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Ian Spink

(fl 1682–1729). English organist and composer. He followed James Hawkins's brief tenure as organist of St John's College, Cambridge, in 1682, and was himself succeeded by Bernard Turner (fl 1729–77) in 1729. According to Thomas Tudway he was also ‘one of the choirs of King's and Trinity’, whether successfully or simultaneously is not clear. An organbook at St John's College (MS K52) is largely in his hand and contains services and anthems by him as well as pieces by William Child, Tudway, Batten and Henry Aldrich. Much of his Service in A minor is in triple time, but it is competent enough.


Peter Holman

(bap. ?London, ?Aug 1, 1675; bur. London, Jan 20, 1701). English instrumentalist and composer. He was presumably the William Williams who was a Westminster Abbey choirboy in 1685, and may have been the one baptized at St Margaret's, Westminster on 1 August 1675, the son of Henry and Mary. He was made an extraordinary member of the royal band by a warrant dated 30 March 1695, and was given a salaried place by a warrant dated 6 November 1697. His early death did not pass unmarked. William Congreve mentioned it in a letter dated 28 January 1701, and there is a piece entitled ‘Mr. Williames Farwell’ in John Eccles's suite for Mary Pix's play The Double Distress (March or April 1701). On 28 April 1701 a concert was given at York Buildings ‘by the best Masters for the Benefit of Mr William Williams (late Master of Musick) his widow, and three small Children’, consisting of ‘all new Musick, part of it being his own’. There was another benefit concert for Mrs Williams on ...


(b Faversham, Kent, April 5, 1595; d Westminster, London, Feb 22, 1674). English composer, lutenist and singer. He was probably involved in the musical life of the court and the London theatre from an early age, apparently from 1614. There are songs by him for The Maske of Flowers and Valentinian, both of which date from that year, and he was connected with the King’s Men: songs by him survive for plays put on by them between 1614 and 1629. In view of this association it seems likely that he is indeed the ‘Jacke Wilson’ alluded to in the 1623 folio edition of Much Ado about Nothing, despite the lukewarm reception the suggestion has had since it was made in 1846 (the allusion need not be to the first performance of the play in 1604 but to some performance before 1623).

Wilson was recommended to the Lord Mayor of London by Viscount Mandeville on ...


Ian Payne

(?bap. Durham, Feb 15, 1618; d after 1647). English organist and composer. He became a chorister at Durham Cathedral sometime between August 1627 and September 1630, receiving payment for this post up to 29 September 1634. When on 12 November 1635 John Cosin, Prebendary of Durham, established the post of college organist at Peterhouse, Cambridge, he made Wilson its first incumbent. Wilson received payment in this post from December 1635 to January 1643 and is identified by name in one of the chapel part-books and in chapel accounts for 25 October 1642. The organ was dismantled on 29 April 1643 and it is likely that this, together with the abolition of services and Cosin’s ejection from the mastership, prompted Wilson to return to Durham where, described as ‘Musices professor’, he married Margaret Colpots on 25 May 1648. Wilson was at the centre of Cosin’s musical innovations at Peterhouse; in the late 1630s he contributed to funds for both the chapel building and the organ, but most of his contribution would have been musical, as the accounts show great activity in the acquisition and copying of music for the newly-formed chapel choir. Despite its variety his music is rather dull and four-square....



Miriam Miller

(fl London, 1584–1611). English music printer . He owned one of the most successful general printing businesses in London. He held several important offices in the Company of Stationers and ultimately became Printer to the City of London. From 1592 he printed several editions of the Sternhold and Hopkins psalter for John Day and for his son Richard Day. His publications began with John Dowland’s Lachrimae (dated 2 April 1604 in the Stationers’ register); it was financed by Thomas Adams and was one of the most important musical publications of the time. Windet’s music output is not large, numbering only a dozen volumes, including Coprario’s Funeral Teares (1606), Robert Jones’s The First Set of Madrigals (1607) and Ultimum vale (1605) and Thomas Ford’s Musicke of Sundrie Kindes (1607). Windet worked with type, and his printing was always of a high standard, distinguished by spacious layout and a clean, sharp impression. His skill must have been stretched to its limits by the eccentric demands of Tobias Hume’s ...


Watkins Shaw

revised by Michael Smith

(b ?Salisbury, c1647; d Salisbury, Aug 24, 1687). English composer. He was one of the earliest group of choristers of the Chapel Royal following the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. He left the choir on the changing of his voice in September 1663, and from 1665 to 1668 he was a lay clerk of both St George’s Chapel, Windsor, and Eton College. On 29 April 1668 he was admitted as organist, lay vicar and instructor of the choristers of Salisbury Cathedral. He rejoined the Chapel Royal as a Gentleman in January 1676, while retaining his Salisbury appointments. When, following the interruption caused by the Fire of London, the musical establishment of St Paul’s Cathedral began to be set up once more, Wise, on the direct recommendation of James II, was appointed almoner and Master of the Choristers there in January 1687. This would no doubt have eventually involved his resignation from Salisbury, but it seems he lingered on there, since Anthony Wood recorded how a few months later ‘he was knock'd on the head and kill'd downright by the Night watch at Salisbury for giving stubborne and refractory language to them’ on St Bartholomew’s night ...


Robert Thompson


English family of musicians.

(bap. Claines, nr Worcester, Sept 4, 1596; d Worcester, before Dec 10, 1661). Cathedral singer and administrator. He served as a choirboy and lay clerk at Worcester Cathedral, where he also held office as verger, sub-treasurer and surveyor of the works. In 1660 he played an important part in beginning the cathedral’s renovation.

(b c1600; d Worcester, Jan 3, 1685). Cathedral singer, composer and viol player, brother of (1) Humphrey Withy. He was described by Anthony Wood as ‘a Roman Catholic and sometime a teacher of music in the citie of Worcester’. He was a choirboy at Worcester in 1619 and a lay clerk from, 1621 to 1624. His name appears in Worcester hearth-tax returns of the early 1660s, and thereafter in several churchwardens’ and constables’ presentments, in which he is described as a ‘popish recusant’. James Atkinson, a Jesuit, was probably his grandson....


Bernd Baselt and Karl-Ernst Bergunder

(b Altenburg, c1660; d Gotha, April 3, 1717). German composer, music editor and teacher. He was first taught music by his father, Johann Ernst Witt, who was Altenburg court organist in succession to Gottfried Scheidt and had come from Denmark when a Danish princess married into the ruling house of Saxe-Altenburg about 1650. The Altenburg male heirs having all died out, the succession passed in 1672 to the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, Friedrich I, who, probably in 1676, gave Witt a scholarship to study in Vienna and Salzburg. He also paid for him to study composition and counterpoint with G.C. Wecker in Nuremberg in 1685–6. On 1 June 1686 Witt was appointed chamber organist at the Gotha court. In 1688 he was again sent to study with Wecker. In 1694 he was appointed substitute for the Kapellmeister, W.M. Mylius, and he succeeded him after his death, in 1713...


Luise Marretta-Schär

(b Basle, Jan 26, 1613; d Basle, Oct 30, 1667). Swiss composer, theorist and theologian . He studied theology at Basle and Geneva. From 1634 to 1638 he was assistant at St Peter, Basle, and from 1638 to 1667 was vicar of St Elisabeth there. From 1637 to 1641 he was acting professor of rhetoric at Basle University. Since 1577 there had been at the university a so-called Professor musices, who was at the same time organist at the cathedral. The first incumbent was Samuel Mareschall, and Wolleb was the second. He was elected in July 1642. He retired in 1649 but was elected again in 1650 and held the position until shortly before his death (he was succeeded by his son, who was also called Johann Jakob). The duties of the professor of music were precisely laid down for the first time in 1649: he had twice a week to rehearse the students of the faculty of philosophy in vocal music, paying particular attention to psalmody, and to play the organ in the cathedral on Sundays, provide music for public graduation ceremonies and superintend teaching of music at the grammar school. Thus Wolleb came to write a textbook on musical theory, ...


Jack Westrup

[self-styled Anthony à Wood ]

(b Oxford, Dec 17, 1632; d Oxford, Nov 29, 1695). English antiquary and amateur musician . He was the son of Thomas Wood, a landed proprietor, and was educated at New College School, Oxford, Lord William’s School, Thame, and Merton College, Oxford, where he graduated BA in 1652 and MA in 1655. Music was his delight from his earliest years. He began as a viol player but in 1651 taught himself to play the violin, which he tuned in 4ths until he had regular lessons from a teacher in 1653. From 1656 he took part regularly in the chamber music meetings held in Oxford and entertained visiting violinists, including Thomas Baltzar. After the Restoration the professional musicians returned to London and within two or three years the regular meetings for chamber music came to an end. From that time Wood seems to have abandoned music. He became a recluse and devoted himself to collecting materials for a history of Oxford. In ...


John Caldwell

revised by Alan Brown

(b Winchester, c1565; d ?Eton, ?1641). English composer. He was a choirboy at Winchester Cathedral from 1573 to 1577, and lay clerk at Windsor from 1598. He was acting Master of the Choristers at Windsor from 1605 and became organist of Eton College in 1615. He is mentioned in the Eton audited accounts until 1641 and in 1647, but the last entry appears to be an error since Woodson’s successor Charles Pearce is described as organist in rough accounts for 1645. Woodson is presumed to have died in 1641 as he is represented in John Barnard’s First Book of Selected Church Musick (London, 1641/R), which claimed to include no music by any living composer.

Woodson’s grandson, also Leonard (bap. Windsor, 1 July 1659; d Windsor, 14 March 1716/17), became a lay clerk at Windsor in 1679, a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in ...


Barton Hudson

(b Zaragoza, bap. Dec 25, 1601; d Zaragoza, Aug 9, 1672). Spanish composer and organist . He was probably a pupil of Aguilera de Heredia before becoming his assistant organist at the cathedral of La Seo in Zaragoza in 1620. In 1627 or 1628 he succeeded him as organist. In 1654 Ximénez was offered the position of organist at the royal chapel in Madrid but he declined and remained at La Seo until his retirement in January 1672.

Ximénez’s works, which are of moderate quality, include eight tientos, two batallas, one folia setting, one gaytilla and 11 sets of hymn and psalm versos, all for organ. Selections are published in F. Pedrell: Antología de organistas clásicos españoles, i (Barcelona, 1908) and in H. Anglés: Antología de organistas españoles del siglo XVII, i–ii (Barcelona, 1965–6).

ApelG W. Apel: ‘Spanish Organ Music of the Early 17th Century’, JAMS, 15 (1962), 174–81...


Mark Brill

(b Mexico City, c1595; d Mexico City, April 17, 1654). Mexican composer and organist . From 1621 he held the position of second organist at Mexico City Cathedral, becoming first organist by November 1642. After the death of Luis Coronado, he was appointed maestro de capilla on 31 March 1648, and took as his assistant the nephew of his predecessor, Juan Coronado. He held this position, along with that of organist, until his death. During this period he trained his nephew, Francisco Vidales, who later became organist at Puebla Cathedral and a composer. Ximeno's successor was Francisco López Capillas. Influenced by Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla, Ximeno developed an interest in polychoral works. His numerous compositions include several masses, three Magnificat settings, two Lenten motets, a Dixit Dominus, two psalms for the Office of the Dead and a 5-part Christmas carol in the Galician dialect: Ay, ay, galeguiños ay que lo veyo....


Robert Stevenson

(b Cuenca, c1639; d Cuenca, June 26, 1696). Spanish composer. He was maestro de capilla at Cuenca Cathedral from 3 September 1664 until 1675. Because of his excellent reputation he was offered the same post at Seville Cathedral, and served there from 29 April 1675 until 1 May 1684, when a kidney complaint caused his resignation. Returning to Cuenca, he was awarded various honours, including a benefice and a half-prebend, by the Bishop Alonso Antonio de San Martín. Xuares was renowned for his knowledge of scripture and classical learning; he carried on a weekly correspondence with Juan de Loaysa, librarian of the Biblioteca Colombina in Seville. His numerous extant compositions are notable for their liberal use of accidentals, rhythmic interest and contrasting textures.


Michael Tilmouth

revised by Peter Holman

(d Innsbruck, April 23, 1662). English composer and viol player. He was among the 17th-century English musicians who served at continental courts and carried to them a knowledge of the then much admired English manner of performance on the viol. Jean Rousseau, in his Traité de la viole (Paris, 1687/R), referred to the European reputations of some of these players and mentioned three in particular, among them ‘Joung auprès du Comte d’Insbruck’. Nothing is known of Young’s early life, though the presence of five-part dances in a manuscript associated with Worcester in the 1640s ( GB-Ob Mus.Sch.E.415–18) suggests that he was already an established composer before he left England, and possibly that he came from the West Country.

The spelling ‘Joungh’ found in some sources of his music suggests that he may already have been with Ferdinand Karl when the latter was Governor of the Netherlands before becoming archduke of Innsbruck in ...


Georg Karstädt

(b ?c1650; d Lübeck, 1702). German composer and instrumentalist . His known activities as a church musician indicate that he must have been trained as a cornettist and trombonist. He became a musician at the Petrikirche, Lübeck, and preferred to remain there rather than accept an appointment as a civic musician in Lübeck which became available in 1672. Johann Theile, whose St Matthew Passion appeared in Lübeck in 1673, lived there temporarily and this gave Zachau an opportunity to study with him and perfect his technique as a composer. His only surviving pieces are 21 devotional songs in Christian von Stökken’s collection Klahre Andeutung und wahre Anleitung zur Nachfolge Christi (Plön, 1678), which are similar in style to comparable pieces by composers such as Johann Schop (i) and Thomas Selle; most of them have simple chorale-like melodies. A collection of suites for viola da gamba (Lübeck and Danzig, ...


(b Vienna, bap. Aug 6, 1651; d Vienna, Sept 30, 1712). Austrian composer. He spent his entire life in Vienna. He attended the Jesuit college there from 1666 to 1668. From 1679 until his death he was Kapellmeister of the Stephansdom (where his father was sexton and where his younger brother Andreas, a court string player, sometimes played). One of his first important tasks would have been to direct music performed in June 1680 as part of a festival of thanksgiving for the ending of a plague; for directing the music on one Sunday that month he received a payment of 50 florins in the name of the emperor. He also carried out musical duties at the Salvatorkapelle and at court. By an imperial decree of 6 June 1698 he was given the title of imperial court musician. After the death in 1705 of the Emperor Leopold I he became Kapellmeister to the Dowager Empress Eleonora Magdalena Theresia. In ...


(b Leipzig, probably on bap. 13 Nov, Nov 14, 1663; d Halle, Aug 7, 1712). German composer and organist. He is remembered chiefly as Handel's teacher but is important in his own right as a composer of church cantatas and keyboard music.

Zachow's maternal grandfather and his father were both Stadtpfeifer. He probably attended one of the Lateinschulen at Leipzig, of which the more likely is the Thomasschule, at that time a school for the children of the poor. Walther stated that while at school Zachow received a thorough grounding in the organ and in the skills of the Stadtpfeifer; his father probably instructed him in the latter, and he may have been a pupil of the Thomaskirche organist, Gerhard Preisensin, though only for a short time, since the latter died when Zachow was eight. In 1676 the family moved to Eilenburg, where he may have attended the Nikolaischule. Among the musicians then at Eilenburg were the Kantor Johann Schelle, who was replaced in ...


Mary Armstrong Ferrard

revised by Philippe Vendrix


(b Rome, 1600–10; d Brussels, Feb 1662). Italian composer. On 1 November 1629 he succeeded Paolo Tarditi (who probably taught him) as organist of S Giacomo degli Spagnoli, Rome. He left there at the end of May 1638. In February 1638 he appears in the household register of Cardinal Pier Maria Borghese as ‘aiutante di camera’. The cardinal died in June 1642 and nothing more is known of Zamponi’s movements until 1648, when, at the request of Archduke Léopold-Guillaume, governor-general of the Low Countries, he went to Brussels with a number of other Italian musicians. He brought with him a mass composed in homage to the archduke, and he was named director of chamber music. In a document dated 1661 he is described as director of music to the Elector of Cologne. He enjoyed considerable success, both financially and in terms of renown. He owned two houses in Brussels, and his wealth was great enough to provoke a legal dispute among his inheritors lasting several years. Huygens, writing to a correspondent in Austria in ...