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Stephen Jones

[Guo Jiguang]

(b Xinmin county, Liaoning, Dec 31, 1920; d Beijing, April 4, 1998). Chinese zheng plucked zither player and scholar. While studying classical Chinese literature in Beijing, he took lessons on the zheng from Lou Shuhua; later he also studied briefly with Liang Tsai-ping. Turning professional on the eve of the Chinese revolution, from 1950 until 1964 he was based at music academies in north-eastern China, also spending periods at the Shanghai and Xi′an conservatories and making many recordings. Having been appointed in 1964 to the Chinese Conservatory of Music in Beijing, he was based there from the end of the Cultural Revolution.

Cao Zheng's zheng playing mainly represented the Henan style, though also borrowing from Shandong and southern styles. An influential music educator, he was author of teaching materials and wide-ranging articles. Despite his base in the conservatory system, Cao Zheng's outlook firmly reflected his training in the Chinese classics. He was also a keen maker and researcher of the ancient ...

Article

Su Zheng

(b Wuchang, March 18, 1904; d Shanghai, Sept 15, 1968). Chinese musicologist and teacher . After graduating in 1931 from a teachers’ college in Shanghai, he studied privately from 1932 to 1935 with the Russian Jewish musician Aaron Avshalomov. He also kept contact with leading Chinese traditional musicians, and later with Beijing opera actors. He taught the history of Western and Chinese music at Hujiang University from 1940 to 1946, and the State Music School of Shanghai (later the Shanghai Conservatory of Music) from 1946 to 1949. After the Communist revolution he held leading positions on the faculty at the Conservatory. He died tragically in the Cultural Revolution.

Apart from his broad and thorough knowledge of both Chinese and Western music, Shen was much admired as an inspirational teacher. He was chief editor, compiler or translator of several influential publications. He also composed works for orchestra such as Xiao zuqu...

Article

Margarita Pavlovna Fayzulayeva

(b Ural′sk, Kazakhstan, 2/Jan 15, 1911; d Ufa, Bashkir Republic, June 1, 1988). Tatar composer. He was orphaned at the age of five and, 12 years later, made his own way to Moscow to attend a music college before transferring to the conservatory there in 1935; he graduated in 1938 from the composition class of Litinsky. In 1939 he was appointed artistic director of the Tatar Opera Theatre and also became the chairman of the Tatar Composers' Union, a post he held until 1978. He taught orchestration in the Kazan′ Conservatory (1945–88, professor 1953); he held numerous official positions and received the USSR State Prize in 1948 for the opera Altinchech (‘Golden-Haired’).

Zhiganov is regarded as the founder of Tatar art music. He aspired to attain European standards of professionalism in the writing of stage and orchestral works – he wrote the first Tatar symphony while still a student (first performance: Kazan′ ...

Article

Barbara Mittler

[Kuo Chih-yuan]

(b Miaoli, Dec 5, 1921). Taiwanese composer and educationist. Like many other composers of his generation, Guo received a Western-style musical education during the Japanese colonization of Taiwan (1895–1945). After attending a special secondary music school in Tokyo (1936), he entered university in Tokyo to study composition and the violin (1941). Returning to Taiwan in 1946, Guo served as a teacher and musical advisor, while at the same time composing film and vocal music. His Symphonic Variations, based on Taiwanese folk tunes, was the first orchestral piece by a Taiwanese composer to be performed in Taipei (1955). In the late 1960s he returned to Japan for further composition studies. Guo’s music is a typical example of ‘pentatonic romanticism’ in its setting of Chinese pentatonic melodic lines within a harmonic framework reminiscent of 19th-century Romantic music. One such piece is Minsu zuqu...

Article

Zhong  

Alan R. Thrasher

Bronze bell of the Han Chinese, used mainly in ritual music. Early Chinese bells are of many sub-types, differentiated by shape of the cross-section (leaf-shaped, elliptical or round), curve of the ‘mouth’ (concave or flat), lateral profile (elongated or broad), method and angle of suspension (vertical, oblique or hand-held upright) and method of striking (internal clapper or external beater). The term zhong is used both as a general reference to all clapperless bells (including bo, nao and zheng) and as a specific reference to one sub-type. Bells with internal clappers are generally called ling. Metal used in most Chinese bell construction is an alloy of three or more parts of copper to one part of tin.

The bell specifically identified as zhong has a leaf-shaped cross-section (oblate ellipsoid), concave mouth (or rim) and a slightly expanding profile from the crown outward (fig.1). Suspension methods are of two types. Most common among ancient bells is the elongated handle or shank (...

Article

Jonathan P.J. Stock

[Wei Chongfu ]

(b Shanghai, March 12, 1908 or Feb 21, 1909; d 1998). Chinese pipa (plucked lute) and qin (seven-string zither) player . Wei Zhongle was an early member of the influential Datong Ensemble, a group of Chinese musicians who met in Shanghai to improve their own performance skills and to develop from traditional and Western elements a new repertory of ‘national music’ (guoyue). Other than pipa and qin, Wei also learnt several instruments. From the 1930s onwards Wei held a succession of music teaching and performing posts at universities and colleges in Shanghai, one of the most notable of which was his founding of a traditional instruments department at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music in the early 1950s.

See also China, People’s Republic of.

Xu Lisheng: ‘Rang Zhongguo de minzu yinyue zou xian shijie: ji pipa yanzoujia, yinyue jiaoyujia Wei Zhongle’ [Let Chinese national music reach the world: a record of ...

Article

Frank Kouwenhoven

(b Santai, Sichuan, Dec 12, 1924). Chinese composer. As a composition student of Tan Xiaolin and Ding Shande at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music in the 1940s, he developed a special interest in the music and writings of Hindemith, whose book on harmony he translated into Chinese. He went to Beijing in 1951 where he worked with the Central Philharmonic Society as a resident composer until his retirement. His formal reputation in China is based on the popular mass song The Land is Beautiful Beyond the Mountain (1947) and on various conventional orchestral works of the 1950s and 60s. Luo was harassed and imprisoned during the Cultural Revolution.

When he took up composition again in 1979, his affinities with Western music shifted from Hindemith to Schoenberg. He wrote several song cycles and chamber works applying serial techniques. Luo has frequently stressed the coincidental but striking relationship between Western rhythmic or timbral serialism and the structural principles of ...

Article

Yandi Yang

(b Shanghai, Oct 24, 1932; d June 30, 2011). Chinese composer. She studied the piano with her father, and in 1950 entered the Shanghai Conservatory where she studied harmony, counterpoint, orchestration and composition with Ding Shande, Sang Tong and Den Erjin. After graduation in 1957 she took postgraduate courses with Guroff. She taught composition at Shanghai Conservatory (1958–60) and at the Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing, and in 1970 she was appointed professional composer to the Central Philharmonic Society in Beijing. She was a member of the Chinese Musicians’ Association and the Chinese Film Music Society and from 1989 to 1991 was Asian scholar-in-residence at Syracuse University on a Fulbright Fellowship. Liu’s music is technically accomplished and characterized by clarity of structure and poetic expression. Many of her compositions have been performed and recorded both in China and abroad.

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Article

Olga Manulkina

(b Aktyubinsk region, Kazakhstan, Dec 2, 1927; d December 13, 1993). Kazakh composer. She was the daughter of the composer and scholar Akhmet Zhubanov, who was the organizer and conductor of the Kazakh Instruments Orchestra. She studied composition with Gnesin and Streicher at the Gnesin Institute, Moscow, and with Shaporin at the Moscow Conservatory, from which she graduated in 1954, continuing with postgraduate work until 1957. Between 1962 and 1968 she was chairwoman of the Kazakh Composers’ Union. She taught composition at the Alma-Ata Conservatory from 1967 and was its director from 1975 to 1987.

A significant part of Zhubanova’s output consisted of large-scale works, in which a blurring of generic boundaries is evident: traits of oratorio appear in her operas, such as Enlik-Kebek and Dvadtsat′ vosem′ (‘Twenty-Eight’), as do operatic traits in oratorios, including Pesnya Tat′yanï (‘Tat′yana’s Song’). She perpetuated the Eastern tradition of writing dedications; for example her ‘Zhiger’ Symphony is dedicated to the folk composer Dauletkerei, and the opera ...

Article

Yandi Yang

(b Huang Yan County, Zhe Jang Province, June 25, 1926). Chinese composer . She entered the Lu Xun Academy of Arts in Yanan as a drama student in 1938 but in the following year she began to study singing and composition with Xie Xinhai, Lü Ji and Zheng Lücheng. As a vocal performer and actress she took part in many performances addressed to mass audiences. She composed her first film score in 1948. In 1949 she was appointed resident composer by the Beijing Film Studio and in 1951 became resident composer of the Shanghai Film Studio. Her film music is lyrical and expressive, often based on Chinese folk music materials. Many songs in her film music have become popular because of their mellow melodies. She is a member of the Board of the Chinese Musicians’ Association.

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Article

Jonathan P.J. Stock

(b Yangyuan, Hebei province, June 17, 1904; d Dec 25, 1987). Chinese dizi bamboo flute player. Adept on both the sihu four-string fiddle and dizi bamboo flute, Feng Zicun supplemented his income as a labourer by working in the evenings as a performing musician accompanying local song and dance entertainment, folksongs and stilt dances. In the early 1920s he spent four years as a musician in Baotou, Inner Mongolia, where he learnt local errentai opera music, a style he was subsequently to introduce to Hebei province.

Following the Communist victory in 1949, Feng – now a locally renowned dizi player – was appointed to a full-time post as a performing musician, joining the Central Song and Dance Troupe as dizi soloist in Beijing in 1953. In 1964 he took a teaching post at the China Conservatory of Music, also in Beijing.

Feng popularized several dizi solos, including Xi xiangfeng (‘Happy Reunion’), ...

Article

Razia Sultanova

(b Fergana Basin, Feb 1, 1956). Uzbek dutār player. From 1970 to 1974 she attended the Fergana College of Art. From 1974 to 1979 she studied the dutār with Fakhriddin Sadyqov at the Tashkent State Conservatory, learning many pieces from the traditional classical repertory including well-known makom melodies such as Shafoat, Chohorgoh and Chully Iroq. In 1979 she began working with the Uzbek State Radio naqam ensemble founded by Yunus Rajabi. During the next two decades many of her performances were recorded for the archives of Uzbek State Radio, and in 1987 she received a Golden Gramophone award from the Melodiya recording company. Her use of ornamentation in performance has been acclaimed. She was appointed to teach at the Tashkent State Conservatory in 1991 and founded an ensemble of female dutār players in 1993, maintaining the tradition of the Fergana area where the dutār is especially associated with women....

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Article

Joseph S.C. Lam

(b Yangzhou, 1899; d Tianjin, 1991). Chinese qin zither master . Born in the historical site of the Guangling school, Zhang studied qin as a teenager with Sun Shaotao. By his early twenties he was already an accomplished performer, though remaining true to the amateur ideal of the qin. In the 1930s Zhang moved to Shanghai, acquainting himself with the qin players Zha Fuxi and Peng Zhiqing; their regular meetings led in 1936 to the founding of the Jin Yu qinshe (Qin Society of Contemporary Yu Region) in Suzhou. After the founding of the People’s Republic, Zhang was enlisted to the state-sponsored Shanghai Folk Music Troupe (Shanghai minzu yuetuan), and in 1957 he was appointed a teacher of qin at the Shanghai Conservatory. Zhang promoted the Guangling style through his performances, teaching and publications. His distinctive style of rhapsodic rhythm and flexible phrasing can be heard in his recordings of pieces such as ...

Article

John Baily

[zerbghali]

Single-headed goblet drum of Afghanistan. It is usually made of pottery, and occasionally from a block of mulberry wood, carved or turned in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The single goatskin head, usually slightly narrower than the widest part of the body (which curves in at the top), is glued on and can be tuned by heating or wetting it. Sometimes the head bears a patch of black tuning paste. Some modern instruments have the head lapped on a ring with metal tuning rods. The drummer sits cross-legged on the floor with the drum resting on its side on the ground, or in the player’s lap. Drummers use a large variety of rhythmic patterns and special techniques such as the riz, a fast roll executed with the fingers of the right hand. The zirbaghali is regarded in Afghanistan as a folk instrument and is especially important in the north of the country. It is similar to the Iranian ...

Article

Ziryāb  

Eckhard Neubauer

[Abū ’l-Ḥasan ‘Alī ibn Nāfi‘ ]

(b Iraq; d Córdoba, Spain, Aug 852). Arab musician . A mawlā (‘freedman’) of Caliph al-Mahdī (775–85) at Baghdad, he was a pupil of Ibrāhīm al-Mawṣilī and a rival of Isḥāq al-Mawṣilī at the court of Hārūn al-Rashīd (786–809). He left Baghdad for Syria, served the Aghlabid ruler Ziyādat Allāh (817–38) in Qairawan (Tunisia), and later received a generous welcome from ‘Abd al-Raḥmān II (822–52) in Córdoba. His influence there as a court musician and companion (nadīm) must have been exceptional: customs in clothing and eating that he had brought from Baghdad became fashionable, and the tradition of his school of music was maintained by his descendants at least two generations after his death. Like his contemporary al-Kindī he seems to have known the musical theory of late antiquity and to have reconciled it with the teachings of his masters in Baghdad. Details of his vocal training techniques are described by Ibn Ḥayyān (...

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Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Yerevan, Jan 29, 1945). Armenian composer. He studied composition at the Melikian Music College with Bagdasarian (1963–7) and then at the Yerevan Conservatory with Eghiazarian (1967–72). In 1972 he began to teach harmony at the Babadjanian Music College and in 1981 orchestration and composition at the Yerevan Conservatory. He became a member of the Armenian Composers' Union in 1973, and of the Association of Contemporary Music in 1990. In 1993 he was awarded the Khachaturian Prize for Parable for chamber orchestra. Zohrabian is one of the leading figures in late 20th-century new Armenian music, and his works have been regularly performed in Moscow, St Petersburg, Kiev, Minsk, the Baltic States and Transcaucasus as well as in festivals in Bratislava, Venice, Cologne (all 1987), Glasgow, London, Paris (all 1989), Seoul (1990), Zagreb, Duisburg (1991) and Zürich (1992...

Article

George Leotsakos

(b Korça, Jan 24, 1929; d Tirana, Nov 9, 1991). Albanian composer and violinist. He studied theory and the violin at the Jordan Misja Art Lyceum, Tirana (1946–c1950) and became leader of the Albanian Philharmonia before studying composition with Shaporin at the Moscow Conservatory (1957–61). After his return he worked at Albanian Radio (1961–75) while also teaching at the Tirana Conservatory. In 1975 he acquired the status of a ‘free professional composer’, salaried by the state, but continued to teach harmony, analysis and composition at the Conservatory until his death.

One of the most important musical figures of socialist Albania, Zoraqi was capable of highly personal utterances, though his susceptibility to different influences, unproblematic in the Violin Concerto no.2 (1968) with its echoes of Bruch and Wieniawski, lapsed into derivativeness in works such as the First Symphony (...

Article

Noël Goodwin

(b Tel-Aviv, July 16, 1948). Israeli violinist of Polish descent. His father, also a violinist, encouraged a childhood instinct for music, and at eight he entered the Tel-Aviv Academy of Music, where he studied with Ilona Feher, a pupil of Hubay. In 1961 he was heard by Isaac Stern and Pablo Casals, on whose recommendations he received scholarships enabling him to enter the Juilliard School of Music, New York, with Stern as his legal guardian. There Zukerman studied with Ivan Galamian and extended his interest to the viola, the better to participate in chamber ensembles. He appeared at the 1966 Spoleto Festival in Italy, and the next year was joint winner of the Leventritt Memorial Competition. The resulting solo engagements throughout North America were supplemented by deputizing for an indisposed Stern, and since Zukerman’s New York début at Lincoln Center in 1969 he has toured frequently in Europe. His British concert début was at the ...