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Valerie Walden

(b Montreuil-Bellay, March 10, 1794; d Saint Julien-sur-Sarthe, Aug 5, 1889). French cellist and teacher. He was one of the more elusive musical figures of 19th-century Paris, overshadowed by fellow cellist and Conservatoire professor, Louis Norblin. He entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1808 and studied with Nicolas Baudiot, taking second prizes in 1809 and 1810 and first prize in 1811. He accepted a position at the Théâtre des Variétés in 1809, and joined the Opéra orchestra in 1814. In 1827 he assumed the retiring Baudiot's position as cello teacher at the Conservatoire, remaining there until 1859. Between 1820 and 1840, he played second cello for Pierre Baillot's quintets, and first cello for the Athénée Musical. Other chamber music activities included a performance with Bériot and Liszt in April 1828. After his retirement, he spent his time composing, writing several incidental works and a cello method (1884). He owned a ...

Article

Joseph Vella Bondin

(b Cospicua, Malta, July 24, 1856; d Valletta, Jan 30, 1923). Maltese composer, teacher and church musician. He studied theory, organ and composition with Luigi Fenech and Giuseppe Spiteri Fremond and violin with Domenico Amore. In 1875 he went to Paris, where he remained for 10 years, during which time he studied with Ernest Guiraud and Massenet who, on the evidence of extant letters, rated Vassallo's musical gifts highly. On his return to Malta, he founded his extremely successful Music Institute which offered comprehensive courses ranging from the basics to advanced compositional and orchestral techniques; most Maltese composers prominent in the first half of the 20th century, including Carlo Diacono, Giuseppe Caruana and Josie Mallia Pulvirenti, studied with Vassallo.

The turning-point in Vassallo's career as a church musician came in 1903 with the issue of Pope Pius X's Motu proprio, which emphasized the importance of plainchant and Palestrina-style polyphony in the Roman Catholic liturgy, and condemned the operatic style previously in vogue. Vassallo immediately started producing effective liturgical music in line with these instructions. The many ecclesiastical commissions he received culminated in his appointment in ...

Article

Hugh Ottaway

revised by Alain Frogley

(b Down Ampney, Gloucs., Oct 12, 1872; d London, Aug 26, 1958). English composer, teacher, writer and conductor. The most important English composer of his generation, he was a key figure in the 20th-century revival of British music.

Although born in Gloucestershire, Vaughan Williams considered himself a Londoner. The youngest of three children, he grew up at his mother’s family home, Leith Hill Place, Surrey, and most of his life was spent in the Dorking and Leith Hill area or in London. The move from Down Ampney came as early as 1875, on the death of his father, the Rev. Arthur Vaughan Williams. On both sides of the family there was distinction and independence. The Vaughan Williamses were a family of eminent lawyers: Sir Edward Vaughan Williams, the first Judge of Common Pleas, was the composer’s grandfather. His maternal grandparents were Josiah Wedgwood III and a sister of Charles Darwin....

Article

Laudan Nooshin

(b 1887; d 1979). Iranian teacher, composer, conductor and writer . He began music lessons at the age of 15, learning the tār and the violin with prominent masters in Tehran including Darvish Khan (1872–1926) and Aqa Hossein Qoli (c1851–1915). In 1918 Vaziri travelled to Europe to continue his musical studies. He spent three years in Paris and two years in Berlin studying harmony, theory, composition, counterpoint, piano and singing. On his return from Europe in 1923 he became principal of the Madresseh-ye Āli-e Musiqi, the first music school in Iran, and subsequently devoted much of his time to developing and expanding the provision of music education in Iran. Several of his pupils became prominent musicians.

In order to make performances of classical music more widely available, Vaziri organized and conducted public concerts featuring orchestras of Iranian instruments. In his arrangements of traditional melodies and his own compositions he used western classical-style harmonies which had not previously been heard in Iranian music; he believed that Iranian music needed to adopt some elements of European music in order to survive in the 20th century. Staff notation had been introduced to Iran by Europeans in the 19th century, but Vaziri was the first Iranian to advocate its wider use within the classical tradition. His ...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Havana, Nov 28, 1925). Cuban composer, writer on music and teacher. He studied in Havana, receiving the BA in humanities at the De La Salle College (1944) and the doctorate in diplomacy at the university (1947); he also studied theory, composition and orchestration privately with Frederick Kramer (1942–6). In 1947 he was appointed cultural attaché to the Cuban consulate in Los Angeles, and while there he took private composition lessons from Toch (1947–8). On his return to Cuba in 1949 he was appointed editorial secretary of Conservatorio, the official review of the Havana Municipal Conservatory, and elected president of the Cuban section of the ISCM. He studied for a doctorate in composition with Gramatges at the Instituto Musical Ada Iglesias, Havana (1950–55), directed the music department at the University of Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (1953–9), served as music adviser to the National Institute of Culture (...

Article

Joseph Vella Bondin

[Michaele Angelo]

(b Senglea, Malta, Nov 7, 1710; d Cospicua, Malta, Dec 25, 1792). Maltese composer and teacher. From boyhood, he was intended for the Catholic priesthood. On 14 July 1730 he left Malta for Naples to study at the Conservatorio Pietà dei Turchini with the primo maestro Nicola Fago, the secondo maestro Andrea Basso, and after 1734 also with Leonardo Leo. He returned to Malta in early 1738, where he undertook the duties of a priest and established himself as a maestro di musica. The first truly influential Maltese teacher, he reformed music education, fighting indifference and technical incompetence, and bringing it into line with developments in Naples. His students included Salvatore Magrin, Giuseppe Burlon, Antonio Freri, Francesco Azopardi and Nicolò Isouard. As an organist and maestro di cappella he accepted numerous temporary commissions in the most important Maltese churches before obtaining permanent employment in 1762 at the parish church of Cospicua. His extant works reveal contrapuntal craftsmanship, and his concern with the place of plainchant in an era of rapid musical innovation is evident in his sacred works. In the introit ...

Article

Michael F. Robinson

revised by Hanns-Bertold Dietz

(b Bisceglie, Bari, 1665; d Naples, July 15, 1716). Italian composer and teacher. At the age of ten he entered the Neapolitan conservatory S Maria di Loreto, where he studied till 1676. His chief music teacher there was the distinguished Neapolitan composer Francesco Provenzale. While a senior student Veneziano sometimes acted as his teacher's music copyist, as is proved by a manuscript score of Provenzale's opera Il schiavo di sua moglie ( I-Rsc ), inscribed: ‘Francesco Provenzale fecit Anno Dmni 1671. Gaetano Venetiano allievo di S.M.d.L. di Napoli scrivea 1675’.

During his adult career he held, at one time or another, the important positions of maestro di cappella at the Neapolitan court, the Neapolitan church of Carmine Maggiore, and his old conservatory, S Maria di Loreto. His connections with the Spanish-controlled court began in 1678 when he was made supernumerary organist of the court chapel. In November 1686...

Article

David Wright

[Isabella Afanasyevna ]

(b Minsk, 17 Feb/March 1, 1877; d New York, Feb 7, 1956). American pianist and teacher of Russian origin . She studied the piano at the Vienna Conservatory with Joseph Dachs, and privately with Theodor Leschetizky; in St Petersburg she studied with Anna Esipova. From 1906 to 1920 she taught at the Imperial Conservatory in St Petersburg and then toured the USSR and Western Europe from 1920 to 1923, when she settled in the USA. In 1924 she helped found the Curtis Institute and in 1933 joined the faculty of the Mannes College. She taught at both institutions until her death and was known for painstaking attention to detail and for psychological insight that brought out the best in each pupil. While her approach was flexible and she denied having a particular method, she drilled all students in certain techniques designed to achieve expressive playing, such as moulding the hand to the keys for evenness and a seamless legato; playing deeply in the keys while using the weight of the forearm and a flexible wrist to achieve a full singing tone without harshness, and controlling tone by higher or lower positions of the wrist. Among her pupils were Barber, Bernstein, Foss, Graffman, Kalish, Kallir, Lateiner and Pennario. She was the aunt of Nicolas Slonimsky....

Article

Tom Cleveland

(b Normal, IL, Jan 31, 1909; d Los Angeles, Jan 10, 1971). American singer and voice science researcher. He studied English at Taylor University, Upland, IN (AB 1930) and music at Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (BM 1941) and at the American Conservatory, Chicago (MM 1943). After teaching at the Chicago Evangelistic Institute, DePaul University and the American Conservatory, he became a member of the faculty of music at the University of Southern California (1946), chairing its voice department (1950–71). Among the associations to which he belonged are the National Association of Teachers of Singing, which he served in several capacities, including national president. He was awarded an honorary doctorate from Pepperdine University College, Malibu, CA in recognition of his outstanding contributions to singing and the science of singing (1970).

As a singer, Vennard was active in opera, oratorio and solo song; as a teacher of singing, his students, among them Marilyn Horne, achieved worldwide success. His renowned text, ...

Article

Stephen Bonner

(b c1781; d 1856). Inventor, composer and teacher. He worked in London from at least 1813 and taught Princess Augusta Charlotte from that year until her death in 1817. This opportunity, and an early partnership with Edward Light, enabled him to create and market eight harp-lute-guitar hybrids, for which he gave lessons and published simple song arrangements and 16- or 32-bar compositions, mostly in binary form.

His most important invention was the ‘Harp Ventura’, patented in 1828, a 17–19-string harp-lute, measuring about 83 × 33 × 13 cm, and apparently tuned diatonically from e to b′, with three notes on the fingerboard: c″, c‴ and a‴. This was perhaps the most flexible harp-lute for song accompaniments with awkward modulations, or in unusual keys. Its seven pushstops (later levers) raised the open strings by a semitone, using forks similar to Erard's fourchettes of the 1780s. An attractively decorated example is displayed in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (no.248)....

Article

Inna Barsova

revised by Detlef Gojowy

(b Balta, nr Odessa, 11/June 23, 1899; d Moscow, Oct 13, 1958). Russian composer and musicologist. He went to school in Warsaw, then studied the piano under Wendling at the Leipzig Conservatory until 1914; he then continued his studies with N.A. Dubasov (piano, 1914–17) and A.M. Zhitomirsky (composition, 1917–20) at the St Petersburg Conservatory. He was a pupil of Myaskovsky at the Moscow Conservatory (1920–23), where he then taught orchestration (1923–41), and was made a professor in 1930 and head of faculty from 1938. He was later professor at conservatories in Sverdlovsk and Saratov (1942). On his return to Moscow in 1943 he resumed composition and research.

Veprik was a reformer of musical education in the 1920s, when he joined a faction of ‘Red Professors’. In 1925 he initiated the invitation to Arnold Schoenberg to head the composition class at Moscow Conservatory (which he refused); in ...

Article

Donald Thompson

(b Yauco, June 14, 1922; d San Juan, Oct 30, 1995). Puerto Rican composer. His formal studies in music began as a piano student of Olimpia Morel Campos and Emilio Bacó Pasarell in Ponce. After graduating from the University of Puerto Rico with a general arts degree (1943) he served in the US Air Force. Following this military service he enrolled in the New England Conservatory of Music, Boston, studying composition with Carl MacKinley and graduating in 1949. He also studied at the Manhattan School of Music in New York City and with Pizzetti at the Accademia di S Cecilia in Rome. Returning to Puerto Rico in the early 1950s, he composed a number of film scores for the new Division of Community Education of the government of Puerto Rico. In 1960 he joined the faculty of the Puerto Rico Conservatory of Music as a teacher of theory and composition, remaining in that post until his death....

Article

Sharon Mabry

(b Washington DC, April 23, 1941). American composer and writer on music. She was educated at Wellesley College (BA 1962), the University of Michigan (MM 1963) and Boston University (DMA 1978), where she studied composition with Gardner Read. She was a fellow at the Charles Ives Center (1984, 1992), the Cité Internationale des Arts in Paris (1983–5), the Civitella Ranieri Foundation (1998) and at the Virginia Center for the Creative Arts (2000), and has received grants from the Artists Foundation and the NEA. She was director of the Women's Music Festival/85 in Boston and was a member of the boards of the International League of Women Composers (1980–87), the Artists Foundation (1985–90) and the Janus 21 Ensemble (2000–). Her writings include articles and reviews about music by women composers. She has been a member of the music faculty of Regis College since ...

Article

Martin McCain

(b Asheville, NC, Feb 15, 1948). American bass trombonist. Vernon studied with Bill Hill and Gail Williams at Brevard College and Georgia State University. Edward Kleinhammer and Arnold Jacobs of the Chicago Symphony also served as mentors. Vernon’s orchestral career began in 1971 as bass trombonist with the Baltimore Symphony. A one-year appointment with the San Francisco Symphony in 1980 was followed by a five-season position with the Philadelphia Orchestra. In 1986, Vernon succeeded his mentor, Edward Kleinhammer, in the Chicago Symphony. He has taught on the faculty of DePaul University and has also served in similar positions at Brevard Music Center, Catholic University, Northwestern University, and the Curtis Institute. Many of Vernon’s students have been appointed to major orchestras including Blair Bollinger with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Vernon has premiered numerous works including Ellen Taaffe Zwilich’s and Frank Siekmann’s Concertos for bass trombone and most recently Christian Lindberg’s ...

Article

Tijana Popović Mladjenović

(b Belgrade, June 29, 1948). Serbian musicologist. She studied musicology at the Belgrade Music Academy, from which she graduated in 1971 and received the master’s degree in 1974. She received the doctorate from the University of Belgrade in 1981. She is a full professor in the Department of Musicology of the Faculty of Music and at the Interdisciplinary Doctoral Studies in the Theory of Art and Media, University of Arts in Belgrade. She also cooperated with the Rostock University of Music and Drama and Erasmus University Rotterdam. From 2003 to 2005, she worked in the Department of Music of the University of Pretoria. She is the editor-in-chief of New Sound – International Magazine for Music, member of the editorial board of Matica Srpska Journal of Stage Art and Music, editor of numerous musicological editions, and leader of scientific projects. She is chair of the Department of Musicology (Faculty of Music, Belgrade), president of the Serbian Musicological Society, secretary of the Matica Srpska Department for Stage Art and Music, and member of the International Musicological Society. She has introduced new, innovative trends in Serbian musicology. Her scholarly activity is primarily orientated toward Serbian and European avant-garde and postmodern music....

Article

David Lasocki

(b Oberstdorf, Sept 18, 1943). German composer, performer and teacher. He began experimenting in the late 1950s with the sound-colours of the recorder and the possibilities offered by multiphonics and microtones. His discoveries, which inspired avant-garde composers such as Bussotti, Kagel and Stockhausen to use the instrument in their compositions, were codified in Il flauto dolce ed acerbo (1969), which included an analysis of 2000 fingerings. Vetter’s second recorder tutor (1983) promoted a method of teaching improvisation and included 100 of his compositions. Later, he similarly explored performing on and composing for the tambura, koto, tam-tam, Tibetan singing bowls, piano and voice. Beginning in 1968 he worked with children to develop new methods of music education involving improvisation. In 1973 he moved to Japan, where he became a Zen monk, performed his ‘structural theatre’ and wrote on ‘experimental Zen arts’, collected in his Shijima no oto...

Article

John Tyrrell

(b Brno, June 30, 1898; d Brno, Nov 30, 1979). Czech musicologist and folklorist . He studied with Helfert at Brno University (1921–6), taking the doctorate with a dissertation on Rieger. Until 1928 he worked under Helfert in the music section of the Moravian Museum; he then became head of the music division of Brno Radio (1928–45), which he helped to develop to a high standard, particularly increasing its educational role in the promotion of folk and art music. After the war he was director of the Brno University library (1945–53) and then head of the Brno Institute for Ethnography and Folklore at the Czech Academy of Sciences (1953–70); he also lectured on folk studies at the university (1954–9). Although Vetterl's writings reflect his work in libraries and the radio, where he undertook valuable cataloguing projects, his chief interest was folksong. In ...

Article

Marina Moiseyevna Mazur

(b Orenburg, 13/Dec 25, 1878/Jan 6, 1879 or Dec 25, 1879/Jan 6, 1880; d Leningrad, March 1, 1942). Russian composer and critic. On her graduation from the St Petersburg Gymnasium (1895), Veysberg became a student at the historico-philological faculty of the Women's University, and simultaneously (from 1899) gave private lessons in music theory under the auspices of I.I. Krïzhanovsky, a pupil of Rimsky-Korsakov. From around 1902 to 1905 she studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory, where she was taught composition by Rimsky-Korsakov, orchestration by Glazunov and singing by Tsvantsiger [Zwanziger]. She was expelled from the Conservatory in 1905 for her participation in the revolutionary events of that year, but was later allowed to return; she eventually graduated in 1912, after returning from Berlin, where she had studied with Humperdinck and Reger. Back in Russia she married Andrey Rimsky-Korsakov in ...

Article

(b S Tomé, April 22, 1868; d Lisbon, June 1, 1948). Portuguese pianist, teacher and composer . After early studies at the Lisbon Conservatory he went to Berlin where he had lessons from Xaver Scharwenka (piano) and Philipp Scharwenka (composition). He subsequently worked with Liszt at Weimar (1885) and Bülow at Frankfurt (1887), and made extensive tours of Europe (1887–8), the USA (1892–3, 1899) and South America (1902), sometimes playing as many as four concerted works in one programme. In Berlin he collaborated with Busoni on several editorial projects, including works by Bach and Liszt, and also performed with him in two-piano recitals; Busoni dedicated a set of transcriptions of Bach’s Chorale Preludes to Vianna da Motta. From 1915 to 1917 Vianna da Motta held the post formerly occupied by Stavenhagen at the Geneva Conservatoire, and from 1919 to 1938...

Article

Karel Steinmetz

(b Olomouc, 5 May 1949). Czech musicologist and composer. He studied musicology at the Palacký University in Olomouc with Robert Smetana and Vladimír Hudec (MA 1972, PhDr 1974), the accordion at the Ostrava Conservatory (graduated 1972), composition with Jiří Dvořáček, and music theory with Karel Risinger at the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague (graduated 1981, 1983). He taught at the department of musicology and music education at the Palacký University in Olomouc from 1973 to 1985. From 1985 to 1989 he worked as editor and chief editor with the journal Hudební rozhledy in Prague. In 1990 he became head of the re-opened department of musicology at the Palacký University, becoming professor there in 1998 and working there until 2016. Since 1980 he has worked at the department of music theory and history of the Prague Academy of Performing Arts, founding the music management programme there and teaching music analysis, aesthetics, and criticism. As a Fulbright/CIES scholar-in-residence, he lectured at eight universities in the United States (...