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Article

J. Richard Haefer

Collective name for the duct flute and drum used by the Yoeme Yaqui Indians of Arizona and northern Mexico. It is played when both the maso (deer dancer) and pahko’ola (pascola) dancers are dancing at the same time. The flute, called kusia or cuzia, has two fingerholes and a thumbhole. It is made from cane that grows in the Yaqui river basin. Two sections of cane, each 20 to 25 cm long, are joined at a node by carving one end so it can slide inside the other tube; the V-shaped toneholes are in the lower section. A mouthpiece is formed by undercutting the proximal end of the cane and inserting a smaller piece of cane beneath, held in place by a peg to make an internal duct to direct the airflow against a V-shaped lip cut in the upper surface of the top section.

The drum, called ...

Article

Tampur  

J. Richard Haefer

Cylindrical double-headed drum of the Shuar (Jívaro) people of the Ecuadorian Oriente region and northern Peru. The body is hollowed from cedar or other hard wood, about 30 cm deep and 30 cm in diameter. The heads are of saino (peccary), tigrillo (ocelot), or mono (monkey) skin, secured with hoops laced together. The drum is played to accompany dances and festivals....

Article

J. Richard Haefer

[cumaco]

Single-headed conical drum used in the state of Lara, Venezuela. The body is a hollowed log or a metal tube about 40 to 60 cm long and tapering in diameter from 24 cm at the head to 18 cm at the bottom. The hide head is attached by a hoop of cord. When played in processions, the longer instruments are carried by two boys at the distal end, the performer holding the head end as he plays with one ...

Article

Elaine Dobson

[tung-da-bong]

Cylindrical, double-headed, laced drum of the Lepchas people of Sikkim, North India. The heads, about 45 cm in diameter, are made of oxhide and the body, about 50 cm long, is of rang mung tree wood and very heavy. The drum may be played with one hand or both hands. ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Old south Indian Tamil name for a wooden barrel drum, equated with mattalam and found in texts of the 1st millennium ce. It had two skin-covered heads, the right being tuned with a paste (mārcanai, i.e. Sanskrit mārjanā) of powdered charcoal and cooked rice. It was the leading instrument of the dance orchestra, controlling the level of the other instruments and filling in for continuity (as does the ...

Article

Alastair Dick

[tantikuṇḍa]

Composite pot-drum of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, southeastern India. A medium-sized spherical pot with a short, narrow neck has its mouth covered with skin. A string passes through the pot from a metal button, coin or wooden slip resting in the centre of the skin and is threaded through several small metal ring-jingles and out of a hole in the base. It then passes up through three small wooden blocks resting on the outside wall of the pot and is attached to a small movable peg inserted into a fourth, larger wooden block resting on the pot’s shoulder; this block is kept in position by strings bound round the neck. The first element ‘tanti’ in the name of the instrument denotes the modern use of metal wire; formerly, gut was used and the instrument was known as narampupānai (Tamil) and narakuṇḍa (Telugu).

The string can be tuned with the peg to whatever pitch and tension is required for a tonic drone. The player taps the skin and the button with the left hand and right fingertips, and (according to Sambamoorthy) skin, string, and jingles, tuned to the player’s keynote, all sound together. The drum is said to be used by hill tribes and the Mala caste to communicate messages. Though its structure clearly has much in common with the widespread variable tension chordophone or ‘plucked drum’ of India, the tantipānai cannot be plucked nor, though the peg mechanism would permit it, has variable tension during play been documented....

Article

Terbana  

Margaret J. Kartomi

revised by Andrew C. McGraw

[terbang]

Single-headed drum of Bali, Indonesia. The bowl-shaped body, open at both ends and about 30 cm deep, is hollowed out of the bulging base of a coconut palm. The goatskin head, about 50 cm in diameter, is laced by leather straps to a rattan or metal ring at the bottom of the body. Several wooden wedges are inserted between the ring and the body to add tension to the head. A pair of ...

Article

Terbang  

Margaret J. Kartomi

revised by Andrew C. McGraw

[terebang, rebana]

Frame drum of Indonesia. It has a goatskin head pinned or glued to a wooden frame. Some drums include a metal ring below the body to which the head is attached via leather straps. Several wooden wedges are inserted between the ring and the body to add tension to the head. In Cirebon, West Java, there are five sizes of named terbang: the bibid (about 45 cm in diameter), the kempyang (about 40 cm), the darah (about 36 cm), the induk (about 30 cm), and the kempli (about 26 cm). These are used with four genjring (frame drums with jingles) in the terbang ensemble to accompany religious singing; the nine drums symbolize the nine prophets (wali sanga) of early Muslim Java. The leader of the ensemble is normally a genjring player and the relatively high-pitched genjring play the more complex and varied rhythms in interlocking fashion; but the solo introduction is played on a ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Term used in Bengal (eastern India and Bangladesh) and Orissa (eastern India) for the kettledrum. The Orissa ṭikārā is a paired (treble and bass) earthenware kettledrum with the skins braced with ropes and a tuning paste applied to the lower drum. They accompany the martial paik and other dances. The Bengali ṭikārā is a single kettledrum that beats time for boat races in East Bengal (Bangladesh) and often accompanies the ...

Article

Toubi  

Jeremy Montagu

[doubi]

Cylindrical double-headed drum of Greece. It resembles the daouli but is smaller and shallower. Its sizes vary, some being shallower than the diameter and others deeper. It has two gut snares, one on each head, either over the heads or within the body. The heads can be either braced with cords or nailed to the body. It is usually hung from the left shoulder, but can be held under the armpit, slung over the left thigh, or suspended from the left arm above the wrist, like a tabor. It is played on one head with the hands or with two short wooden sticks, one of which might have the upper end cut as a fork so that it can be used to push the thongs around the bracing cords up or down and so tune the drum. The toubi is essentially an instrument of the Aegean Islands, where it accompanies the ...

Article

Jeremy Montagu

Greek term for darabukka. This single-headed goblet drum is made of clay or brass with a goatskin head, which can be either glued to the shell or tied with light cord. Small pellet bells might be suspended within the drum or tied around the outside. It is found almost exclusively in Macedonia and Thrace and the islands of the eastern Aegean, and is used to accompany all the principal melodic instruments. In northern Greece it is used particularly to accompany the ...

Article

Alastair Dick

[trikulyā]

Medieval hourglass drum of India. It is described as about 48 cm long and 14 cm in diameter at the faces; the middle ‘can be grasped by the fist’. The heads are stretched on iron hoops in which are seven holes; they are laced with a central cross-lacing over which is a decorated fringe. The drum is hung on a shoulder strap and played with both hands. The ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[kikasa]

Drum of the Bena Kalundwe, Luba, and Sanga peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a cylindrical, footed body 1.2 to 1.5 metres long, with a single head nailed on. Among the Luba it is beaten for the enthroning of a chief, or in times of war....

Article

Tsinda  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[ntshinda]

Drum of the Mbole, Kutu, and Saka peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The single head is nailed to the footed body, which is decorated with geometrical incisions. It resembles the Nkundo bondundu.

Article

Tsuzumi  

David W. Hughes

Generic term for the Japanese hourglass drum with heads laced to the body. In its narrowest sense it refers particularly to the kotsuzumi.

Tsuzumi is the only term for drum encountered in Japan’s earliest written sources, which purported to chronicle the indigenous culture before the apogee of Chinese and Korean influence. What sort of drum this term referred to is not clear. The only distinct examples of Japanese drums, before the known imports of about the 8th century, are those depicted in two clay tomb figurines (haniwa) from a single tomb dating from the 6th or 7th century. Both drums have two heads and are hung diagonally across the chest by straps across the right shoulder. One is barrel-shaped and played with a stick in the right hand and apparently the bare left hand. (A similar technique is used today for the Korean hourglass drum changgo.) The other drum, somewhat damaged, is thinner, perhaps slightly narrow-waisted; the hands are positioned as in the other figurine although the stick is missing, if indeed one was ever present....

Article

Article

Tumao  

J. Richard Haefer

Single-headed cylindrical drum of the Saramaka Maroon people of Suriname. It is made from a hollow log up to 2 metres long and 15 to 20 cm in diameter. The skin head is attached by a loop of cords wrapped around the edge of the head and laced to a second loop of multiple strands of fibre about 15 cm below the top. The head is tuned by pounding wedges between the fibre loop and the body. Initially four wedges about 40 cm long are put in place. Fine tuning is accomplished by using a series of shorter wedges placed between the larger wedges and the body. Tension can also be adjusted by heating the head. The tumao is played with one hand only, the performer squatting near the drum, which is placed at an angle to the ground.

The tumao, dedicated to the Apuku spirits, plays intermediate rhythm patterns with the ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Large goblet drum of Kashmir. It is similar and related to the tombak of Iran and the zirbaghali of Afghanistan; like the latter, it is usually made of pottery. It is held horizontally on the seated player’s lap and left thigh and played with both hands. It is usually played in folk music and to accompany wedding songs such as ...

Article

Alastair Dick

[tumdā]

Double-headed drum of the Santal people of Bihar, West Bengal, and Orissa, East India. The body is made of clay. The right head (about 20 cm in diameter) is smaller than the left (about 29 cm), and the centre of the conical body is very gently waisted (inverted bi-conical), though this is concealed by the leather lacings, densely laced in a ‘V’ pattern, giving a long, truncated conical appearance. Both heads (of cow- or goat-skin) are double, the upper skin (moudha) pasted to the lower (cakki) and cut away to leave an outer ring. On the right head the upper skin is about 37 mm wide; the lower has a paste (kharen) of powdered limestone, gram-flour, half-boiled rice, and soot, dried for three to four days and rubbed smooth with a stone. The paste on the left head (whose upper ring is about 45 mm wide) is thicker, has no soot and is not smoothed. Both heads are beaten by the hands. The ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Double-headed drum of the Yeke, Luba, and Lomotwa peoples in the Shaba region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The body is made of a palm tree log, with both ends hollowed but left solid in the centre. The heads are nailed on. Frequently it is decorated with white and red geometrical patterns. It is suspended from the neck of the player and used to accompany songs of praise to the chief....