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Lucy Durán

revised by Gregory F. Barz

(b London, June 4, 1889; d St Albans, April 12, 1980). English ethnomusicologist, missionary and theologian. He studied theology at Oxford (BA 1921, MA 1928) and took an education diploma in London. From 1923 he worked as a missionary in Africa, for over 20 years (1929–50) as principal of St Mark’s College, Mapanza, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). On returning to England in 1952 he was appointed a lecturer in African music at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, a post he held until his retirement in 1966. He was awarded the Oxford DLitt in 1961. His main areas of study were African music and the xylophone; he also edited collections of hymns for schools in Africa. The dominant (and most controversial) theme of Jones’s research was his contention that the similarities between the African and Indonesian xylophone indicate cultural diffusion between Indonesia and Africa. He pointed out significant similarities between scales, tunings, construction, musical forms and other stylistic features; and on the basis of this and other evidence he proposed the theory that at some time in the early Christian era parts of Africa were colonized by peoples of Indonesia. He has been criticized for the selection and analysis of his evidence, as well as for his view (in opposition to historical evidence) that the xylophone was introduced to Africa from Indonesia. His final work (...


Hugh Cobbe

(b Zabern, Alsace, July 18, 1893; d Cologne, Oct 3, 1962). German musicologist. He studied philology, philosophy, German and musicology at Freiburg, Munich (under Schiedermair and Kroyer) and, after World War I, at Bonn, where he took the doctorate in 1919 with a dissertation on the history of lyrical keyboard pieces to 1830. He then settled in Cologne as a freelance writer and was appointed music critic to the Kölnische Zeitung in 1922. He completed the Habilitation at Cologne University in 1923 with a history of 18th-century piano music and became Bibliotheksrat of the Cologne university and city library (1928–58). He was appointed reader at Cologne University in 1928; from 1949 he was a lecturer at the Bibliothekar-Lehr institute, Cologne.

His wide-ranging musicological research took four main directions: the history of piano music to the mid-19th century (he also edited piano music by Benda, Müthel, J.A.P. Schultz, and Schubert's duet works); Schubert studies; the history of music in the Rhineland; and musical bibliography. Although he wrote prolifically in each of these fields, his most important publications were probably his bibliographical works, particularly his Schubert bibliography (...


Arthur Jacobs

(b London, March 13, 1863; d London, May 17, 1933). English translator. He was one of the first British champions of Richard Strauss, with whom he became personally acquainted at the first performance in Berlin of Feuersnot (1912). His translation of Der Rosenkavalier, published in the vocal score and first performed in Birmingham in ...


Lada Brashovanova

(b Lyaskovets, Sept 26, 1883; d Sofia, Jan 23, 1955). Bulgarian musicologist. After schooling in Ruse he studied with Reger, Krehl and Schering at the Leipzig Conservatory (1905–9, with interruptions), and on returning to Bulgaria taught music and trained choirs in Plovdiv and (from 1918) in Sofia, where he began his career as a critic and popularizer of music. He worked with the ethnomusicologist Vasil Stoin (1926–8) as editor of the journal Muzikalen zhivot (1928, 1930–31) and as director of the music section of the chamber of folk culture (1945–7). His publications are mainly about Bulgarian music and include about 800 articles.

Balgarska muzika: minalo i savremennost [Bulgarian music: past and present] (Varna, 1926)Operno izkustvo i nashi operni deytsi [The art of opera and our opera singers] (Sofia, 1926)Muzika i narod [Music and folk] (Sofia, 1932)Ilyustrovan muzikalen rechnik...


Richard Taruskin

(b Mikhaylovka, Samara province, 1/Dec 12, 1766; d St Petersburg, 22 May/June 3, 1826). Russian prose writer and historian. As the official court historiographer from 1804, he produced an 11-volume history of Russia to the early 17th-century ‘Time of Troubles’; its authority was not challenged until the 1860s. Many details from it found their way into the libretto of Musorgsky’s Boris Godunov, especially the expanded version of 1872, which cites Karamzin, along with Pushkin, as a direct source.

Karamzin’s other claim to literary fame was the introduction of the sentimental novel into Russia. This aspect of his work found contemporary operatic echo in Natal’ya, boyarskaya doch’ (‘Natalia, the Nobleman’s Daughter’, 1798) by Daniil Nikitich Kashin (1770–1841), a serf musician who was one of the early collector-arrangers of Russian folksong. In his opera after Karamzin, performed in Moscow in 1803, Kashin accommodated the folk idiom to the style of the contemporary sentimental romance, paving the way towards Tchaikovsky’s ...


Dorothea Baumann

(b Buchau, Württemberg, April 1, 1891; d Bolligen, nr Berne, April 14, 1964). Swiss theorist of German birth. He studied art and natural science at the University of Berlin and music with Humperdinck, Schoenberg and Kretzschmar at the Hochschule für Musik; he graduated in aesthetics in Erlangen in 1916. From 1919 he was the general editor of the series Der Dom: Bücher Deutscher Mystik, contributing two of the 13 volumes himself (on Paracelsus and Böhme). One volume of this series was devoted to Kepler, and Kayser’s closer acquaintance with his Harmonice mundi led him to what was to be his main contribution to musical knowledge: a modern theory of harmony which, on the basis of Pythagoras, aimed at supplementing the visual contemplation of the world (aesthesis) by an aural contemplation (acroasis). This was to be achieved by introducing the concept of Tonzahl, in which the reduction of the qualitative to the quantitative became invertible, so that any numerical relation, by the exact measurement of intervallic properties, could also serve as a measurement of feeling. Kayser settled in Switzerland in ...


Hugh Cobbe

(b Stuttgart, Nov 20, 1885; d Freiburg, Aug 17, 1967). German musicologist and keyboard performer. After studying architecture at Stuttgart and Munich, he was encouraged to take up a musical career by his teacher Max Reger. He studied at Munich, Stuttgart and Leipzig, and in 1910 took a teaching post at Weimar, where he performed double concertos with Reger. In 1916 he was appointed organist at the Markuskirche, Stuttgart. He taught at the Musikhochschule there from 1919 and took the doctorate at Tübingen in 1924 with a dissertation on musical articulation. From 1928 he was head of the department of church and school music in the Musikhochschule, and became its director in 1946, retiring in 1952.

Keller was best known for his work as a scholar and performer of 17th- and 18th-century keyboard music; his particular interest lay in the keyboard works of J.S. Bach, on which he contributed a number of articles to the ...


(b Nagyszalonta, May 22, 1891; d Paris, Dec 3, 1987). American viola player and musicologist of Hungarian birth. He gained a diploma at the Royal Academy of Music, Budapest, in 1911; he then studied at the University of Berlin until 1914. From 1911 to 1923 he was violist in the Hungarian String Quartet, touring throughout Europe. After settling in the USA in 1923 he taught and performed in concerts, radio broadcasts and recording sessions. In 1947 he took the MA at New York University; he taught music history and allied subjects at the University of Iowa, Peabody College, Nashville, and the University of Connecticut until his retirement in 1961. From then until 1971 he was librarian of the Mannes College of Music. As a scholar Kenton specialized in late 16th-century Venetian music. His monograph on the life and works of Giovanni Gabrieli was the first such study in English; Kenton translated material from Winterfeld’s pioneering book and provided extensive biographical and analytical material and a thorough catalogue of Gabrieli’s works....


Othmar Wessely

(b Holleschau [now Holešov, Czech Republic], Aug 29, 1773; d Baden, Jan 1, 1850). Austrian musicologist. Son of Alois Ferdinand Kiesewetter (1739–93), a doctor and writer on medicine, he studied philosophy at the University of Olomouc and then law at the University of Vienna. Leaving the university without completing his studies, he became an official in the chancellery of the imperial army, whose headquarters were in Schwetzingen; he remained there until 1801. In 1807 he became a councillor in the war office in Vienna. He was raised to the nobility in 1843 with the title ‘Edler von Wiesenbrunn’. He was pensioned in 1845 and retired to Baden three years later.

As a youth Kiesewetter was taught the piano and singing; he later learnt to play the flute, and as an adult he had lessons in the bassoon and the guitar. Albrechtsberger was among his teachers in theory. From ...


Donald Jay Grout

revised by Mary Wallace Davidson

(b New York, NY, Nov 27, 1878; d Orange, NJ, Sept 19, 1966). American musicologist, teacher, and librarian. He studied at the College of the City of New York (AB 1898), English and philosophy at the New York University (MA 1900), and music with edward Macdowell at Columbia University (1900–02); concurrently he was organist and choirmaster at the Chapel of the Incarnation (1898–1902) and taught in New York schools. He continued his study of music, literature, and philosophy (1902–9), with Robert Radecke at the Königliches Akademisches Institut für Kirchenmusik and with Oskar Fleischer, Max Friedländer, Hermann Kretzschmar, and Johannes Wolf at the Universität zu Berlin, taking the doctorate (a rare achievement for an American in a German university at the time) in 1909 with a dissertation on 16th-century organ and keyboard music. He was also organist and choirmaster of the American Church in Berlin (...


Alfons Ott

(b Marienwerder, West Prussia, Sept 29, 1882; d Berlin, April 7, 1951). German musicologist. After a classical education in Marienwerder, he went to Berlin in 1898 and worked in a music shop and in an antiquarian bookstore. Though entirely self-taught in music, he was nevertheless made assistant to A. Klopfermann at the Prussian State Library in 1908 and in the following year became curator of the Heyer Musikhistorisches Museum at Cologne. Here, until the museum was disbanded in 1927, he catalogued and expanded the collection and organized popular lectures and concerts with historical instruments. From 1921 to 1932 he was lecturer in musicology at the University of Cologne, where he took the doctorate in 1925 with a dissertation on double reed instruments. The main fruits of these years were the valuable catalogues of the Heyer Museum, with meticulous introductions and numerous illustrations, and the Geschichte der Musik in Bildern...


John Tyrrell


(b Aberdeen, April 17, 1887; d Grahamstown, Feb 7, 1970). South African musicologist of Scottish birth. He studied with Terry at the University of Aberdeen, where he graduated in 1910, and under Stanford at the RCM. In 1914 he emigrated to South Africa as music organizer of the Natal Education Department. He was appointed professor of music at University College, Johannesburg (later the University of the Witwatersrand), in 1921 and held this post until his retirement in 1952. A professional timpanist from his London years, he published The Kettle-Drums in 1930. He founded and conducted the Johannesburg SO (1927) and the university orchestra (1930), for which he wrote and arranged incidental music for many university productions; he composed over 100 songs.

Kirby is best known for his work on the indigenous music of South Africa. From 1930 he engaged actively in field research, which took him on study tours of the Transvaal, Bechuanaland (Botswana), Swaziland, Vendaland and Ovamboland. He published this research in ...


David Blake

(b Vienna, Dec 21, 1906; d Berlin, Jan 14, 2003). Austrian musicologist. Son of Paul Knepler (1879–1967), librettist of Lehár's Paganini and Giuditta, he studied musicology with Adler, Fischer, Wellesz and Lach at the University of Vienna, where he took the doctorate in 1930 with a dissertation on form in Brahms’s instrumental works; he also studied the piano with Eduard Steuermann and composition and conducting with Hans Gál. He began his career as répétiteur with Karl Rankl in Wiesbaden and accompanist for Karl Kraus’s celebrated Offenbach recitals. In 1934 he was imprisoned for several weeks as a result of his dissemination of communist newspapers and that same year moved to London, where he worked as a vocal coach and piano teacher. He was also musical director of Das Laterndl (a theatre run by German exiles), conducted several performances of the BBC Opera Group and, together with Eric Crozier, composed music for experimental television programmes, ...


Paula Morgan

(b New York, March 4, 1857; d Babylon, NY, July 27, 1918). American writer on music. After studies in Wiesbaden and New York he attended Columbia University, graduating from the School of Arts in 1877 and the School of Law in 1879. From 1879 to 1880 he was editor of the Musical Review. Beginning in 1880 he was music critic for a series of New York papers, The Sun, The World, the Mail and Express, and The Herald; he was music and art critic for The Herald at the time of his death. In 1883 Kobbé was sent to Bayreuth by The World to report on the first performance of Parsifal.

A prolific writer, he is chiefly known for his Complete Opera Book (1919), a collection of opera plots and analyses, which has become a standard work of reference; he also published books on Wagner and other composers, opera singers, and works on the pianola and the Aeolian pipe organ....


(b Stein, nr Krems, Jan 14, 1800; d Vienna, June 3, 1877). Austrian music historian. After graduating in law from the University of Vienna in 1827, Köchel and his friend Franz Freiherr Scharschmid von Adlertreu took over the education of the four sons of Archduke Karl; at the completion of his services in 1842, Köchel was recognized by the award of the Knight's Cross of the Order of Leopold. In 1850 Köchel was appointed k.k. Schulrat in Salzburg and Gymasialinspektor for Upper Austria, but he gave up this post after only two years. He returned to Vienna in 1863 and remained there until his death in 1877. Mozart's Requiem was performed at his funeral.

As an independent scholar of private means, Köchel published numerous articles on botany and mineralogy, as well as translations of Virgil, Ovid and Horace. His chief claim to fame, however, is his work on Mozart. He maintained close contact with the music establishment in Salzburg, even after ...


Rudolf Klein

(b Wscherowan [now Všeruby, nr Plzeň], Bohemia, April 2, 1870; d Vienna, Feb 22, 1941). Austrian musicologist. After studying law he obtained a post at the Ministry of Finance (1891), where he worked until 1935. In his spare time he studied musicology with Adler and took the doctorate in 1903 at Vienna University with a dissertation on the lutenist Hans Judenkünig. For the next 20 years he lectured on lute and guitar music, particularly on tablatures, at the Musikwissenschaftliches Institut of Vienna University. Through his research Koczirz fostered appreciation of the lute and guitar and the performance of their repertories, and was considered the leading authority and pioneer in this field. The principles of the transcription of lute tablature, which he drew up in 1909 in collaboration with Dent, Ecorcheville and Wolf, are still valuable. He edited two volumes of Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich. Koczirz was also interested in the history of other music in Vienna in the 16th century....


Ludwik Bielawski

( b Przysucha, Opoczno district, Feb 22, 1814; d Kraków, June 3, 1890). Polish folklorist and composer . He was educated at the Warsaw Lyceum (1823–30) and studied the piano with Franciszek Vetter. He then worked in a bank, continuing his musical studies with Józef Elsner and I.F. Dobrzyński and later in Berlin (1835–6) with Girschner and Karol Rungenhagen. After returning from Berlin he taught the piano in Warsaw, Mitau (now Jelgava, Latvia) and Homel (Belarus). He was also active as a composer, chiefly of songs and dances whose inspiration he drew from folk music; most of these were published. His cycles of kujawiak proved the most popular of his works. Kolberg also composed the music for three one-act stage entertainments on rural themes, J.K. Gregorowicz's Janek spod Ojcowa (‘Johnny from Ojców’; Warsaw, 1853), Teofil Lenartowicz's Król pasterzy (‘The Shepherd King’; Warsaw, 1859) and Seweryna Pruszakowa’s ...


Barbara Krader


(b Tatar Stry region, July 17, 1871; d L′viv, March 3, 1947). Ukrainian ethnomusicologist. He studied in Lemberg (now L′viv) and Vienna (PhD 1918); after 1918 he studied Ukrainian folk music outside the USSR. His Western contacts included Hornbostel and Bartók. He was elected a full member of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1929. Besides several folk music collections he published basic studies outlining historical stages of Ukrainian folk music, its dialects and its relationships with traditional music of neighbouring Slavonic and non-Slavonic countries. He held that western Ukrainian traditional music was part of an all-Ukrainian corpus, that music of the Lemky on both sides of the Carpathians was one music. In 1908 he carried out a monumental expedition to record Ukrainian historical epic songs (dumy), published in meticulous musical transcriptions in 1910 and 1913, later laying the basis for asserting their folk origins by showing their relation to folk laments. His work is fundamental for comparative study of Slavonic and east European folk music....


Peter Branscombe

(b Vienna, May 7, 1878; d Vienna, March 16, 1963). Austrian musicologist. He studied musicology and German philology, graduating from the University of Vienna in 1900. From 1904 until 1934 he was professor of German language and literature at the Vienna Handelsakademie, and for 40 years music critic of the Österreichische Volkszeitung. The great majority of his published writings are concerned with Mozart, and especially with Die Zauberflöte. His studies of Emanuel Schikaneder, which contain the essence of his long life’s work, demonstrated against current opinion Schikaneder’s authorship, and the nature and worth of the Zauberflöte libretto. He also published many journal articles on Mozart, and on Weber and Wagner. Komorzynski’s greatest virtue was his tireless search for new facts, though his writings are not free from errors.

Emanuel Schikaneder: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des deutschen Theaters (Berlin, 1901, 2/1951) ‘Lortzings “Waffenschmied” und seine Tradition’, Euphorion, 8 (1901), 340–50...


Alexander Lingas

[Konstalas, ApostolesKrystallas, Apostoles(Apostolis)]

(b ?1767; d Constantinople, 1840). Romaic (Greek) theorist, scribe, and composer. He learnt Byzantine chant from Petros Byzantios and Georgios of Crete at the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Constantinople, where his father Joannes (Ioannis) was a priest and official. Like many other church musicians of his generation, he also became an accomplished instrumentalist in the Ottoman classical tradition. As a scribe, Konstas is known to have copied at least 106 codices, the majority of which are musical manuscripts. In addition to reproducing the works of others verbatim, he produced realizations (exēgēseis) in which orally transmitted melodic formulae (theseis) traditionally notated in shorthand were transcribed more fully, assembled pedagogical collections of ‘difficult theseis’, and composed many chants for the Byzantine Divine Office and eucharistic liturgies, most of which remain unpublished. Among his chants for Orthros and Hesperinos are 27 Great Doxologies, including a modally ordered series of 16 short and long settings (...