261-280 of 57,944 results

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Robert E. Seletsky

A ‘crushed note’. C.P.E. Bach (1753) and F.W. Marpurg (1755), who provided the German translation Zusammenschlag, defined the acciaccatura as a non-harmonic note played a tone or semitone below any of the main notes in arpeggiated chords, and immediately released. In 18th-century German sources such as C.P.E. Bach's treatise, it was frequently indicated with an upward diagonal stroke through the stem between the harmonic members of the chord. In melodic usage, the same writers classed the unprepared, simultaneously struck dissonant 2nd followed by the release of the lower note as a form of mordent. The Italian theorists Francesco Gasparini (...

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Lowell Lindgren

(b Rome, Feb 24, 1637; d Rome, Feb 7, 1700). Italian impresario and deviser of scenic effects. He studied at the Seminario Romano, where he performed in the Latin tragedies and intermedi produced during the carnivals of 1651–3. In January 1657 he joined the Florentine Accademia degli Immobili, which produced comic operas. Before he became a Knight of Malta on ...

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Febo Guizzi

Name for the triangle in Southern Italy (su triángulu in Sardinia). Acciaio (steel) literally means the steel tool used to light a fire by striking it with a flint. The triangle is widely used in Central and Southern Italy. In Sardinia it is played with the ...

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David Hiley

A sign placed, in modern notational practice, before a note, which alters its previously understood pitch by one or two semitones. The sharp (♯; Fr. dièse; Ger. Kreuz; It. diesis) raises a note by one semitone; the double sharp (𝄪; Fr. double dièse; Ger. ...

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Accidental 1. Early use.: Table 1

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Accidentals

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Accidentals notated with dots under the notes (bar 1), or ordinary accidental signs next to the notes (bar 5), fairly close to them (end of bar 1, bass line) or above them (final bar) (‘Intabolatura nova di … balli’; Venice: Antonio Gardane, 1551)

Reproduced by permission of Stainer & Bell Ltd, London. England...

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Edward Foley and Joseph Dyer

A corporate shout or public cry of affirmation or dissent; also in a religious context a fervent expression of praise, invocation or supplication. Common to many performative contexts across a broad range of traditions and at times accompanied by gestures, acclamations became particularly important in political and religious rituals in East and West. Originating as spontaneous calls, some evolved into standardized formulae with fixed texts, occasionally with set music....

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Jack Westrup and David Fallows

A short term for recitativo accompagnato, i.e. Recitative accompanied by the orchestra with expressive motifs, equivalent to recitativo obbligato. It is often used to designate a dramatically important scene, often a soliloquy (e.g. ‘Abscheulicher’ in Fidelio), which is usually followed by an aria. Handel used the term both in the strict sense of recitative, where the accompaniment allows the singer freedom (e.g. ‘O notte’ in ...

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Michelle Fillion

A term used to describe 18th-century chamber music with a substantially or fully written-out keyboard part and one or more accompanying instrumental parts. 18th-century sources most often designated these works by such terms as sonata, trio, terzetto, or divertimento for harpsichord or, simply, keyboard (later with the option of fortepiano), ‘with the accompaniment of’ or ‘that can be played with’ a violin (or flute), with or without cello. The accompanying parts could also be optional (...

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David Fuller

In the most general sense, the subordinate parts of any musical texture made up of strands of differing importance. A folksinger's listeners clap their hands in accompaniment to the song; a church organist keeps the congregation to the pitch and tempo with his or her accompaniment; the left hand provides the accompaniment to the right in a piano rag; when one part of a Schoenberg string quartet momentarily carries the symbol for ...

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The tuning of an instrument. See also Accordatura and Scordatura.

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Being in tune.

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A general term for the tuning of an instrument, especially string instruments. Accordatura is often used in the sense of the ‘usual’ tuning as opposed to a special or exceptional tuning. For the latter, see Scordatura.

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Helmi Strahl Harrington and Gerhard Kubik

A term applied to a number of portable free-reed aerophones. Their common features include a mechanical keyboard under each hand, manipulated by the fingers to select pitches. The keyboards are connected by folded bellows which induce air to flow through the reedplates; these move horizontally and are controlled by arm-pressures that in turn regulate the loudness of the sound emitted. An air-button or -bar on the left-hand end, operated by the thumb or palm, is used to fill and empty the bellows without sounding a note. Straps hold the instrument in the hands or on the shoulders. The casework around the keyboards and covering the reedplates is usually of a style and decoration that has become associated with the type of accordion and is sometimes identifiable with its company of origin. Accordions are related historically, organologically and technologically to the ...

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Alyn Shipton and Barry Kernfeld

A portable keyboard instrument of the reed organ family. It consists of a bass button keyboard played with the left hand, which also operates a bellows, and a treble keyboard (with piano keys or buttons) played by the right. The instrument is suspended by straps from the player’s shoulders....

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A family of portable, bellows fueled, free-reed instruments. The right hand typically has access to a series of piano-like keys or circular buttons that activate melodic tones by allowing air to flow over reeds and set them in oscillation. The left hand has access to a separate set of buttons that regulate bass, chord, and in some cases independent tone sonorities. The term “accordion” may apply to instruments that are either diatonically or chromatically scaled. More specifically, a melodeon is a smaller, diatonic button accordion. Another type, known as a concertina, is made in both diatonic and chromatic tunings and is sometimes distinguished by its polygonal sound box. Most accordions have left-hand side air buttons that, when depressed, allow the bellows to be moved rapidly without sounding a reed tone, or provide more bellows when a performer reaches either the bellows’ conventional limits of extension (draw out) or compression (push in)....

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(b Rome, Aug 28, 1739; d Rome, Aug 13, 1818). Italian composer. Breitkopf’s 1785–7 catalogue records his name as Agosti, and this led both Gerber and Eitner to list him also under that name. A. Fuchs recorded his dates of birth and death, and his studies with Rinaldo di Capua, on the title-page of a ...

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Timothy Rice

This refers to culture change in conditions of direct contact between people of different cultures. It does not imply assimilation in the sense of loss of culture, and it can be directly observed and reconstructed ethnographically, unlike diffusion, a historical process inferred speculatively from the distribution of cultural traits. The term first appeared in print in an ...

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Gary W. Kennedy

Record company and label. It was established in 1987 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, by Russ Gershon to issue a recording made the previous year by Gershon’s group the Either/Orchestra. Accurate has released more than 65 albums, by Charlie Kohlhase, Garrison Fewell, Dominique Eade, Allan Chase, the Mandala Octet, and others. While it is principally a jazz label, it has also made and issued some rock (notably by the group Morphine, on its subsidiary label Distortion) and soundtrack recordings....