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Alan R. Thrasher

(‘sitting chime’) [qing]

Bowl-shaped resting bell of the Han Chinese. The bell is hammered out of bronze and constructed in various sizes, medium-sized instruments ranging from 10 to 15 cm in diameter. The zuoqing rests on a cushion and is struck at the rim with a padded beater. A 9th-century Buddhist bell (24 cm in diameter, 19 cm deep) found in a Tang dynasty site is one of earliest of this type reported. The scholar Chen Yang, in his treatise Yueshu (c1100), called this type a bronze bowl (tongbo) but the name zuoqing (or qing) is now most common. Used in Buddhist temples, the bell is usually paired with a muyu (‘wooden fish’) of a similar size, and struck to punctuate the chanting of monks and nuns.

Liu Dongsheng and others, eds.: Zhongguo yueqi tujian [Pictorial Guide to Chinese Instruments] (Ji’nan, 1992), 85 only.

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Jonathan P.J. Stock

(b Beijing, July 24, 1927). Chinese composer. His career is representative of those of a generation of Chinese composers and performers. Displaced several times during the war with the Japanese, he was educated in Beijing, Wuhan and Chongqing; he graduated from the Nanjing National Music College in 1947 and the Central Conservatory in 1950. After briefly teaching composition at the Central Conservatory (1952–3), Wu won a scholarship to study with Y. Messner at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory in Moscow. He returned to the Central Conservatory in Beijing in 1958, becoming its head in 1982. During the Cultural Revolution he was chief music critic for the daily newspaper Guangming ribao (1970–73) and head of the composition team attached to the Central Philharmonia (1972–4). He contributed to the composition of the small number of works approved by the Gang of Four. His theoretical writings include ...


Eliyahu Schleifer

(b Tel-Aviv, March 6, 1942). Israeli composer. After graduating from the College of Music Teachers in Tel-Aviv (1964), he studied theory at the Rubin Academy of Music and Dance, Jerusalem (until 1967). He continued his studies in the USA at the Mannes College of Music (BM 1971), Sarah Lawrence College (MFA 1972) and Columbia University (DMA 1976). During his years in New York he taught at Queens College, CUNY and New York University. In addition to his role as professor of composition and theory at the Rubin Academy of Music and Dance in Jerusalem, he has served as chair of the Israel League of Composers (1992–4) and the Israeli delegate to the ISCM (1992–6). His numerous honours include an award from the ISCM Electronic Music Competition (1975), a Guggenheim Fellowship (1981), two ACUM awards, the Joel Engel Prize (Tel-Aviv, ...