261-280 of 313 results  for:

  • Musical Concepts, Genres, and Terms x
  • Traditional, Folk and Indigenous Musics x
Clear all

Article

Molimo  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[isumba]

Wooden or bamboo voice modifier and trumpet of the Mbuti Pygmies of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. A long metal drainpipe has been used instead; the material is considered unimportant, although a hollowed length of wood is preferred. The term molimo also refers to a ritual celebrated to awaken the forest, protector of the Mbuti people, and for related ceremonies. The instrument is sounded during the ritual by a young man after it has been immersed in water and rubbed with leaves and earth; sometimes it is passed through fire and rubbed with hot ashes. Its sounds imitate animal noises, and it is often referred to as the ‘animal of the forest’. When the ...

Article

Molu  

Article

Jeremy Montagu

Flute of the Tswana people of southern Africa. It is made of hardwood, shaped to a cone, split, conically grooved to form the bore, reunited, and then covered by a tubular section of antelope-leg skin, which shrinks as it dries. A feather treated with ‘medicine’ is kept inside it. The instrument is blown while placed on the hollowed tongue, and is very difficult to play. A series of pitches is obtained by opening and closing a small hole in the end. It is a warrior’s instrument, also used as a summons to meetings, and a valued personal possession. It resembles the Pedi ...

Article

Motutu  

K.A. Gourlay

revised by Ferdinand J. de Hen

[moturu, mbia]

Side-blown waterbuck horn of the Ngbaka people in the Ubangi region, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is traditionally blown only on the death of a notable. Similar horns of the Nkundi and the Logo are known respectively as ekungu and irili. Large horns were traditionally single-note instruments used for war or funerals. Smaller ones, used for sub-chiefs and signaling, had a fingerhole; in performance, the bell was opened or closed by a hand, enabling four or more notes to be produced. These horns have a square or lozenge-shaped embouchure and sometimes also an attached wooden bell. The Eso ...

Article

Mpungi  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Tubular mirliton of the Sanga people of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is made of the stem of a papaya or other reed and is sung into through a hole cut in the side. One end is left open and the other is covered by a thin buzzing membrane. The Chokwe call it ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Mukoko  

J. Gansemans

revised by Ferdinand J. de Hen

Small wooden slit drum of the Yaka, Suku, Pende, Ngongo, and Mbala peoples of the Lower Congo and Kwango areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It belongs to local doctors and diviners who attempt to contact spirits with it and request answers to the questions of their clients. As a two-toned instrument, the aspect of ‘talking’ and ‘giving a message’ is predominant. It usually has a cylindrical soundbox from 45 to 55 cm long with a carved anthropomorphic head as the handle; this head symbolizes the spirit. Other names reported by Laurenty for this instrument among other peoples of the DRC are mukok, mukokk or kokk (Holo), mukoko dia ngombo (Pende), mikoko mi ngombe and konko (Kongo), and mukokok (Suku). The Bwende have a larger cylindrical slit drum (about 90 to 100 cm long) one end of which has a carved human figure.

O. Boone: Les tambours du Congo belge et due Ruanda-Urundi...

Article

Mulimba  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Trapezoidal slit drum of the Holoholo people in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made of sycamore wood up to 90 cm long. The Songye of the Shaba region call their similar slit drum modimba.

Article

Mungiri  

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[musenkele]

Single-headed drum of the Sanga and Yeke peoples in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The head is nailed to the almost cylindrical body, which is about 40 to 45 cm long including a foot shaped like an upside-down bowl.

O. Boone: Les tambours du Congo belge et du Ruanda-Urundi...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[musémb, muséng, mushyémm]

Conical wooden whistle of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. About 12 to 28 cm long, it has a long handle and the upper part is ovoid with a carved side-projection in which a fingerhole is made. It is found among many peoples of the Kwango area. For the Dzing and Mbagani, ...

Article

Mushiba  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

(pl. mishiba)

Panpipe of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Sampwe people have a mishiba with four pipes, the Luba with four to eight pipes. The Kanyoka use another prefix for the word: lushibb. This denotes a panpipe with wooden pipes; for instruments with bamboo pipes they use the term chitebb...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[mutumbi]

Single-headed drum of the Luba and Sanga peoples in the Shaba region, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The head of the Sanga drum is coated with a rubbery paste to mute the sound. Also called musenkele, it was adopted from the Sanga by the Yeke, and is used during funeral rites....

Article

[sokou]

Single-string fiddle of Mali. The resonator is a half calabash shell, its opening covered by a skin soundtable. Horsehair can be used for the string and the bow. The instrument is said to have been introduced to Mali by Muslims from Andalusia and to have been played by women and bards, but evidence is lacking. It was popularized in the late 20th century by the eclectic musician Ali Farka Touré....

Article

Naka  

David K. Rycroft

[‘horn’](plur. dinaka)

Term, for flutes, especially stopped flutes, among most subgroups of the northern Sotho-speaking peoples of southern Africa, particularly the Pedi, Ndebele, and Lovedu. The naka of the Tswana people is made from the lower leg bone of the secretary bird, covered with lizard skin, and is used for divining and to ward off lightning. The tsula of the Pedi, who use eagle or wildcat leg bones, is similar. The Lovedu play a pentatonic set called motaba, dinaka, or kiba, with four drums for the dinaka dance.

Among the Pedi people, the name naka ya lehlaka covers either a transverse flute, similar to the Venda tshitiringo, or an end-blown stopped pipe, of reed, without fingerholes. The latter yields one note, other notes being interspersed through whistling as the breath is drawn in. It is played by herdboys. The naka ya phatola (or naka ya makoditsane) is a conical flute made from wood, covered with buckskin and woven wirework, and treated with medicinal charms. Warriors used it as a signal instrument. The player’s hollowed tongue directs the air-flow. With the lower end either open or closed by a finger, two notes can be produced plus several overblown harmonic partials....

Article

Namaddu  

Peter Cooke

Article

Ndall  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Side-blown horn of the Mbelo Panda region, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made from a hollowed root or branch about 140 cm long and has two rectangular mouthpieces a few centimetres apart. The player selects one and closes the other with his hand.

J.S. Laurenty: La systématique des aérophones de l’Afrique central...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Ndugu  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Tronco-conical drum of the Tsogho people of Gabon. The long wooden body has a glued head and two rings carved on the side around the circumference at about ¾ of its length. It lies horizontally on the floor with the player sitting on it. It is part of an ensemble including an ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Side-blown horn, normally of ivory, of the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Among the Mangbele people it has a fingerhole in the tip and is also known as namoduduka and moduka. Among the Barambo, Makere, Mayogo, and Meje, nembongo and nembongaye denote both an ivory and an antelope horn with carved mouthpiece....