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Dragotin Cvetko

revised by Zdravko Blažeković

(b Subotica, Oct 1, 1914; d Zagreb, April 18, 1964). Croatian musicologist and composer. He studied composition and musicology at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra in Rome. From 1942 he was choirmaster at Zagreb Cathedral and editor of the church music journal Sv. Cecilija (1942–5, 1946), from 1951 professor of aesthetics and church music at the theology faculty at Zagreb. In 1963 he founded the Institute of Church Music. Vidaković was one of the most important Croatian musicologists. His systematic examination of Croatian music, for instance in his detailed analysis of Jelić’s works in the introduction to his edition of Parnassia militia or in his book on Križanić, where he discussed the Croatian musical theorists of the 17th century, are well known. His compositions consist mainly of vocal music and include a number of masses which, although written on the polyphonic basis, seek to capture the spirit of Croatian folk music....


David Charlton

(b Toulouse, June 16, 1863; d Paris, April 9, 1931). French conductor, teacher and composer. He attended the Toulouse Conservatoire and later the Paris Conservatoire, where he was in Massenet’s composition class. He achieved a formidable record, winning premiers prix for both harmony (1879) and counterpoint and fugue (1881) and the Prix de Rome (1883) with the cantata Le gladiateur, which was published in vocal score. During his subsequent stay in Rome he became a particular friend of Debussy, whose L’enfant prodigue won the Prix de Rome in 1884. He began his conducting career at the Paris Opéra in 1889 as assistant chorus director, becoming director of singing in 1892 and chief conductor in 1906. He directed performances at the Opéra from 1894, beginning with Chabrier’s Gwendoline. Apart from the standard opera and ballet repertory he conducted the Parisian premières of Massenet’s ...


Árni Heimir Ingólfsson

(b Reykjavík, 7 Dec 1918; d Reykjavík, 27 Feb 2017). Icelandic composer and pianist. She began music lessons with her mother and with Páll Ísólfsson, and studied the piano with Árni Kristjánsson at the Reykjavík College of Music (1932–6). She then attended the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (1937–9) and the Juilliard School (1943–5; theory and orchestration, Vittorio Giannini; piano, Hélène Morzyn). She completed her education with further piano lessons in Vienna (1959–60). On returning to Iceland she became an active performer, showing a special affinity for the music of Beethoven, Chopin, Schumann, and Debussy. In later years she taught on the faculty of the Reykjavík School of Singing.

Her music combines national and international elements in a distinctively colourful and melodious style. Much of her instrumental music – Ólafur Liljurós, Slátta (‘Touches’), Meditations on Five Icelandic Themes – draws on the metrical schemes and ornamental figures of Icelandic folksong, as does her ambitious choral work ...


Torben Schousboe

(b Fuglebjerg, Aug 15, 1906; d Copenhagen, March 13, 1987). Danish organist and composer . He graduated from the Copenhagen Conservatory in 1926 and was appointed organist at several Copenhagen churches: the German-French Reformed, 1928; Jaegersborg, 1940; Trinitatis, 1947; and St Andreas, 1971. Having taken the MA in musicology at Copenhagen University in 1929, he taught music theory (1935–45) and lectured on organ and harpsichord music (1949–74) at the university. In 1959–60 he was visiting professor of organ and acting university organist at Yale University, and in 1967–8 visiting professor of organ at North Texas State University. In 1968 he was appointed to teach at the Copenhagen Conservatory. The foremost Danish organist of his time, Viderø enjoyed international esteem. He gave numerous organ recitals and broadcasts in Europe and the USA, and held masterclasses in the organ at Helsinki (1950), Bergen (1955...


James Methuen-Campbell

(b Talcahuano, Chile, Feb 10, 1911; d Milan, Aug 7, 1978). Italian pianist and teacher. His first studies were with Ernesto Drangosch in Buenos Aires. After his family returned to Italy, he studied with Carlo Lonati at the Milan Conservatory, and had lessons in composition with Riccardo Bossi and G.C. Paribeni. Vidusso began his concert career, which was chiefly restricted to performances in Italy, in the early 1930s, though during this period he also dedicated himself to teaching. From 1933 he was an instructor at the Istituto Musicale in Padua, moving to a similar position at Verona in 1937. From 1939 to 1951 he taught at the Parma Conservatory. A meticulously accurate pianist and a demanding teacher with an immense knowledge of the repertory, Vidusso laid special emphasis on fingering, and this extended even to numbering every note in the student's score of a Chopin study. In 1950...


David Fuller

revised by Bruce Gustafson

(b Carcassonne, c1761; d Paris, March 1819). French teacher, composer and music dealer. According to Gerber, he was a pupil of Laguna at the age of 18. When he was 22 he went to Paris with a letter to Jean-Jacques Beauvarlet-Charpentier, with whom he completed his studies. In 1795 he opened a music shop. He was known for many years as the author of a piano method (c1795), which was revised and reissued again and again by such lights as Adolphe Adam and Louise Farrenc, and translated into Spanish, continuing to appear as late as 1875. Fétis said of it: ‘There are few works that are more mediocre or of more questionable utility than this so-called method; there are few, however, which have been more successful or run to so many editions’.

After the piano method, Viguerie’s most famous works were his battle pieces, Marengo, which was imitated as late as ...


(b Holta, Mykolaivs′ka region, 2/May 14, 1888; d Kiev, Sept 7, 1956). Ukrainian composer and teacher. In 1912 he graduated in law from Odessa University and in 1919 from the conservatory there in Maliszewski's class. He began to teach at the Odessa Conservatory in 1920 (as professor from 1926), then in Tashkent (1941–4), and from 1944 at the Kiev Conservatory, where he headed the composition faculty from 1948. Among his many students were Bilash, Dan′kevych and Femilidi. In 1951 he became an Honoured Artist of the Ukrainian SSR and received the Order of Lenin in 1953. In addition to writing articles on Ukrainian and Moldovan music, he worked as reviewer, music critic, and editor (he supervised the publication of the complete works of Lysenko). Vilinsky belongs to the first generation of Ukrainian professional composers who, in the period between 1910 and 1932, participated in the rebirth of Ukrainian political and cultural identity. Written with great skill and formal clarity, his music was essentially post-Romantic in style with a few modernist characteristics; much of it is deeply influenced by folk culture. He discovered a method by which he translated the essentially vocal tradition of Ukrainian music into an instrumental fabric. He was particularly partial to variation form, which he employed in heterogeneous ways....


Enrique Franco

(b León, Nov 13, 1875; d Madrid, Nov 4, 1937). Spanish composer, teacher and musicologist. A follower of nationalism in its most direct phase, he investigated the folk music of his native region and at once used popular rhythms and melodies in orchestral, vocal, chamber and piano works; however, in some of his songs, settings of classical and Romantic Spanish poets, he cultivated an elegant and refined salon style. Two of his three quartets are based on Leónese folk music, whose characteristics brought out Villar's innate lyricism, melancholy and nostalgia, qualities for which he became known as ‘the Spanish Grieg’. From 1919 until the beginning of the Civil War (1936–9) he was a professor at the Madrid Conservatory, where he defended the Spanish music of his generation. In 1928 he founded the magazine Ritmo, in which, as in his books and essays, he inveighed against the most recent musical trends, supporting tonality, melody as the basis of all music, and the essentiality of a functional modal harmony derived from national folk music. Nevertheless, he was an ardent defender of Falla and of his most daring work, the Concerto for harpsichord and five instruments....


David Tunley

[de ]

(b Paris, 1683; d Strasbourg, May 28, 1760). French teacher and composer . He worked at Lyons from 1703 as a music teacher, and it seems likely that when the Académie des Beaux-Arts was founded there in 1713 Villesavoye was associated with it. He may have become maître de musique for the academy in 1718, on the resignation of N.-A. Bergiron de Briou from that post; he was certainly appointed director of its concerts in 1726. In their early years these were given only by academicians, taught and rehearsed by the maître de musique, but this amateur music-making gradually gave way to more professional performances. Among the few professional singers at the academy during Villesavoye's time was his second wife, Suzanne Palais, whom he married in 1707. About 1731 he left Lyons for Strasbourg where he became maître de musique at the cathedral. While holding that appointment he directed the festival music for a visit of Louis XV to Strasbourg on ...


W. Thomas Marrocco

(b Birmingham, AL, May 17, 1902; d Santa Monica, CA, Jan 21, 1977). American composer and teacher. He studied at the New England Conservatory under Converse and Chadwick (diploma 1927), at George Peabody College (BS, MA), and under Piston at Harvard University (1933–5), where he won the John Knowles Paine Traveling Fellowship for two years of study with Boulanger; in 1942 he gained the PhD at Cornell University. He was head of the music department at Western Kentucky State University (1937–45) and Schoenberg’s successor as professor of composition at UCLA (1946–69). In addition, he conducted orchestras throughout the USA and South America, and he was a director of the Huntington Hartford Foundation (1952–65). His music is rhythmically vital and lyrical, essentially Classical in form and distinctly individual. The free tonality of his work makes use of what he calls ‘paratonality’: the predominance of a diatonic element in a polytonal or atonal passage. He published ...


Paolo Emilio Carapezza and Giuseppe Collisani

(b Nicosia, Sicily, c1525; d Nicosia or Piazza Armerina, after June 14, 1584). Italian composer and teacher. He was the founder of the school of Sicilian polyphonists and was highly rated in his own day, particularly as a madrigalist.

Vinci probably grew up in Sicily and maintained contacts there when he left the island. His first four works were dedicated to Sicilian noblemen, and the titles of the ricercares for two voices (1560) are proverbs and names in Sicilian dialect. He probably lived in Naples around 1560 since his first two pupils, Giulio Severino and Ambrosio Marien, were both connected with the city. After some years in different parts of Italy, including Tuscany and Lombardy, he was appointed maestro di cappella at S Maria Maggiore in Bergamo on 15 May 1568; he held this post until 28 July 1580. He married in Bergamo, and his pupils there included his compatriot Paolo Caracciolo and the Englishman John Cowden (Giovanni Coudenno). During this period he became associated with the Milanese patron Antonio Londonio, to whom he dedicated no fewer than four books of madrigals; it is clear from the dedication that the works in the second book of six-voice madrigals (...


Dorothea A. Nahm

(b Erie, PA, Aug 13, 1839 or 1842; d St Petersburg, FL, Oct 15, 1921). American music educator and inventor of musical instruments. In 1878 he opened a music school with his wife Antha Minerva Virgil (née Patchen) in Peoria, Illinois, which continued until 1883. The Virgils then moved to New York. A.K. Virgil may have devised as early as 1872 a rudimentary form of his ‘practice clavier’, a silent keyboard instrument; by the mid-1880s it was being sold under the name Techniphone and by 1892 as the Virgil Perfected Practice Clavier (see Virgil practice clavier).

In 1889 Virgil published The Virgil Clavier Method: Foundation Exercises, book 1; the following year he and his wife formed the Virgil Practice Clavier Company, and in 1891 the Virgil Piano School. He opened the Virgil Piano School and Practice Clavier Co. in Chicago in late 1896 or 1897, but this lasted only until ...


Carlos Seoane

(b Sorata, March 30, 1898; d La Paz, Sept 2, 1971). Bolivian pianist, composer and teacher . He studied piano privately in La Paz, with Giovanini in Rome (1926) and with Camille Decreusse in Paris (1927–8). Returning to Bolivia in 1929, he gave private piano lessons and performed piano works by French and Russian composers. From 1937 he taught at the La Paz Conservatory, and he was a founder member of the Man Cesped Association in Cochabamba (1940). He was director of the La Paz Conservatory from 1949–69, during which period he appeared in recitals and concerts with the Bolivian National SO. Also he published several poems, essays, articles and press reviews. He won several prizes, including diplomas from the Tomás Frías University and the Caja Nacional de Seguro Social, and the National Culture Award (1970). His published compositions, almost entirely for piano, include ...


Matthew Harp Allen

(b Madras [now Chennai], India, Aug 13, 1927; d Hartford, CT, Sept 10, 2002). flutist, vocalist, and ethnomusicologist of Indian birth. Born into a family of musicians and dancers, he received his musical training from his mother T. Jayammal and from flutist T.N. Swaminatha Pillai, an MA in economics from Annamalai University (1951), and a PhD in ethnomusicology from Wesleyan University (1975).

He first came to the United States as a Fulbright scholar at UCLA (1958–60), was reader and head of the department of Indian music at the University of Madras (1961–6), and returned to the United States, where he studied ethnomusicology at Wesleyan University (1967–1970), taught at the California Institute of the Arts (1970–5), and then worked in the faculty of Wesleyan University (1975–2002).

He was honored in India with the Kalaimamani Award by the government of Tamil Nadu (...


[Johann Matthias]

(b Hořín, nr Mělník, Feb 22, 1770; d Prague, Dec 7, 1839). Czech composer and teacher. His dates, which have been the subject of some confusion, were satisfactorily established by Marie Tarantová from a biographical outline of the composer’s life found in the papers of his friend the composer Jan Theobald Held (1770–1851), now in the Literary Archive of the National Museum, Prague.

Vitásek received his first musical training from his father, the organist and choirmaster in Hořín. Later he studied in Prague with F.X. Dušek and J.A. Kozeluch; his early career was spent in the service of the Lobkowitz and Nostitz families. Through the Dušeks he came to know Mozart, whom he greatly admired and whose influence is evident in his music; he was himself considered an outstanding interpreter of Mozart’s works. He was also friendly with Mozart’s biographer F.X. Niemetschek, and with the lexicographer B.J. Dlabač....


Joachim Braun

revised by Arnolds Klotiņš

[Wihtol, Joseph]

(b Valmiera, July 26, 1863; d Lübeck, April 24, 1948). Latvian composer and teacher. Born into a musical family, he studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory with Rimsky-Korsakov. He graduated in 1886 and took over a composition class at the conservatory, where he was a professor from 1901 to 1918. Among his pupils were Prokofiev and Myaskovsky. Vītols was a close friend of Glazunov and Lyadov, and a regular participant at the ‘Belyayev Fridays’, meetings of distinguished Russian composers at the home of the well-known publisher and patron; Belyayev was Vītols’s main publisher at the time, though works were published under the name Joseph Wihtol. From 1897 to 1914 Vītols was music critic of the St Petersburger Zeitung, but after the revolution he moved to Riga and for 25 years he dominated the musical life of independent Latvia. He became director of the Latvian Opera in 1918 (renamed the Latvian National Opera in ...


Barry Kernfeld

(Ladislav )

(b Prague, Dec 6, 1947). Czech double bass player. He learned violin and piano before taking up double bass and, while studying at the Prague Conservatory, won a scholarship to the Berklee School of Music (1966). In 1967 he moved to New York, where he played with Art Farmer, Freddie Hubbard, the quintet led by Bob Brookmeyer and Clark Terry, and Miles Davis, then worked with Herbie Mann (1968–70); he also recorded with Donald Byrd (1967), Chick Corea and Jack DeJohnette (both 1968), Wayne Shorter (1969), and Larry Coryell (1970). In 1970 he toured with Stan Getz, rejoined Mann, and, with Shorter and Joe Zawinul, was a founding member of Weather Report (jazz). Vitous left the group in 1973 and spent several years experimenting with electric bass guitars. After he resumed playing double bass he joined the faculty of the New England Conservatory (...



(b Baden, nr Vienna, Sept 14, 1724; d Brussels, March 23, 1816). Austrian conductor, teacher, impresario and composer, active in the southern Netherlands. In 1735, at the age of 11, he arrived in Brussels and entered the service of Archduchess Marie-Elisabeth, governor of the Netherlands, as a choirboy. In 1740 he was appointed court timpanist in the same department as the trumpeter François-Antoine Vitzthumb, his half-brother. He was to hold this post for over 40 years, although his other commitments subsequently obliged him to relinquish his duties to his son Paul (1761–1838). In 1742, during the War of Austrian Succession (1740–48), he enlisted as a drummer in a regiment of Hungarian hussars commanded by Colonel Count Hadik. He was demobilized in September 1748, returned to Brussels and took up his post as timpanist again. He is mentioned among the court musicians as a composer, tenor and violinist in ...


Jason S. Bergman

(b Missoula, MT, Sept 13, 1952). American trumpeter, educator, and composer. Vizzutti studied at the Eastman School of Music where he received the only Artist’s Diploma ever awarded to a wind player in the institution’s history. He is widely known for his exceptional versatility and virtuosic technique that have set him apart from other performers of his era. His career has included performances with Chick Corea, Doc Severinsen, the NBC Tonight Show Band, Chuck Mangione, Woody Herman, and the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra. His numerous recordings, featuring many motion picture and video game soundtracks, include Back To The Future and Star Trek. As an educator he has taught at the University of Washington and been an Artist in Residence at the Eastman School of Music, the University of South Carolina, the Banff Center for the Performing Arts, Kansas State University, the Ohio State University, and the Trompeten Akademie in Bremen, Germany. As a composer, his works have received premieres from the Los Angeles Philharmonic....


Viorel Cosma

revised by Valentina Sandu-Dediu

(b Bucharest, March 8, 1949). Romanian composer and teacher. She graduated in 1973 from the Bucharest Conservatory, where her teachers included Tudor Ciortea, Ştefan Niculescu and Aurel Stroe in composition, and Zeno Vancea and Myriam Marbe in counterpoint. In the same year she was appointed professor of theory and score reading at the Conservatory.

A composer of modest output, Marina Vlad has been primarily concerned with achieving a meticulous refinement of precise detail and a balanced vision of the work as a whole. She has shown a preference for the genre of instrumental chamber music, and her compositional technique can be best described as terse and well versed (in both the classical logic of the sonata, and in total-chromatic, pointillist, or serialist techniques), while also skilfully integrating elements of Romanian oral traditions. Her scores are demanding for performers, without being marred by gratuitous virtuosity.

(selective list)...