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Michael Meckna

(b Springfield, MA, Jan 9, 1900; d Los Angeles, CA, Oct 12, 1974). American composer, conductor, and music educator. He studied at the New England Conservatory (diploma 1923) with frederick Converse , at Boston University (BM 1932), and privately with Alfredo Casella. During a year abroad (1934–5) he received additional training in composition from Nadia Boulanger and in conducting from pierre Monteux and Felix Weingartner. As a music administrator in the Boston public schools (1923–44), a faculty member at Boston University (1929–40), and founder-conductor of the Boston Civic SO (1925–44), Wagner exerted considerable influence on the musical life of that city. Subsequently he taught at Rutgers University, Brooklyn College, Hunter College, the University of Oklahoma, and the Los Angeles Conservatory; in 1961 he was appointed professor at Pepperdine College, Malibu, California. He conducted the Duluth SO (1947–50) and the Costa Rica National SO (...


Bernarr Rainbow

(b Gloucester, 1807; d Hereford, Oct 29, 1868). English teacher of sight-singing . A Congregationalist minister, Waite devoted his life to the improvement of psalmody in churches and chapels, a cause which led him, though totally blind from early manhood, to organize free classes and lectures attended by tens of thousands of working folk throughout the kingdom. His first efforts were made among his own congregation at Ilminster, Somerset; but at the invitation of the Rev. John Burder he instituted several classes in the neighbourhood of Stroud, Gloucestershire, well before John Hullah’s more celebrated Singing School was opened at Exeter Hall, London, in 1841. By 1849 Waite claimed to have taught in 16 counties of England and to have travelled some 20,000 miles for the purpose.

Waite’s system of teaching sight-singing was a development of Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s cipher notation in which the degrees of the major scale are represented by the numerals 1 to 7; but, unlike Rousseau and his disciples, Waite always employed numerals in conjunction with ordinary notation, his supplementary figures appearing below the stave only to assist the beginner to calculate melodic intervals. Note values and differences of octave were indicated by the ordinary notation alone, and Waite’s pupils were thus made familiar with standard notes from the outset. There was consequently less risk of their finding themselves incompetent when reading from standard notation at a later stage....


William McClellan and Karen M. Bryan

(b Haskell County, TX, 2 Sept 1919; d New York, NY, 19 May 2000). American music educator and composer. He attended Baylor University (BM 1940) and the Eastman School of Music (MM 1941, PhD 1952). Waldrop taught at Baylor University (1946–51), where he conducted the Waco-Baylor University Symphony Orchestra. He joined the Juilliard School in 1960, serving first as assistant to the president and then as dean. He was president of the Manhattan School of Music from 1986 to 1989.

In the 1950s Waldrop served as editor of the Review of Recorded Music (1952–3) and the Musical Courier (1953–8). He also served as consultant for the humanities division of the Ford Foundation (1958–61). He consulted on music education with the governments of Germany, Portugal, and Israel and with the Albeniz Foundation in Madrid.

Waldrop composed a symphony (...


Margaret Campbell

(b London, June 25, 1870; d London, Feb 10, 1953). English cellist and teacher . He studied at the RCM, at the RAM with Edward Howell and at the Hochschule für Musik in Frankfurt with Hugo Becker, and subsequently toured Germany as a soloist. He made his London début in 1902, and played frequently at the Saturday Concerts at St James's Hall. He was a distinguished chamber music player and was for four years a member of the Kruse Quartet; he later formed his own quartet with his brother Gerald as leader. In 1919 he founded the London School of Violoncello, where his pupils included Boris Hambourg, Zara Nelsova, William Pleeth and Barbirolli. Casals wrote his Sardana for 16 cellos for a performance at the school in 1927. Walenn later taught at the RAM. Through his teaching he made a very significant contribution to the development of cello playing in Britain. (...


Ivor Keys

revised by Duncan J. Barker

(b Bombay, July 15, 1870; d Oxford, Feb 21, 1949). English teacher, writer on music, composer and pianist. His boyhood was marked by omnivorous self-instruction which was intensified when in 1887 he entered Balliol College, Oxford, and was befriended by its master, Benjamin Jowett. Taught by R.L. Nettleship, who profoundly influenced Walker's philosophical interests, and W.R. Hardie, he took the BA in classics (1891), after which followed the BMus (1893) and DMus (1898). In 1891 Balliol appointed him assistant organist to John Farmer, who had established there the series of Sunday concerts to whose fame and scope Walker signally contributed, particularly from 1901 when he succeeded Farmer as director of music. Walker’s concerts brought to Oxford such artists as Plunket Greene, Steuart Wilson, Fanny Davies and Adolf Busch, and helped to create the climate for the acceptance of music as a serious discipline, a process which culminated in ...


Duncan J. Barker

(b Greenock, July 3, 1860; d Malmesbury, Dec 16, 1940). Scottish composer and writer on music. The son of an eminent Scottish surgeon, he was educated at Fettes College and took medicine at Edinburgh and Glasgow universities. He then studied ophthalmology in Vienna and Paris, practising briefly in London. In 1889 he turned from medicine to music, entering the RAM for a year, his only formal musical training. His compositions began to be performed at the Crystal Palace and Queen's Hall, notably the symphonic poem The Passing of Beatrice in 1892. Wallace wrote widely in journals, editing the New Quarterly Musical Review for a few years. He examined the physiological and psychological aspects of music in his books The Threshold of Music and The Musical Faculty, two of the best contributions to the subject area. He was honorary secretary of both the Philharmonic Society (1911–13) and the Society of British Composers. During the war years Wallace worked again as a doctor and in later life became librarian and professor of harmony and composition at the RAM....


Mieczysława Hanuszewska

(b Lwów, Jan 23, 1885; d Kraków, April 9, 1944). Polish composer, conductor and teacher. He studied in Lwów with Sołtys, Niewiadomski (theory and composition) and Maliszowa and Zelinger (piano), at the Kraków Conservatory with Żeleński and Szopski, and in Leipzig with Riemann (musicology) and Prüfer. In 1910 he was appointed professor at the Kraków Conservatory, where he was made director in 1913. Founder, artistic director and conductor of the choral society Echo Krakowskie, he also conducted opera and orchestral concerts. As a composer, employing a traditional Romantic style, he excelled particularly in choral music. His opera Pomsta Jontkowa was planned as a sequel to Moniuszko’s Halka.

(selective list)


Penelope Gouk

(b Ashford, Kent, Nov 23, 1616; d Oxford, Oct 28, 1703). English mathematician, experimental philosopher and music theorist . He entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1632, graduated BA in 1637 and MA in 1640, the same year he was ordained. In recognition of his services to parliament during the Civil War (e.g. decoding ciphers used by the royalist army), Cromwell appointed Wallis to the Savilian Chair of Geometry at Oxford in 1649. He lectured on harmonics as a branch of mathematics and over the next half century established himself as the foremost English authority on musical science. He was also one of the experimental philosophers active in London and Oxford during the Interregnum who became founder members of the early Royal Society of London. His dual interest in mathematics and experimental philosophy is reflected in his music theory, which was written entirely from the perspective of a scholar rather than a practising musician....


Clyde William Young

revised by Édith Weber

(b Strasbourg, April 17, 1568; d Strasbourg, April 26, 1648). Alsatian teacher, composer and choral director. His father, also named Christoph Thomas (1542–92), left Nuremberg around 1566 and settled in Strasbourg, taking up a teaching post at the parish school of Jung St Peter. His mother, Margarethe Offner, was the daughter of the pastor there. Walliser attended the Schola Argentinensis where he followed the methods of Jean Sturm in his classical and humanist studies, until his father moved to Heilbronn in 1584. From that time he studied music, science and the liberal arts while travelling in Bohemia, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and several places in Germany. Melchior Vulpius of Speyer and Tobias Kindler of Zittau were among his teachers. In 1595 he was awarded a scholarship by the authorities in Strasbourg which enabled him to travel to Italy, where, in Bologna, he became a student and assistant of Aldrovandus, a natural scientist....


Elaine Keillor


(b Hannsdorf [now Hanušorice], Moravia, Aug 30, 1902; d Toronto, Oct 6, 1973). Canadian music educator, administrator and composer of Czech birth. After studying composition in Brno with Bruno Weigl, a pupil of Bruckner, he obtained the doctorate in law from the University of Prague (1926). At the University of Berlin he studied music with Hermann Abert, Curt Sachs and Johannes Wolf, among others; he undertook further study privately with Franz Schreker, Rudolf Breithaupt and Frederic Lamond. After brief medical studies at Masaryk University, Brno, he returned to Berlin to become a music journalist for Melos, Die Weltbühne and Vorwärts. In 1933, he fled Germany to Mallorca, where he studied folk music and taught. After relocating to England for a short period in 1936, he settled in Toronto where he taught at Upper Canada College (from 1937).

Hired to implement the reorganization of higher musical education in Toronto, Walter founded the Conservatory Opera School in ...


Rodney Slatford

(b Brooklyn, NY, March 22, 1913; d New York, NY, July 1, 2003). American double bass player and teacher. He spent a decade playing in jazz groups, studied at the Juilliard School with Fred Zimmermann, 1936–8, and in 1939 joined the Pittsburgh SO as principal bass. He played in the NBC SO under Toscanini from 1940 to 1954, and in 1956 became a member of the New York City Ballet Orchestra; he also worked with Casals at the Casals Festival in Puerto Rico. One of America’s leading double bass teachers, Walter taught at the Manhattan School of Music from 1957 to 1992, and in 1969 was appointed to the Juilliard School; he had also been a guest faculty member at several conservatories throughout the USA, in Europe and in China, and lectured widely and gave masterclasses. He contributed numerous articles to string journals, and edited many works for double bass, including Sperger’s Sonata no.1 and Pichl’s Concerto. He was chairman of the board of directors of the Symphony of the Air (as well as principal bass, ...


(b Göttingen, Oct 12, 1882; d Munich, Aug 13, 1954). German composer, teacher and writer on music. He studied composition in Strasbourg with M.J. Erb, and in Munich with Thuille in 1901. Remaining in the Bavarian capital, he founded the Praktisches Seminar für fortgeschrittene Musikstudierende as a private music school in 1917, and was subsequently invited to be professor and assistant director of the Akademie der Tonkunst in 1920. Two years later he was made director and, together with the Academy’s president Siegmund von Hausegger, overhauled the institution’s curriculum, adding a drama school, advanced composition classes and lectures (he himself gave those in dramaturgy and aesthetics). He was also active in other spheres, in particular organizing the Münchener Tonkünstlerverein and advising the newly established Bavarian Radio. He was retired from the Academy in 1932, and during the Third Reich founded the Seminar für Privatemusiklehrer which became the state-recognized Waltershausen-Seminar in ...


Howard Mayer Brown

revised by Paula Morgan and Christina Linklater

(b Oakland, CA, July 6, 1917, d Cambridge, MA, Dec 12, 2011). American musicologist. He studied with Gombosi at the University of Washington (MM 1942), with Herzog at Columbia University (1945–6), and with Sachs and Reese at New York University (PhD 1953, with a dissertation on the vihuela de mano). In 1944 Darius Milhaud wrote of Ward, ‘He lives in a dream state, somewhere between the Renaissance and Eric Satie. That gives to his music a flavor of purity and simplicity from which we may expect very good results’ (Milhaud, 1944). From 1947 to 1953 Ward was an instructor at Michigan State University and from 1953 to 1955 an assistant and then an associate professor at the University of Illinois. In 1955 he joined the faculty of Harvard University, where he was William Powell Mason Professor of Music from 1961 to 1985. In ...


Richard R. Bunbury

(Bayard Cutting)

(b Morristown, NJ, Aug 7, 1879; d Washington DC, Nov 27, 1975). American music educationist. She studied music with Hermann Hans Wetzler in New York (1895–1901). Inspired by the Moto Proprio (1903) of Pius X she converted to Catholicism and dedicated her energies to the reform of Church music. In 1910 she met Thomas E. Shields, from the Catholic University of America, who invited her to write music texts for use in Catholic schools. She devised a curriculum later known as the Ward Method using Chevé number notation and Shields's progressive educational philosophies. It focusses on pupils' aural skills as much as technical ability, and is taught using folksongs, standard hymnody and Gregorian chant. A series of teaching books were published (1914–23).

In 1920, at a Gregorian Congress at St Patrick's Cathedral in New York, thousands of children trained in the Ward Method sang chant under the direction of Dom André Mocquereau of Solesmes, with whom Ward then studied (...


Marshall Bialosky

(b Alexandria, LA, Nov 6, 1936). American composer. He studied at Florida State University (BM 1957) and the Univeristy of Illinois (MM 1958, DMA 1961). His teachers included John Boda, Wallingford Riegger, Darius Milhaud, Milton Babbitt, Nadia Boulanger and Burrill Phillips. In 1961 he joined the faculty at San Diego State University. Among his many awards are prizes from the National Federation of Music Clubs and the Ford Foundation, the Bearns Prize (Columbia University) and a Fulbright Senior Scholar Award. He has held residencies in Australia at the Victorian Centre for the Arts and La Trobe University, Melbourne.

Ward-Steinman has written music for a wide variety of ensembles and instruments. His style, characterized by upbeat and optimistic writing, is thoroughly American in outlook, exhibiting a clarity and accessibility that is strongly influenced by his experience as a jazz improviser. He is especially fond of ‘tightly-written’ music, in which a work grows out of a few initial notes. ...


Nico Schüler

(b Tyrone, PA, June 9, 1900; d University Park, PA, July 29, 1984). American musician, bandleader, choral conductor, radio-television personality, educator, and businessman. He grew up in a musical family, singing and playing guitar, drums, and banjo. Together with his brother Tom, he founded an ensemble in 1918 at Pennsylvania State University that in 1922 adopted the name “Waring’s Pennsylvanians” and had early hits with “Sleep” in 1923 and with “Collegiate” in 1925. A key characteristic of Waring’s ensemble was that all instrumentalists were also required to be strong vocalists. The group toured the United States as a stage act in film theaters and were featured in the early sound film Syncopation (1929), and by the 1930s they appeared on Broadway and became one of the most sought-after groups for radio hosting shows as well as in theaters. The ensemble was featured in the Cole Porter musical ...


(b Harrow-on-the-Hill, Dec 5, 1893; d Frome Vauchurch, Dorset, May 1, 1978). English music scholar. Daughter of a master at Harrow, she studied music, including composition, under Percy Buck, director of music at Harrow School. Her early compositions, which remain unpublished, were admired by Vaughan Williams. On the recommendation of W.H. Hadow, she became a member of the editorial committee of Tudor Church Music (1917–29), working alongside Buck, Alexander Ramsbotham and E.H. Fellowes. In addition to her extensive editorial work on the first ten volumes of Tudor Church Music (1917–29), she contributed a chapter on notation to the Oxford History of Music (introductory volume, 1929), lectured before the Musical Association (1918–19) and edited octavos of Tudor compositions for performing editions published by Stainer & Bell. For these clear and careful performing editions, she followed the editorial methods of Fellowes. With the success in ...


Cecil Adkins

(b c1656; d between Dec 1727 and July 1729). English musical amateur . A teacher at Tenison's School, St Martin-in-the-Fields, he espoused a two-string monochord in his The Tonometer: Explaining and Demonstrating, by an Easie Method, in Numbers and Proportion, all the 32 Distinct and Different Notes, Adjuncts or Supplements Contained in Each of Four Octaves Inclusive, of the Gamut, or Common Scale of Music (London, 1725). He claimed to have invented it, referring to Michael Wise as an early mentor, in order to help performers, practitioners and instrument makers understand what they do by ear.

The set of string lengths given by Warren divides the octave into 32 parts and is based on 1000 units of measurement. In commenting on the practicality of the instrument he said: ‘This is of use as well as for speculation, since hereby a scholar may be seasonably caution’d and inform’d … before he can be able either to perform or speak tolerably like a master … especially if vocal music, or the violin, are his profession or choice’. Warren’s system was discussed by J.A. Scheibe in his ...


Daniel Zager


(b Los Angeles, CA, May 12, 1916; d Pittsford, NY, Feb 26, 2005). American music librarian. She studied at the University of Southern California (BM in piano 1937, BA in English 1939, MA in English 1941, MM in musicology 1942) and at the University of Rochester (PhD in musicology 1952). Because the family was of Japanese descent, they were forced to leave their California home in April 1942 and were eventually relocated to Colorado for the duration of World War II. In September 1942 Watanabe was invited by Howard Hanson to study at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, NY. She began work toward the doctorate in musicology and took a student job in Sibley Music Library, where she was appointed to a full-time position as head of circulation in 1944. In 1946 Hanson appointed her to the music history faculty and made her acting librarian; the permanent position as librarian followed in ...


Bruno Nettl

(b Solvang, CA, July 10, 1914; d Tampa, FL, Nov 8, 1971). American ethnomusicologist . After completing his undergraduate studies at Santa Barbara State College (1937), he obtained the MA in anthropology at Claremont State College (1941), and took the doctorate under M.J. Herskovits at Northwestern University in 1943. His subsequent appointment to the Northwestern anthropology faculty marked the introduction of the field of ethnomusicology to the American Midwest. He taught at Wayne State University (1957–65) and subsequently at the University of South Florida. His most extensive field research was carried out with the people of Yirkalla, northern Australia, but his research interests centred on the music of the African diaspora, particularly of Afro-Cubans and Cuban-Americans, and on jazz in its social and historical context. He was also a distinguished jazz musician, frequently performing on the double bass throughout his academic career.

Waterman’s publications are modest in number, but they cover a variety of subjects and approaches and are regarded as significant, innovative and influential. His greatest contributions were the interpretation of black American music using the concept of syncretism, the introduction of research in urban American subcultures and the assembling of major bibliographies....