221-240 of 269 results  for:

  • Traditional, Folk and Indigenous Musics x
  • Membranophones (Stretched Membrane Percussion) x
Clear all

Article

Mary Riemer-Weller

revised by Susan M. Taffe Reed and Glen Jacobs

[pokhanii’kan]

Generic term for drums of the Munsee Indians of the Eastern Woodlands in North America; their relatives the Unami use the word puhënikàn. Their drums include the deerskin drum, water drum, hand drum, and powwow drum, all of which are played by one or more drummers each using one beater.

The deerskin drum, also called the skin drum or hide drum, is an idiophone made by folding a deer hide into a bundle; it appears in several forms. The atoh-xayii-powuniikan (Munsee: ‘deer skin drum’) is made from a single skin of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), preferably a buck. The animal is skinned and its hide fleshed, a process of removing most of the muscle and fat. At this point the hide can be salted, dried, and stored until needed. To make the drum, the hide is soaked for several days in an alkaline solution, such as hardwood ash mixed with water, which opens the pores and helps break down the hair follicles. Next, the hide is laid over a fleshing beam and a scraper is used to remove all remaining muscle, fat, and membrane. Then the hide is turned over and scraped to remove the hair and several layers of epidermis, a process called graining. Finally, the hide is cleaned by soaking overnight in fast-moving water. The rawhide is then folded and bound into a packet approximately 43 cm square....

Article

Pumín  

Mary Riemer-Weller

revised by J. Richard Haefer

Generic term for drum of the Flathead Indians of Montana, USA. The kwtunt pumín is the large war drum or ‘big drum’ nowadays used to accompany powwow. Traditionally it is a double-headed drum made from a hollowed log and covered with bison or deer hides laced together from top to bottom; a modern substitute is a marching band bass drum with Mylar heads. It is played with a padded stick (spełce) about 48 cm long, now often a fibreglass rod.

More common is the łppumin or chelshpumin (chelsh: ‘hand’; łppumin: ‘drum’), a single-headed frame drum. Traditionally the frame was made from thin strips of wood, preferably fir, soaked and bent into a circle, or from part of a hollowed tree stump, but it can be made from a circular cheese crate or a metal wheel rim. The frame varies from 30 to 40 cm in diameter and 5 to 10 cm in depth. The ...

Article

Chad Stephen Hamill

[kiwkiwíl’ec]

Frame drum of the Native Americans of the Columbia Plateau. It is traditionally made of deer or elk hide stretched over a wooden circular hoop typically 5.5 to 10 cm deep and 25 to 38 cm in diameter, and struck by a stick with one hand. The hide is perforated at the perimeter with an awl or deer antler to form a series of holes 4 to 5 cm apart, then soaked, stretched over the frame, and tied through the holes across the open back, creating a knot in the center for a grip. Called pumíntn by Salish speakers and kiwkiwíl’ec by Sahaptin speakers, it is particularly important in the context of the Washat (Seven Drum Religion), a complex ceremony of drumming, dancing, and singing that honours indigenous foods and natural cycles that sustain the community. The drum is also used in communal ceremonies, as an accompaniment for personal songs, and during healings conducted by a medicine person....

Article

Pung  

Alastair Dick

revised by Eben Graves

[meitei pung, pung mṛdaṅga]

Double-headed barrel drum of Manipur in northeast India. It shares similarities of construction and performance with the khol of Bengal, Assam, and Orissa. Its body (pungmaru), roughly 45 cm long, is carved from a block of wang, mango, or jackfruit wood. After the body is carved, a black paste (khee) is applied to protect its exterior. The body is asymmetric, as the treble head (manāu) is slightly larger than the bass head (maru), a feature shared with the related North Indian drums pakhāvaj and mṛdaṅgam, while somewhat different from the exaggerated asymmetry of the khol. Both composite heads begin as two layers of bison or cow hide that are laced to a plaited hoop (kata) made of interwoven strands of hide. About three-quarters of the upper skin on each face is cut away in the centre, leaving a ring-shaped lip that protrudes from the hoop. On the exposed lower skin of both heads several layers of semi-permanent tuning compound (...

Article

Rnga  

Mireille Helffer

Large double-headed frame drum of Tibet. According to the oldest surviving manuscripts (9th century ce) the name was used for various membranophones, but now it is applied to a particular type of double-headed frame drum used in Buddhist ritual music (ceremonies and dances) and traditional theatre (a-lce lha-mo). The circular wooden frame (rnga-shing) is often richly decorated, as is common in Bhutan; the diameter varies widely, according to whether the drum is permanently affixed to a wooden stand (rnga-khri) or is portable and fitted with a detachable handle screwed into the frame. The heads are pegged, nailed, or glued to the frame and are often painted blue or green and decorated with symbolic motifs.

Two distinct kinds of rnga are the chos-rnga (drum of religious law) or rnga-chen (large drum), which is kept in the prayer-room of the monastery and is struck with two straight drumsticks, and the ...

Article

Sampho  

Terry E. Miller

Double-headed barrel drum of Cambodia, similar to the Thai taphon. The two calfskin heads, 28 cm and 25 cm in diameter respectively, are laced together with rattan thongs along the 50-cm-long body. The drum is mounted horizontally on a stand and is played with the hands. It is the chief drum of the ...

Article

Terry E. Miller

Double-headed drum of Thailand. It is similar in construction to the taphon but less conical and slightly larger (about 55 cm long; the heads are about 23 cm and 20 cm in diameter). A tuning paste of cooked rice and ashes is used to tune the large head to the same pitch as that of the ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Medieval cylindrical double-headed drum of India. It is described as made of citrus-wood and about 52 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. The heads were stretched on hoops of creeper ‘as thick as the forefinger’ and laced with ropes through six holes. It was held sideways, the left head played by the hand and the right with a crooked stick (...

Article

Shigu  

Alan R. Thrasher

(‘lion drum’)

Medium-size drum of the Han Chinese. Unlike most Chinese drums, the body (c45 cm tall) is essentially cylindrical, with the lower third bevelled inward. A single head of oxhide is tacked around the top rim (diameter c15 cm or less), the bottom end remaining either open or closed. It is struck with two beaters in accompaniment of outdoor lion dances. A related drum, the ...

Article

Shugu  

Alan R. Thrasher

Frame drum of the Han Chinese, found especially in North China. The shugu (‘book drum’) frame is of hardwood, about 22 to 30 cm in diameter and 7 or 8 cm deep. Both openings are covered with oxhide tacked around the perimeter. The drum is suspended on a three-legged bamboo trestle and struck with a slender bamboo beater. Pictured with small ensembles in drawings from the Song dynasty (...

Article

Si-daw  

John Okell

[sidaw]

Drum of Myanmar. Si is the generic term for drum. The si-daw (‘royal drum’) is a double-headed barrel drum with heads laced together, about 120 cm long and 60 cm in diameter, suspended horizontally in a tall frame with a smaller subsidiary drum. They are each wrapped in colourful cloth and played together, with one player to each drum, and beaten with stout sticks on one head only. They are used for solemn ceremonies, optionally along with the ...

Article

Skor  

Terry E. Miller

Term for various types of drums of Cambodia. The skor arakk, an earthenware or wooden goblet drum, has a head of snake, calf, or lizard skin, laced on with rattan. It is used in ensembles for many occasions including weddings, folkdances, and the cult of the deities. The skor chhaiyaim, a goblet drum with a long body partly covered by a cloth skirt, is made from jackfruit wood and is played in ensembles to accompany folkdances and for festivals related to Buddhism.

The term skor klang khek denotes one or more cylindrical two-headed drums played singly or in groups depending on context. Because they are considered ‘suspended’, they are also called skor yol (‘suspended’), and because they are used in funerals, they are also called skor chhanakk. Although likely of Malaysian origin (‘khek’), the term skor klang khek combines Khmer for drum (skor) with the Thai term for the drums, ...

Article

Henry Johnson

Japanese vessel rattle: suzu (rattle); daiko/taiko (drum). It is also called furitsuzumi, but must not be confused with a different instrument of the same name. While shaped like a double-headed frame drum with heads extending slightly beyond the drum’s body, the suzudaiko is actually a wooden container about 18 cm in diameter and about 5.5 cm deep, enclosing several metal pellets. Holes in the body help emit the sound, and two other holes in the wooden ‘heads’ are for holding it. The heads are usually painted in bright colours and might each have a mitsudomoe (three large comma shapes that form a circle) for decoration. The instrument is usually played in pairs by a dancer holding one in each hand. For instance, in the play Musume Dōjōji (‘A Maiden at Dōjōji’), the kabuki dancer holds a pair of suzudaiko as stage props and beats them against the floor....

Article

Article

Tabal  

Alastair Dick

[abl]

Name (of Arabic origin) given on the Indian subcontinent to the bass drum of the palace and temple ceremonial band naqqārakhāna. The instrument in the band at the shrine of Mo’inuddin Chishti in Ajmer, Rajasthan, is more than 160 cm in diameter; it is said to have been presented by the Emperor Akbar in the late 16th century....

Article

Tama  

K.A. Gourlay, Lucy Durán and Rainer Polak

[tamanin, dumanu, dumanan, dunkan]

Variable-tension hourglass drum of the Wolof and Mande-speaking peoples (Khasonka, Soninke, Maninka, Bamana, Dyula) and their neighbours in Senegal, the Gambia, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Ivory Coast. The tama is struck with one curved drumstick with a flattened end, and by one hand. The two heads are lapped onto rings at the ends of the wooden body and joined by numerous cords so that, when the drum is placed under the player’s arm, pressure on the cords can vary the pitch. Most modern instruments are relatively small (25 to 30 cm tall, 10 to 15 cm in diameter); in Mande languages, these are known as tamanin (‘small tama’). Larger drums might have been in wider use historically. The tama resembles other, larger hourglass drums of West Africa, such as the Dagomba lunga of northern Ghana and the Yoruba gángan of south-western Nigeria. However, unlike these, it is not known for speech surrogacy and is not a ‘talking drum’, a term sometimes misleadingly applied to West African hourglass drums in general....

Article

Tāmāk  

Alastair Dick

Kettledrum of the Santal people of eastern India. It is made from a hollowed palm-trunk or metal sheets riveted together. It is about 45 cm high, 55 cm in diameter at the head, and 13 cm at the base. The head is of buffalo hide and laced by leather thongs. The instrument is held by a neck strap and played with two thick, curved sticks to accompany dancing, the hunt, and ritual occasions; it is often used with the double-headed drum ...

Article

Water drum of the Creek Indians of the southeastern USA. It was reportedly a large drum made from a pot or from a hollow log, enclosing water and with the opening covered by a hide head. Late 19th-century glossaries of Creek equate the term with alkasatúlga (‘drum’), from ...

Article

Tambe  

Mary Riemer-Weller

revised by J. Richard Haefer

[taàbè, tembe, tombe]

Double-headed drum of the Tewa Indians of New Mexico. It is made from a hollowed cottonwood or aspen tree log and is roughly cylindrical. A drum of average size is 30 to 40 cm in diameter and 55 to 73 cm deep. The heads, usually made of calfskin for smaller drums and cowhide for larger ones, are stretched tightly over the ends of the log while wet. The heads extend about 12 cm over the sides and are laced together in a W pattern. Two hide handles are fastened to the lacing, near the top and bottom, one directly below the other. During a ceremony, the drum is carried or, if very large, suspended on a wooden stake by the handles. It is played with a padded beater (tambefe) held in the right hand. The instrument is used to accompany songs associated with numerous ceremonies. The heads are painted with contrasting natural colours and the sides of the log may also be painted....

Article

Alastair Dick

[tammaṭe, tammaṭṭai]

South Indian (Dravidian) names for the frame drum of Andhra Pradesh (tammaṭa), Karnataka (tammaṭe), and Tamil Nadu (tammaṭṭai). They occur also in the forms tappaṭe, tambaṭṭam, etc. The drums are of an indigenous Indian type, ring-laced and with a metal frame.

B.C. Deva: Musical Instruments of India: their History and Development...