1517) for the simple forms of plainchant based on recitation tones as used in the Epistle, Gospel, prayers etc.; for a general survey of such forms see Inflection. Accentus forms are contrasted with concentus forms, or with the more developed forms such as antiphons or responsories....

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Robert E. Seletsky

(It.; Fr. pincé étouffé; Ger. Zusammenschlag).

A ‘crushed note’. C.P.E. Bach (1753) and F.W. Marpurg (1755), who provided the German translation Zusammenschlag, defined the acciaccatura as a non-harmonic note played a tone or semitone below any of the main notes in arpeggiated chords, and immediately released. In 18th-century German sources such as C.P.E. Bach's treatise, it was frequently indicated with an upward diagonal stroke through the stem between the harmonic members of the chord. In melodic usage, the same writers classed the unprepared, simultaneously struck dissonant 2nd followed by the release of the lower note as a form of mordent. The Italian theorists Francesco Gasparini (1708) and Francesco Geminiani (1749) reserved the term acciaccatura for dissonances a whole tone below the harmonic notes played during arpeggiation, but used the terms mordente (Gasparini) or tatto (Geminiani) when the dissonant note was a semitone below the main note. These writers were unclear about the necessity of releasing the non-harmonic notes of whole tone interval; but Geminiani stated that the ...

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Lowell Lindgren

(b Rome, Feb 24, 1637; d Rome, Feb 7, 1700). Italian impresario and deviser of scenic effects. He studied at the Seminario Romano, where he performed in the Latin tragedies and intermedi produced during the carnivals of 1651–3. In January 1657 he joined the Florentine Accademia degli Immobili, which produced comic operas. Before he became a Knight of Malta on 9 August 1666 he had to serve in at least four caravans, and thus travelled widely, even to Asia, Africa and America. He returned to Rome for the reign of Pope Clement IX, 1667–9 (the opera librettist Giulio Rospigliosi), who named Acciaiuoli's brother Niccolò a cardinal in 1669. During the next three decades Filippo was the theatrical master-mind behind many spectacular operas produced in and around Rome. He may have been involved with most of those given at the Palazzo Colonna, where his first two were produced in ...

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Febo Guizzi

[azzarinu]

Name for the triangle in Southern Italy (su triángulu in Sardinia). Acciaio (steel) literally means the steel tool used to light a fire by striking it with a flint. The triangle is widely used in Central and Southern Italy. In Sardinia it is played with the tumbarinu (double-headed cylindrical drum), the organetto (accordion), the pipiolu, pipaiolu, or sulittu (duct flutes of different areas of Sardinia), and the Jew’s harp. In Campania and Calabria it is often made by the Roma (Gypsy) blacksmiths who also make and sell Jew’s harps. In genre painting of the 17th and 18th centuries it is depicted as the instrument of beggars, while in Neapolitan Nativity scenes it appears as an instrument of wandering ensembles. The latter use is widely attested in the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly by the Viggianesi ensembles (with the harp of Viggiano and other instruments), or to accompany the hurdy-gurdy or violin. In wandering ensembles, the triangle is usually played by a child....

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David Hiley

A sign placed, in modern notational practice, before a note, which alters its previously understood pitch by one or two semitones. The sharp (♯; Fr. dièse; Ger. Kreuz; It. diesis) raises a note by one semitone; the double sharp (𝄪; Fr. double dièse; Ger. Doppelkreuz; It. doppio diesis) raises it by two semitones. The flat (♭; Fr. bémol; Ger. Be; It. bemolle) lowers a note by one semitone; the double flat (♭♭; Fr. double bémol; Ger. Doppel-Be; It. doppio bemolle) lowers it by two semitones. The natural (♮; Fr. bécarre; Ger. Auflösungszeichen or Quadrat; It. bequadro) cancels a previous sharp or flat. A double sharp is changed to a single sharp by writing ♮♯ or occasionally ♯, a double flat to a single flat by ♮♭ or occasionally ♭.

For a discussion of the addition of accidentals to early music see Musica ficta; see also...

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Table 1

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Accidentals

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Accidentals notated with dots under the notes (bar 1), or ordinary accidental signs next to the notes (bar 5), fairly close to them (end of bar 1, bass line) or above them (final bar) (‘Intabolatura nova di … balli’; Venice: Antonio Gardane, 1551)

Reproduced by permission of Stainer & Bell Ltd, London. England...

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Edward Foley

revised by Joseph Dyer

(Lat. acclamatio, clamor, conclamatio, laudatio, laus, vox Gk. euphēmia, euphēmēsis, phēmē, polychronion, polychronisma).

A corporate shout or public cry of affirmation or dissent; also in a religious context a fervent expression of praise, invocation or supplication. Common to many performative contexts across a broad range of traditions and at times accompanied by gestures, acclamations became particularly important in political and religious rituals in East and West. Originating as spontaneous calls, some evolved into standardized formulae with fixed texts, occasionally with set music.

A ruler’s ascent in the ancient world was often accompanied by acclamations; evidence survives from the Middle East, Greece and Egypt (Klauser). Biblical evidence possibly reflecting practice in the 9th century bce reveals that newly appointed monarchs were saluted with ‘yeḥi ha-melekh!’ (‘Long live the King!’, 1 Samuel x.24). Rulers in antiquity were also greeted with acclamations during royal entrances, especially after victory (1 Samuel xviii.7). The accusers of Daniel and his companions addressed King Nebuchadnezzar with the acclamation ‘O king, live forever’ (...

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Jack Westrup and David Fallows

(It.: ‘accompanied’; past participle of accompagnare).

A short term for recitativo accompagnato, i.e. Recitative accompanied by the orchestra with expressive motifs, equivalent to recitativo obbligato. It is often used to designate a dramatically important scene, often a soliloquy (e.g. ‘Abscheulicher’ in Fidelio), which is usually followed by an aria. Handel used the term both in the strict sense of recitative, where the accompaniment allows the singer freedom (e.g. ‘O notte’ in ...

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Michelle Fillion

A term used to describe 18th-century chamber music with a substantially or fully written-out keyboard part and one or more accompanying instrumental parts. 18th-century sources most often designated these works by such terms as sonata, trio, terzetto, or divertimento for harpsichord or, simply, keyboard (later with the option of fortepiano), ‘with the accompaniment of’ or ‘that can be played with’ a violin (or flute), with or without cello. The accompanying parts could also be optional (ad libitum), resulting in the popular commercial practice of arranging solo sonatas as accompanied works. Larger ensemble scorings, especially the concerto-inspired grouping for keyboard instrument, two violins and bass, were also possible. Accompanied keyboard music is the direct ancestor of 19th-century chamber music with keyboard, especially the sonata for piano and violin and the piano trio.

To limit the genre to sonatas for fully written-out keyboard (without patches of continuo) and subsidiary or optional accompaniment is to capture only a segment of this vast and heterogeneous repertory. The genre appears concurrently with and as a manifestation of the rise of the harpsichord as a solo instrument, in a sense as a corrective to its purely supportive role in the Baroque sonata for melody instrument and continuo. As the small-ensemble counterpart to the emerging keyboard suite, sonata and solo concerto, accompanied keyboard music bore the stylistic marks of these three genres for decades. The solo sonata with continuo accompaniment, however, played virtually no role in its development; both genres were cultivated independently into the second half of the century, often by the same composer (e.g. C.P.E. Bach), before the continuo sonata disappeared with the demise of the thoroughbass tradition....