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Article

Dipulu  

K.A. Gourlay

revised by F.J. de Hen

[kapulu]

Vessel flute of the Luba of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It was rare by the mid-1930s. Typically it was made from husk of a spherical fruit or a calabash, and had two fingerholes flanking a blow hole, each about 4 mm in diameter. It was used by secret societies, as a signalling instrument for summoning people, for inspiring warriors during war dances, and on the installation or death of a chief. Other vessel flutes found in the DRC conform to this pattern and can have from two to six fingerholes. The Mongo lototsi na yomba is made from baked clay and has two fingerholes on each side; it was so called to distinguish it from the lototsi na litofe and lototsi na nsaw, both of which were made from fruits, the litofe being that of the rubber tree. The term lototsi is also used by the Kota, Ngombe and Bwende, while the Konda use ...

Article

Disakai  

J. Gansemans

revised by F.J. de Hen

Basket rattle of the Luba of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made from woven reeds and has a slightly curved piece of calabash as its base. Small stones or seeds inside produce a shrill rattling imitated by the Luba with the words ‘sákata, sákata’. This also indicates the typical rhythmic formula comprising two triplets with the accent on the first beat of each. The disakai is played by men and women to accompany modern songs and dances. Disakai can also designate a dried fruit rattle used only by women among the Luba of the Sampwe region. This type is also known to the Luntu (dikasa) and Luluwa (dikasa).

F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1960), 23 G. Knosp: Enquête sur la vie musicale au Congo belge 1934–1935 (Tervuren, 1968) J. Gansemans: Les instruments de musique Luba...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

F.J. de Hen

Article

Djaka  

F.J. de Hen

Article

F.J. de Hen

Lamellaphone of the Mwanza of the southeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. There are two distinct types, both generally with eight to 12 tongues: one has a box resonator, the other has the tongues mounted on a board. It is also known as kiana (a board with 20 tongues) and ...

Article

Djimba  

F.J. de Hen

(1) Lamellaphone of the Boa of the Uele region, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a carved wooden resonator fitted under an ovoid soundtable and seven to ten tongues, usually wooden but sometimes of bamboo or an assortment of brass and iron. (2) See Dimba , a Xylophone of the Luba of the Democratic Republic of the Congo....

Article

Djonga  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Set of stopped flutes used by the Ngombe people of the Ubangi-Cuvette region, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The cylindrical tubes are threaded together on cord or wire. The Ngbaka of the northwestern DRC call it djaka.

J.S. Laurenty: Systématique des aerophones de l’Afrique centrale (Tervuren, 1974), 190, 201....

Article

Djumo  

Dance drum of the Monjombo people of the Ubangi region, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Djumo is also reportedly the Mandinko word for bougarabou, a West African goblet or conical drum with rope-tuned antelope-, calf-, or goatskin head, open at the base and often decoratively carved and varnished, and commonly played by hand in groups of three or four to back up ...

Article

Dole  

Andrew Tracey

One of the several types of gourd-resonated mbila Xylophone of the Chopi of southern Mozambique. It was intermediate in pitch between Sanje and Dibhinda , Now obsolete, it had about ten bars. It was used during boys’ circumcision and initiation ceremonies, and was considered hard to play because its range demanded that normal right hand parts be played with the left hand and vice versa. ...

Article

Domo  

F.J. de Hen

[domu]

Arched harp of the Bari, Mamvu, Mangutu, Ndunga and Mangbele of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It usually has five liana strings but as many as eight strings are possible. At one end they are affixed to a small wooden strip under the sewn antelope- or lizard-skin soundboard, and at the other end tightened by pegs in the neck. The body measures about 50 × 15 cm. The Hema and Bale call this harp ...

Article

Laurence Libin

(b Jirapa, Ghana, June 22, 1958). Ghanaian xylophone maker, player, and teacher. Born into a family of gyilli makers and players in northwest Ghana, Doozie began playing at six years of age. When he was 12 his father taught him to make his first gyilli and he was a practised maker by age 15. After secondary school Doozie moved to Accra to become a xylophonist with the Ghana Dance Ensemble. He was also an instructor at the Institute of African Studies at the University of Ghana, Legon. Among other appointments, he has performed with the National SO Ghana and has been associated with the Institute of African Studies and the music and performing arts departments of the University of Ghana. In 1990 he established a workshop to produce xylophones; he made the xylophones used in the Broadway production of The Lion King. He has also restored instruments in museum collections. He continues to teach and perform and is managing director of Dagarti Arts and Music in Accra and a member of the Arts Council of Ghana. He is also involved in promoting fair trade practices. Doozie’s xylophone bars—from eight to 18 for each instrument—are made of aged, fire-dried planks of wood from male shea trees. Gourd resonators are affixed under the bars, which are tied to the curved frame. The tips of the wooden beaters are padded with rubber recycled from tyres....

Article

Drigo  

F.J. de Hen

Trapezoidal Slit-drum of the Watsa Gombari region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is used both for sending messages and to accompany dancing. Formerly it belonged to the village chief and was burned after a battle by the victors because its sound was considered ‘overconfident’.

LaurentyTF, 138 F.J. de Hen...

Article

Dujimba  

F.J. de Hen

Article

Dule  

F.J. de Hen

Article

F.J. de Hen

Wooden Slit-drum of the Zande of the Uele region, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is either tulip- or half-moon-shaped and roughly 55 to 60 cm long and 40 cm tall.

LaurentyTF, 139 F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1960), 59 F.J. de Hen...

Article

Dundufa  

K.A. Gourlay

Long closed cylindrical drum of the Hausa people of northern Nigeria. It was first mentioned in the Kano Chronicle, in the account of the reign of Kanajeje (1390–1410). The dundufa is barrel-shaped with a head of goatskin or newborn calfskin, held in place by a ring that is laced to a second ring at the base of the body and tensioned by the insertion of small wooden or horn pegs. Dundufa are 80 to 90 cm tall and 18 to 25 cm in diameter and are invariably played in sets of two or three. In Katsina, three are placed vertically before a standing drummer; he beats two with a straight stick held in his right hand, and one (sometimes all three) with his left hand. In Zaria two vertical drums are used, but the player is seated and beats both drums with the left hand and a stick held in his right hand. In the Sokoto area a similar drum set, the ...

Article

Dungu  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Cylindro-conical kettledrum of the Nkundo, Jia, and Sakata peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The partially hollowed wooden body usually contains small rattling stones and is usually painted red or red and white. The closed lower end is covered with a hide to which the goatskin head is fastened by leather cords. The height varies between 50 and 160 cm. ...

Article

Dunun  

Rainer Polak

[dundun, djoundjoung; ngangan, konkonin]

Double-headed cylindrical drum with several varieties widespread among Manding-speaking peoples and their neighbours in the Sahel and Sudan belts of West Africa (Senegal, Gambia, Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast). Dunun also is a generic term for ‘drum’ in Manding languages.

The bodies are traditionally carved from wood, but modern shells are often trimmed from recycled metal containers. The heads, of cow, calf, or goat skin, are sewn to a strap running around the shell just below the rim. The straps of both heads are connected by lacing, which applies tension to the heads. The lacing, formerly rawhide or leather, is nowadays mainly synthetic rope. In urban and international contexts, the traditional sewing technique for mounting the heads tends to be replaced by clamp tensioning with iron rings, following the model of the modern jembe drum. Only one head is struck, with a single curved or rectangularly hafted drumstick made from wood or raffia palm leaf stalk. Some ...

Article

Dyegele  

Konin Aka

Term for a xylophone or ensemble of xylophones and kettledrums of the Senufo people in the Korhogo region of the Ivory Coast. The ensemble normally comprises three or four frame xylophones, each with 12 bars slung on cords attached to the frame at each end. Under each bar is a gourd resonator with spider’s web mirliton. All the xylophones have the same pentatonic tuning; they are accompanied by three wooden kettledrums. The players wear iron jingles on their wrists. The ...