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Viorel Cosma

revised by Valentina Sandu-Dediu

(b Bucharest, March 8, 1949). Romanian composer and teacher. She graduated in 1973 from the Bucharest Conservatory, where her teachers included Tudor Ciortea, Ştefan Niculescu and Aurel Stroe in composition, and Zeno Vancea and Myriam Marbe in counterpoint. In the same year she was appointed professor of theory and score reading at the Conservatory.

A composer of modest output, Marina Vlad has been primarily concerned with achieving a meticulous refinement of precise detail and a balanced vision of the work as a whole. She has shown a preference for the genre of instrumental chamber music, and her compositional technique can be best described as terse and well versed (in both the classical logic of the sonata, and in total-chromatic, pointillist, or serialist techniques), while also skilfully integrating elements of Romanian oral traditions. Her scores are demanding for performers, without being marred by gratuitous virtuosity.

(selective list)...


Margaret Grave

[Abbé Vogler]

(b Würzburg, June 15, 1749; d Darmstadt, May 6, 1814). German theorist, teacher, keyboard player, organ designer and composer. His theory of harmony influenced 19th-century approaches to music analysis, and he anticipated the Romantic period in his chromatic harmony, colouristic orchestration and melodic borrowings from folk tradition and exotic cultures. His radical concept of organ design aroused widespread interest and controversy; his writings on the reform of sacred music foreshadowed the Cecilian movement.

The son of a Würzburg instrument maker, Vogler attended a Jesuit Gymnasium before enrolling in humanistic studies at Würzburg University in 1763. Subsequently he studied common and canon law, first at Würzburg, then at Bamberg. During his student years he composed ballet and theatre music for university performances. In 1770 he obtained a post as almoner at the Mannheim court of Carl Theodor, the Elector Palatine. Politically resourceful, he soon attained prominence in the court’s musical life, secured the elector’s favour, and was granted the financial means to pursue musical study in Italy (from ...


Geoffrey Burgess

(b Strasbourg, March 18, 1781; d Paris, May 20, 1870). French oboist, teacher and composer. In 1798 he entered the class of François Sallantin at the Paris Conservatoire, and was awarded a premier prix the following year. He may also have studied composition with A. Reicha. Concurrent with his studies he served as second oboist at the Théâtre Montansier, and later he joined the orchestras of the Théâtre Italien (1800–02) and Opéra-Comique (1802–12). In 1809, after travelling to Italy and Austria as a member of Napoléon's musique particulière, he was appointed first oboe at the Opéra-Comique, and adjunct professor at the Conservatoire. He subsequently succeeded Sallantin as both principal oboist at the Opéra (1812–34), and as professeur titulaire at the Conservatoire (1816–53, thence to 1868 on the Comité des Études). Among his students were the leading oboists, oboe makers and future Conservatoire professors of the next generation: H. Brod, A. Vény, A.-M.-R. Barret, C.-L. Triébert, S.-X. Verroust, A.-J. Lavigne, A. Bruyant (who inherited Vogt's compositional output) and C. Colin. Vogt was a member of the Chapelle Royale of Louis XVIII from its establishment in ...


Helmut Kallmann

(b Washington, ON, Aug 14, 1861; d Toronto, Sept 17, 1926). Canadian organist and conductor . He studied at the New England Conservatory, Boston, and the Leipzig Conservatory under Reinecke and Jadassohn. After returning to Toronto he held an organist’s post, and in 1894 founded the (Toronto) Mendelssohn Choir and conducted it, with a break from 1897 to 1900, until 1917 when he was succeeded by H.A. Fricker. Vogt was principal of the Toronto Conservatory (1913–26) and dean of the music faculty in the university (1919–26). The high reputation of the Mendelssohn Choir was the result of Vogt’s brilliant abilities as a choral trainer. Under him the choir performed a wide repertory in Canada, and made successful appearances in Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland and New York. In his memory a Vogt Society was founded in Toronto in 1937; this became the Society for Contemporary Music, which was active until ...


Edward H. Tarr


(b Angers, France, June 26, 1918, d Newton, MA, Feb 13, 2008). American trumpeter and pedagogue of French birth. He immigrated with his family to Boston at the age of nine. He began trumpet study with his father René (b 18 Nov 1893; d 16 Jan 1952), a former pupil of Petit and Vignal at the Paris Conservatoire and a member of the Boston SO, continuing with Georges Mager (1933) and Marcel LaFosse (1934) before joining the Boston SO as third trumpet in 1935. He became first in 1950, returned to third in 1965, and retired in 1973. He took American citizenship on his 18th birthday. Voisin was a member of the faculties of the New England Conservatory (1946–75), Boston University (1969–99, in 1975 full professor and chair of wind, percussion and harp department), and the Tanglewood Music Center (...


John Tyrrell

(Ignác František)[Voyachek, Ignaty Kasparovich ]

(b Zlín, Moravia, Dec 4, 1825; d Tsarskoye Selo [now Pushkin], 27 Jan/Feb 9, 1916). Czech musician, active in Russia . He was brought up in Vsetín, where his father obtained a teaching post in 1830, and in Brno, as a chorister of the Augustinian monastery (from 1838). He studied for a year at the University of Vienna (1845–6) and founded a Slavonic student choral society, for which he wrote a large number of male-voice choruses. After working as a music tutor (1846–8) to the family of Count Bethlen in Hermannstadt, Transylvania (now Sibiu, Romania), he returned to Brno, conducting Czech concerts of the Brno Männergesangsverein. He returned to Vienna and in 1852 helped compile a collection of Valachian and Slovak folksongs (he had begun collecting folksongs himself in 1838). In Vienna he got to know the Russian composer Aleksey Fyodorovich L′vov, who obtained a post for him (...


Jiří Sehnal

(b? Czernovicium, c1660; d? Prague, before 1725). Czech composer . He attended the Jesuit seminary of St Václav in Prague and then studied philosophy at Prague University, where he took the BA on 20 May 1677. After studying medicine there, he qualified as a doctor on 26 June 1684. His text for a Christmas play appeared in print in January 1684 ( CZ-Pu ; the music is lost), as did the text for his undated cantata Threnodia huius Temporis sive Exul Veritas. Both works are dedicated to the dean of the faculty of medicine, Jan Jakub Václav Dobřenský, a patron of music. Between 1702 and 1705 Vojta was the doctor at the Benedictine monastery in Prague. He was apparently a very good violinist and a skilful composer. There are documentary records, mostly from monastic sources, of some 26 compositions by him, mainly sacred. However, only the following works are known to survive: ...


Josef Bek

(b Trenčín, July 15, 1923; d Prague, Feb 22, 1989). Czech musicologist and aesthetician . He studied composition at the Prague Conservatory (1941–6) and the Prague master class (1946–8) under Šín, Hába and Řídký. He gained his musicological and aesthetic education at the Prague and Bratislava universities (1946–52). An important stimulus for his own creative work came from Jan Mukařovský, the structuralist aesthetician, and through his own contacts with Emil Utitz, a German aesthetician of Jewish extraction who lived in Prague until his death. He took the doctorate in 1952 in Bratislava with a dissertation on theoretical bases of harmony from the viewpoint of scientific philosophy. He then became successively lecturer (1952–7), reader (1957–68) and professor (1968) in the arts faculty of Prague University. He took the CSc degree in 1958 and the DSc degree in 1968...


Erik Levi

(b Fürstenau, Danzig [now Gdańsk], Sept 29, 1876; d Straussberg bei Berlin, Sept 15, 1945). German composer, teacher and conductor. He studied in Berlin with Tappert, Radecke and Gernsheim before becoming a theatre conductor in Prague, Berlin, Barmen and Mainz. From 1908 to 1910 he was in Paris, returning to Berlin where he taught singing before the war. After 1918 he retired from teaching until 1933 when the Nazis enforced a reorganization of the Berlin Hochschule für Musik and appointed him teacher of lieder interpretation and score reading, a post he was forced to relinquish in 1936 after a homosexual indiscretion.

Vollerthun sprang to prominence during the final years of the Weimar Republic when, as a staunch anti-modernist, he joined the Berlin section of the Kampfbund für Deutsche Kultur in order to promote National Socialist cultural policies. He earned much praise in the conservative musical press for his conventional songs and for his neo-Wagnerian ...


Iosif Genrikhovich Rayskin

(b Kiev, 4/Oct 17, 1905; d Oct 21, 1960). Russian composer and teacher. He studied composition with A.N. Butskoy at the Lysenko Institute in Kiev (1924–5) before entering the Leningrad Conservatory where he attended the classes of M. Chernov and Shcherbachyov, completing postgraduate work with the latter in 1932. He taught theory in Leningrad music colleges from 1927, and in 1932 he started teaching composition at the conservatory (from 1935 as senior lecturer and from 1952 as professor). He gained his Kandidat degree in 1947 for his dissertation Printsipï garmonizatsii russkoy narodnoy pesni v svyazi s osobennostyami yevo ladovogo stroyeniya (‘The principles of harmonization of Russian folksong in connection with the characteristics of its modal structure’). After Shostakovich and Shcherbachyov were denounced in 1948, Voloshinov was appointed head of the composition department and under conditions of severe ideological pressure, he managed to withstand party dictates and preserve the high creative and academic principles of the conservatory. His pupils included Akbarov, A. Chernov, V.P. Chistyakov and Tishchenko....



(b Warsaw, Poland, June 19, 1856; d New York, Aug 25, 1932). American pianist, teacher, author, and translator of Polish birth. Von Ende came to the United States at age six, settling first in Milwaukee. At age 19, she moved to Chicago and in 1880 opened a boarding school for German-American girls, the Minerva Institute. In 1893 she relocated to New York City, where she worked as a journalist, writing for American and German audiences on cultural developments. She was an ardent supporter of Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman, introducing and championing them to German readers. She contributed to the Musical Courier, Die Musik (Berlin), the New York Post and The Nation. She also wrote an influential article for Musical America entitled “Women as a Creative Force in Music” in 1914, surveying and defending women’s work in music. As a musician, she was an active pianist, teacher, and composer in New York, notably teaching music history at the Von Ende School of Music, founded by her son Herwegh von Ende. She composed and published works for solo voice, chorus, piano, and violin, though several works were left in manuscript. Von Ende was best known for her literary work and left a copious catalog of monographs, literary criticism and translation, including a book on New York, published in Berlin in ...


Francisco J. Albo

(b Leipzig, Feb 23, 1848; d New York, Jan 15, 1918). American pianist, teacher, and composer of German origin. From 1862 he trained at the Conservatory of Leipzig, where he studied with Moscheles, Reinecke, and Hauptmann (Helbig Prize in composition in 1864). Upon graduating in 1866, he toured Germany for two years before moving to the USA and settling permanently in New York. In December 1868 he made a successful début at one of Theodore Thomas’ Classical Soirées. Lacking the ambition to become a virtuoso, or simply because of disinterest in certain repertoires, he failed to secure a prominent position among other pianists who had also settled in New York at that time. He nonetheless retained prestige as a scholarly pianist. For the next four decades he appeared often as accompanist and in chamber music concerts, often collaborating with Thomas and with Leopold Damrosch. Those concerts gave momentum to a form that was still rather unappreciated by general audiences. A sought after teacher, he instructed Frank and Walter Damrosch. In ...


Romeo Ghircoiaşiu

(b Czernowitz [now Chernovtsy], May 18, 1836; d Czernowitz, Sept 18, 1903). Romanian composer, teacher and writer. After studying with Krenn at the Vienna Music Academy, he taught music in the Romanian schools of Czernowitz. He wrote a handbook of harmony (1869, the first of its kind in Romanian) and a textbook of music theory (in German, 1871); both were intended for teachers and amateurs alike. His choral works, folk pieces and patriotic songs were written for schools and the many amateur music societies, which came to represent after 1830 an important national artistic movement. Taking some ideas from folk music and from old Romanian church chant, Vorobchievici used modal techniques in much of his work. As a writer he is known particularly for a study of Romanian music; his articles, poetry, dramas and editorial work also played an important part in the cultural development of Romania. Among his pupils were Eusebius Mandyczewski, Ciprian Porumbescu and Tudor Flondor....


Raymond A. Barr

(b Sommersdorf, Mecklenburg, Feb 20, 1751; d Heidelberg, March 29, 1826). German poet . The son of a farmer, he studied theology and later philology at Göttingen University (1772–5), where he became a member of the ‘Göttinger Hainbund’, a literary circle led by H.C. Boie. Voss frequently contributed poetry to Boie’s journal, the Musenalmanach, and from 1775 to 1800 was its editor. During these years he also served as headmaster at schools in Otterndorf (1778) and Eutin (1782). In 1802 he went to Jena to improve his health; three years later he was appointed to the faculty of Heidelberg University to teach classical philology. He remained in Heidelberg until his death.

Voss is best known for his German translations of Homer, Virgil, Horace, Ovid and (with the help of his two sons) Shakespeare. His chief contribution to music is his lyric poetry, which was frequently set by 18th-century composers including C.P.E. Bach, J.F. Reichardt and J.A.P. Schulz; many of these settings were published in the ...


Miloš Velimirović

(b Voznesensk, Kostroma province, 5/Sept 17, 1838; d Kostroma, 8/Dec 21, 1910). Russian writer on church music . Voznesensky graduated from the Kostroma Seminary in 1860 and from the Moscow Theological Academy in 1864. He served as teacher of chant in the Kostroma Seminary until 1883, when he became an inspector of the Riga Seminary until 1894; he then served as head priest of the cathedral of the Trinity, Kostroma. In the late 1880s and in the 1890s he published several volumes of studies dealing with the different varieties of chant in Russian churches. His works are basically compilations, and eclectic in nature. He did only a minimal amount of original research on the historical evolution of Russian chant, but he was among the first in Russia to investigate the melodic traditions of south-western Russian provenance from the 17th and 18th centuries preserved in Western staff notation. He translated into Russian a treatise of the ‘method’ of the Greco-Slavonic chanting originally written in Latin by Ioan de Castro (Rome, ...


Walter Blankenburg

(b Wasungen, nr Meiningen, c1570; d Weimar, bur. Aug 7, 1615). German composer, schoolmaster and writer on music. He was the most important composer of Protestant hymn tunes in Germany in his day and one of the most productive and popular of lesser Lutheran composers.

Together with one of his brothers, Vulpius latinized the family name, Fuchs, but still occasionally used that form. He was the son of poor parents and as a result was only able to attend the small Lateinschule in his home town, where he was a pupil of Johann Steuerlein. In 1588 he was at Speyer as a fellow pupil of Christoph Thomas Walliser, whom he instructed in the elements of musica poetica, and he was there again in 1589. In that year he was appointed, on the recommendation of the Wasungen preacher A. Scherdiger and in spite of his not having attended a university, to a position as a supernumerary teacher of Latin at the Lateinschule at nearby Schleusingen, the former residence of the counts of Henneberg (who had become extinct in ...


Josef Bek and Geoffrey Chew

(b Košice, May 11, 1924; d Brno, Nov 26, 2015). Czech musicologist. He studied at the arts faculty in Brno University (1945–9), taking the doctorate in 1949, with a dissertation on music ethnography, and the CSc degree in 1959, with a dissertation on Janáček and folksong. He began his career at Brno University in 1961, acting as head of the Institute for Musicology from 1963 until his retirement in 1990, but continuing to lecture there until his death, and he took the DSc degree in 1974 with a work on Alois Hába, with whom he had struck up a close friendship. He was active in the administration of the Union of Czechoslovak Composers, and was president of the Brno International Musical Festival (1976–89) and chairman of the Brno International Colloquia (1976–95); he is among those listed in the controversial Cibulka list of state secret agents, with the code name ‘Debbussy’. His research was first directed towards the study of Moravian folksong, but later his interests extended to include Janáček, Alois Hába, and Czech music of the 20th century and earlier....


George Ruckert

(b Nashville, TN, March 29, 1941). American ethnomusicologist . She took the BMus at Boston University (1963) and at UCLA she completed the MA (1967) and the PhD (1971), the last with a dissertation on khayāl. She taught at Brown University (1971–5) and then joined the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, where she established the internationally respected ethnomusicology programme. She was made professor at California in 1981 and has served as chairman of the music department (1983–88), undergraduate dean (from 1992), and chair of the deans (from 1994). She has held offices in a number of professional societies, including that of vice-president of the AMS (1990–93), board member of the IMS (1987–97) and president of the Society for Ethnomusicology (1999–2001).

A pioneer in her field, Wade wrote one of the first standard ethnomusicological textbooks, ...


Robert Lee Weaver

[Huberto] [Waelrandus, Hubertus]

(b c1517; d Antwerp, Nov 19, 1595). Flemish composer, music editor, singer and teacher. He was an innovator among mid-16th-century Flemish composers, and his style bridges the period between that of Gombert and the mature Lassus. His works are characterized by careful attention to the relationship between text and music, reflecting the current humanistic outlook, and by chromatic harmony and inventiveness in the use of dissonances.

Waelrant’s name appears with numerous spellings, including Waelrans, Waelramst, Waelranck, Waralt and Vuaelrant, but in his own publications he consistently used the forms Waelrant, Waelrand or Waelrandus. His life and activities were centred in Antwerp, but much confusion arises from the fact that there were several men with this name in the city at the time, including at least two lawyers named Hubertus Waelrant: a father and son (c1521–74 and c1546–1621). Persoons (1979, p.147) argued the existence of a third lawyer with this name; Spiessens (...


Jos Wouters

revised by Harrison Ryker

(b Utrecht, Nov 1, 1862; d The Hague, June 17, 1941). Dutch composer and teacher. He studied at the Toonkunstmuziekschool in Utrecht, taking composition lessons from Richard Hol. On graduation in 1885, he immediately began his career as a teacher there, simultaneously studying the organ with Samuel de Lange. He replaced Hol three years later as organist of Utrecht Cathedral, earning renown for his Bach performances, and in 1896 succeeded him as director of the Toonkunstmuziekschool, retaining both of these posts until 1919. In 1892 he spent a year in Berlin (studying with Herzogenberg) and Vienna. Wagenaar conducted the Toonkunst choirs of Utrecht (1904–27), Arnhem, Leiden and The Hague, also a male voice choir in Utrecht, often in large-scale choral or orchestral music by composers such as Berlioz and Mahler. In 1916 he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Utrecht, and in 1919 was appointed director of the Royal Hague Conservatory, where he remained until ...