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Article

Carlo Vitali

[‘Il Carlino di Ratta’]

(b? Bologna, Oct 15, 1657; d Bologna, May 22, 1704). Italian soprano castrato . The son of a city land-surveyor, he became a member of the Bologna Accademia Filarmonica in 1681 and sang in the S Petronio choir (1682–8). His first documented operatic appearance was at Pratolino in 1684; he later claimed to have been in the service of Ferdinando de’ Medici there for 19 years (he was a virtuoso familiare) and to have sung in the leading Venetian and Roman theatres, as well as in Livorno during 12 carnivals. He is known to have sung in Reggio Emila and Genoa in the 1680s and at the Capranica, Rome, in 1695–6 in works by Mancia and Stradella. His nickname refers to his patron, senator Francesco Ratta.

He should not be confused with the Bolognese contralto Carlo Antonio Zanatti or Zanatta, a member of the Academia Filarmonica and also active somewhat later at S Petronio and at the Teatro del Cocomero, Florence, nor with the soprano castrato and composer Nicolò Giovanardi (...

Article

Hellmut Federhofer

(b Treviso, c1570; d after 1621). Italian composer. The place and approximate date of his birth can be deduced from the title-page and preface of his first book of five-part madrigals (1595), which he described as ‘my first works’. He was recorded in 1595 and 1596 as Kapellmeister and organist to the Archbishop of Salzburg, and he was chamber organist to the Emperor Rudolf II in Prague from 1 November 1596 until the emperor’s death in 1612. He did not continue as a musician under Rudolf's successor, Matthias, but the imperial court still owed him a large sum of money in 1621.

Apart from the madrigals of 1595 Zanchi’s works have not survived complete, which is probably a major reason why they have not yet been properly studied. The technique of cori spezzati seems to have had a considerable influence on Zanchi; he may have modelled his polychoral writing on that of Jakob Handl, who was active in Prague until ...

Article

Giuseppina La Face

(fl Milan, 1626–45). Italian music editor and violinist . He contributed two-part reductions of a three-voice canzona by G.D. Rivolta and one for four voices by G.F. Cambiago to the local collection Flores praestantissimorum virorum (RISM 16265). He probably played and taught the violin, since his only work is Il scolaro … per imparar a suonare di violino, et altri stromenti (Milan, 1645), a collection of dances in four parts (mostly violin, two violas and cello) for learning the violin. Each dance is accompanied by an intabulation which prescribes the fingering (all in first position) for the four players and also gives bowing indications by means of the letters ‘P’ and ‘T’, which according to Francesco Rognoni Taeggio (Selva di varii passaggi, Milan, 1620/R) stand for ‘pontar in sú’ (upbow) and ‘tirare in giù’ (downbow); the bowings occur at the beginnings of pieces and sometimes later as well. The dances, some of them traditional ones such as the ...

Article

Giuseppina La Face

(fl 1679–92). Italian writer on music, composer and violinist ; he may have been a relation of Gasparo Zanetti. He published a treatise, Consideratione sopra una questione nata, se alcune note poste nella chiave di F.fa ut grave … siano autentiche o placali (Milan, 1680), which includes two two-part ricercares using the same subject. His only other known works are three florid solo motets (two in RISM ...

Article

Walter Blankenburg

revised by Dorothea Schröder

(b Mark Brandenburg, possibly at Woltersdorf, nr Königswusterhausen, c1570; d Berlin, c1618). German composer and court official. He is first heard of in 1597, when he was Kapellmeister to Prince-Bishop Philipp Sigismund of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel at Iburg, near Osnabrück. In 1599 he went to Danzig, first as deputy to the Kapellmeister of the Marienkirche, Johannes Wanning, who was then a sick man, and shortly afterwards as his successor. In order to escape from plague-ravaged Danzig he obtained a long leave of absence in 1602, and until the end of 1605 he was an official at the imperial court in Prague. Only in 1607 did he return to Danzig, and even then only for a short time, for he was soon staying briefly at Stettin before returning to Prague, where he resumed his court duties in 1610. Finally, in 1612 he moved to Berlin as Kapellmeister to the Elector of Brandenburg, in succession to Johannes Eccard. He was joined there by several members of the Prague establishment, and during his few years in office he did much to raise musical standards. He is important as a composer for his sacred, and especially his secular, ensemble songs, which were highly esteemed by his contemporaries. Although he also on occasion cultivated the older polyphonic style, he was one of the first composers, particularly in north Germany, to adapt the Italian villanella style to German usage. His three three-part collections, the first of which was twice reprinted, are evidence of his achievements in this genre. His Gesellschaftslieder are also highly successful. A specially notable piece is the inventive five-part quodlibet ...

Article

Stanley Boorman

[Zanetti]

Italian family of printers . They were active in the 16th and 17th centuries and three of them printed music in Rome. An early member of the family, Bartholomeo de Zanetti da Bressa, printed Pier Maria Bonini’s treatise Acutissime observationes at Florence in 1520. His name gives the only indication of the probable origin of the family. The first music printer in the family was Luigi Zannetti, who worked at Rome between 1602 and 1606 and printed mostly sacred music by Agostino Agazzari, Antonio Cifra and their contemporaries. Bartolomeo, probably his son, appears to have taken over at once, for he began to produce music in 1607. Between 1618 and 1621 he was printing at Orvieto, where he produced two music books, but he later returned to Rome. His output was much larger than his father’s and included music by most contemporary Roman composers and sacred music by other Italians. He published a series of anthologies of sacred works edited by Fabio Constantini (RISM ...

Article

[Zacharias]

(b Brezovica nad Torysou [now Berzevicze], nr Prešov, c1605; d Bardejov, Feb 20, 1667). Slovak composer and organist. He was educated at the Latin school in Brezovica. In 1623–4 he was organist at the Lutheran church in Spišská Nová Ves, and then, until 1667 at St Giles in Bardejov. He was married twice and had six children, two of whom became musicians: Ján (1645–99) was organist in Bardejov from 1668 to 1673 and Zachariáš (1631–93) exercised the same profession in Levoča from 1682 to 1693.

Only 18 of Zarewutius’s works survive (nine of them incomplete), in manuscripts in the Bardejov collection ( H-Bn ). Zarewutius copied them into partbooks and tablature books along with pieces by Handl, Hassler, Lassus, Hieronymus Praetorius, Scheidt and others; some items bear copying dates between 1650 and 1665. Zarewutius’s own works include a mass, Magnificat settings and motets for Christmas, New Year, Whitsun and Trinity Sunday. They show a mastery of polychoral technique, with frequent antiphonal exchanges in mostly homophonic textures, contrasts of rhythm, metre and timbre and various combinations of voices....

Article

(fl 1639–51). Italian composer. On the title-pages of the surviving volumes of his Selva spirituale he described himself as rector of the parish of SS Leontio e Carpoffaro at Schio, near Vicenza. The second and fourth books contain performance directions for some of the pieces; the first book is lost....

Article

Jerome Roche

(b Verona; fl 1641–4). Italian composer . He was maestro di cappella of Verona Cathedral in 1641, when his only surviving publication, Missae et sacrae laudes cum basso partim musicisque instrumentis partim vero sine instrumentis, appeared in Venice; he resigned on 2 November 1644. His volume is interesting for its mixture at quite a late date of a cappella and concertato styles. One of the three masses and four of the ten motets have the former designation. The concertato works include several with obbligato violins, one of which, Confitemini Domino, for five voices, has a sectional form: movements respectively for solo soprano and alto, bass with violins and two tenors are interspersed with an exciting, brilliantly contrapuntal tutti with an ‘Alleluia’ passage. Large-scale motets of this kind were somewhat rare by the 1640s, a ceremonial style usually being confined to mass and psalm settings.

A. Spagnolo: Le scuole accolitali in Verona...

Article

Zeami  

Masakata Kanazawa

[Motokiyo, Kanze Saburō]

(b? 1363; d ?Aug 8, 1443). Japanese nō actor and writer. As a boy he was known as Fujiwaka. He was the eldest son of Kan'ami Kiyotsugu, the founder of the Kanze school of . Their performance in 1374 so impressed the shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu that he invited them to his court and became their lifetime patron, and eventually became the official performing art of the shogunate. Of about 50 surviving plays by Zeami, the most famous are Takasago, Izutsu and Matsukaze. He also wrote many treatises and essays, the most important of which is Fūshi Kaden (1400), better known as Kadensho (‘Book of Flowers’), a treatise on the aesthetics of . After the death of Yoshimitsu in 1428, Zeami fell foul of his successor, Ashikaga Yoshinori, and was banished to Sado Island in 1434. Whether he returned to Kyoto is not known.

See also...

Article

Alexander Pilipczuk

(b ?1683; bur. Hamburg, April 13, 1763 ). German harpsichord maker. The year of his birth is conjectured from an entry in the register of deaths and burials at the Jacobikirche in Hamburg stating that he was 79½ when he died. According to Krickeberg and Rase he was probably a pupil of Michael Mietke. He is first mentioned in 1722 in the register of citizens of Hamburg. On 1 September that year he married the widow of the instrument maker Carl Conrad(t) Fleischer (1680–1721/2), whose workshop near the old Gänsemarkt opera house he took over. There were three children of the marriage, all with godparents from Hamburg families of musicians. Christian Zell is thought not to have been related to the painter and draughtsman Gottfried Zell, active in Hamburg 1788–90. Three surviving Zell harpsichords are known: one dated 1728, in the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg , another, dated ...

Article

Edwin M. Ripin

revised by Denzil Wraight

[Zentis, Hieronymus de ]

(b Viterbo, ?1609–11; d Paris, 1666/7). Italian maker of harpsichords, spinets and organs . His first recorded commission is from 1635, and in 1641 he was appointed to maintain Pope Urban VIII’s keyboard instrument collection. Zenti was perhaps the best known Italian keyboard maker of his day. His craftsmanship is neat, although not elaborate, but his extensive employment at the royal courts in Stockholm (1652–6), Paris (1660–c1662) and England (1664) bears testimony to the regard of his contemporaries for his instruments. He was in Paris again in 1666 and died there some time before Easter the following year (see Barbieri). It seems that during Zenti’s periods abroad his wife oversaw his workshop in Rome, with various assistants.

No organ by Zenti survives. In 1660 he was commissioned by Camillo Pamphili to build the new organ of S Agnese in Navona, Rome, but never executed the work, having taken up the appointment to the French court. The inventory of instruments belonging to Ferdinando de’ Medici in Florence in ...

Article

John H. Baron

(b Priorau, nr Dessau, Oct 8, 1619; d Hamburg, Nov 13, 1689). German poet and writer. He studied at the Gymnasium in Halle and at the age of 12 compiled a lexicon of rhymes, which shows his early interest in verse. While at the University of Wittenberg he published his first work, the Hochdeutscher Helicon (1640), and worked extensively with August Buchner on poetry; his acquaintance there with Malachias Siebenhaar proved valuable for both, since Siebenhaar became the chief composer of songs to his poems. In Hamburg on 1 May 1642 Zesen founded the Teutschgesinnte Genossenschaft, a philological society whose members included Harsdörffer, Schwieger and the Dutch poet Jakob van der Vondel. At first he and Rist were close, but by 1648 they had split. With Hamburg as a base but without any permanent position, Zesen travelled to various parts of Germany, to France and in ...

Article

Werner Braun

(b Neurode [Nowa Ruda, Poland], 1621; d Breslau [Wrocław], Sept 15, 1675). German composer, organist and poet. He received a Protestant schooling at Bernstadt. Though he was drawn into the religious upheaval that afflicted Silesia, he was also receptive to his musical environment, and he may have been taught music by Löwenstern. His first post was nearby at Öls, where he was organist and also a member of the council from 1643 to the spring of 1649. From 4 May 1649 he was an organist and schoolmaster in the New City of Breslau and from 8 October 1655 was organist of the second most important church in Breslau, St Maria Magdalena. From 24 February 1654 he was permitted to sign himself ‘Notarius Caesareus Publicus’. The many surviving copies of his 1661 volume (as well as transcriptions of it) indicate that he was one of the most successful exponents of the simplified sacred concerto. The characteristics of his style – clear-cut forms (with sinfonias, interludes, solo episodes and tutti ritornello sections), smooth harmony and parlando choral declamation – were particularly suited to music intended for use in the home as well as in church; following traditional theological thinking, he regarded devotion as more important than art. His song collections of ...

Article

Theophil Antonicek

revised by Jennifer Williams Brown

(b Venice, c1653; d Vienna, Jan 22, 1715). Italian composer, partly active in Austria, nephew of Pietro Andrea Ziani. Towards the end of the 17th century he was a leading composer of opera for Venice, and he was a major figure at the imperial court in Vienna early in the 18th century.

The most important influence on Ziani's early life was probably his uncle, with whom he may have studied. Certainly Pietro Andrea's reputation and connections, particularly in Venice and Vienna, must have aided Ziani throughout his life. Marc’Antonio began his career as an opera composer in 1674 by adapting older works for the Venetian stage. In 1677 he acted as an intermediary for his uncle (who was in Naples) during negotiations with S Marco concerning the latter's post as first organist; after Pietro Andrea resigned, Marc’Antonio boldly applied for the position, but was passed over. Pietro Andrea may have arranged for his nephew's first opera, ...

Article

Theophil Antonicek, Harris S. Saunders and Jennifer Williams Brown

(b Venice, probably before Dec 21, 1616; d Naples, Feb 12, 1684). Italian composer and organist, uncle of Marc’Antonio Ziani. By 1639 he was organist at S Salvatore, Venice, where he also belonged to the convent of canons regular. He became a deacon on 19 March 1639 and took holy orders on 22 December 1640. From April 1650 to 1657 he was employed at S Marco, probably as a singer. In 1648 an opera possibly by Ziani was staged in Venice; another performed in January 1654 was certainly by him. From 15 May 1657 to 21 June 1659 he was Cazzati’s successor as maestro di cappella at S Maria Maggiore, Bergamo. He then returned to S Marco in Venice and became music director of the Venetian Ospedale degli Incurabili. In late autumn 1662 Ziani, like Antonio Cesti, went to Innsbruck; at the end of that year he went on to Vienna as Kapellmeister to the dowager Empress Eleonora. While in her service Ziani continued to fulfill commissions for Venice. In winter ...

Article

John H. Baron

(b Leipzig, Sept 15, 1621; d Wittenberg, April 17, 1690). German poet . From 1638 to 1654, when he was a law and theology student in Leipzig, Ziegler was active as an amateur poet. From 1654 until his death he was an important professor of law and eventually Rektor at the University of Wittenberg and a prominent civic official there, and had practically no more connection with the arts.

A friend of Rosenmüller and Schütz, he exerted some influence on both. His poetry, apparently mostly sacred, served for occasional music, and a few poems became chorale texts. More important, his treatise Von den Madrigalen (?Leipzig, 1653, enlarged 2/1685; ed. D. Glodny-Wiercinski, Frankfurt, 1971), written at Schütz's request, set forth rules for German madrigal poetry that were then observed until well into the 18th century. Hitherto German poets had not provided texts comparable to Italian madrigals, but after analysing the structure of the Italian poems, Ziegler adapted them to the peculiarities of German prosody. The German madrigal should consist of any number of lines, usually from seven to eleven and rarely fewer than five or more than sixteen; the lines should have seven or eleven syllables if the ending is feminine, six or ten syllables if it is masculine; a caesura is optional in lines of ten or eleven syllables; the rhyme scheme varies, but no more than three consecutive lines may pass without some rhyme; and only authentic rhymes are considered. As a relatively free, non-strophic poem the German madrigal is ideal for recitative and was so used, even by Bach....

Article

(fl 1611). Polish composer and organist. From his publication of 1611, dedicated to Wojciech Baranowski, Archbishop of Gniezno and primate of Poland from 1608, it is known that he was organist and director of music to the archbishop. Dunicz showed that this position applied to the primate’s private chapel and residence at Łowicz; it is not known whether it also applied to Gniezno Cathedral (see Podejko). In dedicating his work Zieleński affirmed that Baranowski had ‘cultivated’ his talent, that his work originated ‘through [his] recommendation and in [his] service’, that it appeared in print thanks to his ‘liberality and generosity’, was ‘accomplished for the first time by a Pole in a new way’ and was the fruit of ‘no new zeal’ on his part in the archbishop’s service. Also in 1611 he took part in a court case at Łowicz.

Zieleński’s Offertoria/Communiones totius anni of 1611, his only known music, comprises two separate cycles for the church’s year – liturgically rather free and incomplete – as well as additional motets and sacred symphonies. The two parts have separate title-pages but share a common dedication and list of contents. Among the 56 compositions in the ...

Article

A. Lindsey Kirwan

revised by Stephan Hörner

(b Konstanz, c1570; d Augsburg, Feb 1622). German composer and instrumentalist. He matriculated at Freiburg University in 1589. For 11 years he was a musician in the service of Cardinal Andreas of Austria at Konstanz. He then moved to Augsburg and worked as a cornettist, organist and composer in the service of the town, the cathedral and the influential Fugger family, Maximilian Fugger being a particular patron of his. In 1614 he applied for the post of Kapellmeister at Augsburg Cathedral, in succession to Bernhard Klingenstein, but Georg Mezler was preferred to him. He was a talented instrumentalist and received a special subsidy for training younger cornett players. He was also highly esteemed at the Munich court, where he frequently performed as a cornettist; he received five payments for compositions, the last being in 1619. He was also connected with the court at Innsbruck, being personally acquainted with Archduke Leopold, a keen patron of music....

Article

Sergio Durante

( fl 1678–85). Italian soprano . She sang in Venice in 1678 in Carlo Pallavicino’s Vespasiano for the opening of the Teatro S Giovanni Grisostomo. Thereafter her name appears only in librettos of Neapolitan productions, including the first performances of Alessandro Scarlatti’s Aldimiro, o vero Favor per favore and Psiche, o vero Amore innamorato...