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Alexis Chitty

revised by E.D. Mackerness

(b London, Jan 3, 1828; d London, Dec 25, 1891). English violinist, conductor and teacher . He studied with Sainton at the RAM and was elected King’s Scholar (1845). After making a name as an orchestral and solo violinist, he visited the USA, giving the first public performance of Mendelssohn’s Concerto there. He also toured Europe, then joined Michael Costa’s Royal Italian Opera orchestra (1849), and subsequently accepted engagements at Drury Lane, Her Majesty’s Theatre and elsewhere. When the Alexandra Palace opened in 1873 he was appointed musical director, with an orchestra of 42 players and a choir of 300 voices; his programmes included revivals of Handel’s Esther and Susanna, and he ran a symphony competition for British composers. During the season of 1878–9 he was conductor of Mme Jenny Viard-Louis’ orchestral concerts, at which works by Bizet, Massenet and Goetz were introduced. In 1880...


Joshua Kosman


(b Rochester, NY, March 2, 1948). American composer and conductor. After training as a pianist and bassoonist, he studied composition with Warren Benson and Samuel Adler at the Eastman School of Music (BM 1969) and with Ludmila Ulehla at the Manhattan School of Music (MM 1972). From 1972 to 1978 he served as principal bassoonist of the Louisville Orchestra, while teaching theory and composition at the University of Louisville. In 1978 he joined the composition faculty of the University of Texas, where he created the New Music Ensemble. During his time as composer-in-residence with the Honolulu SO (1990–92), he wrote his Symphony no.1 and Haleakalā: How Maui Snared the Sun, a vibrantly scored piece for orchestra and narrator based on Hawaiian legends. Among his many awards and prizes are a Guggenheim Fellowship (1997) and grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, the Rockefeller Foundation, the MacDowell Colony and the American Music Center. His work has been performed by the BBC SO, the Chicago SO, the St Louis SO, the St Paul Chamber Orchestra and the Dallas SO, among others. He has also served as assistant conductor of the Austin SO and the Honolulu SO, and appeared frequently as a guest conductor with other ensembles. Rhythmically exuberant and graced by a lyrical undercurrent, Welcher’s music encompasses occasional strains of jazz and rock within a highly structured context. His work is particularly distinguished by its masterful orchestration: a vivid sense of instrumental colour infuses both his many chamber works and orchestral scores such as ...


Caroline Cepin Benser


(b Vienna, Oct 21, 1885; d Oxford, Nov 9, 1974). Austrian composer, musicologist and teacher. His importance as a composer rests chiefly on his stage works and symphonies. While his creative career was divided between Vienna and Oxford, his musical style was unpredictable, showing his affection for beautiful melody often with wide leaps and angular in profile. As a musicologist, he did pioneer work on Byzantine chant.

Wellesz was born into comfortable circumstances in the Schottengasse. His father Samú Wellesz was in the textile business; his mother Ilona Lovenyi met and married her husband in Vienna after they had each come from the Hungarian part of the empire. Wellesz inherited his musical inclinations from his mother, who had once studied the piano with Carl Frühling, to whom she sent her son. Even so, his parents had expected him to study law and follow in his father's business; however, on his 13th birthday he heard Mahler conduct ...


Blake Howe


(b Prague, Aug 24, 1825; d New York, May 12, 1906). Bohemian pianist, organist, composer, and teacher, active in the USA. At age 19 Wels began piano, harmony, and composition studies with Wenzel Johann Tomaschek at his private conservatory in Prague (among the other students were Eduard Hanslick, Alexander Dreyschock, and Julius Schulhoff). In 1847 he moved to Leipzig, where he met Ignaz Moscheles, the dedicatee of Wels’s op. 1. He then moved to Poland as a court pianist and music instructor for several years; then to Dresden, where he worked as a music instructor to an aristocratic family and made the acquaintance of Liszt and Wagner; then back to Prague. He immigrated to the USA in 1849, living in New York and working primarily as a piano teacher. His students included L.B. Whitney and Louis Bonn. He performed occasionally in concert as organist and pianist, both in the city and beyond; his piano duet concerts with Gottschalk seem to have been particularly successful. Among his many compositions are three masses, several hymns and anthems, an overture for orchestra, and a funeral march played by Dodsworth’s Band at funeral proceedings for Zachary Taylor. He also composed extensively for the piano, including a concerto and a large collection of technical studies and etudes; among these piano pieces is a four-hand arrangement of arias from ...


Joanna C. Lee

revised by Edward Green

(b Yantai, China, July 28, 1923). Composer, scholar, and teacher of Chinese birth; naturalized American. As a young man, he was devoted to the study of the violin; however, in response to the Japanese invasion of his homeland, out of patriotism and a desire to help the war effort, he completed, during those tumultuous years, a full course of study as a civil engineer. Arriving in the United States (1946) to study architecture at Yale University, after just one week Chou changed his plans and enrolled at New England Conservatory, where he studied with Carl McKinley, nicolas Slonimsky , and others. In 1949 he moved to New York and took private lessons from bohuslav Martinů (1949) and edgard Varèse (1949–54), while completing his MA in composition (1954) at Columbia University—where he also studied with otto Luening . Between 1955 and 1957 he directed a research program at Columbia, with support from the Rockefeller Foundation, on classical Chinese music and drama. Working for many years as the assistant to Varèse, Chou was entrusted by the composer shortly before his death with his musical legacy. In that capacity, he completed ...


Rudolf Klein

(b Baden, nr Vienna, May 23, 1918; d Hinterbrühl, nr Vienna, April 9, 1992). Austrian piano accompanist, teacher and writer on music . From 1936 to 1940 he studied at the University of Vienna, and at the same time attended courses in composition with Joseph Marx and piano with Oskar Dachs at the Music Academy. From 1949 he became known as one of the leading accompanists in Europe. He worked with such singers as Irmgard Seefried, Christa Ludwig, Walter Berry, Peter Schreier and Nicolai Gedda. In 1949 he was appointed professor of song and oratorio at the Vienna Music Academy; he gave courses in these subjects in many European countries, often with his wife, Ady, a singing teacher. His interest in Viennese operetta brought about the collaboration with the Viennese soubrette Elfriede Ott, which led to the rediscovery for the concert hall of Komödienlieder of the Biedermeier period. Werba also worked as a music critic for daily papers (...


Paula Morgan

(b Hennaard, 1926). Dutch musicologist. He studied musicology at Nijmegen University with Smijers and choral conducting at the Utrecht Conservatory. After emigrating to the USA, he was employed by San Diego State University to teach music history and conduct choirs. In 1961 he began studying for the PhD at Columbia University, which he gained in 1964 with a dissertation on trouvères chansons. He was appointed to the faculty of the Eastman School of Music of Rochester University, New York, where he remained until his retirement in 1996. His research has focussed on music pre-1300.

Chansons of the Trouvères: a Study in Rhythmic and Melodic Analysis (diss., Columbia U., 1964) ‘Recitative Melodies in Trouvère Chansons’, Festschrift für Walter Wiora, ed. L. Finscher and C.-H. Mahling (Kassel, 1967), 231–40 The Chansons of the Troubadours and Trouvères: a Study of the Melodies and their Relation to the Poems (Utrecht, 1972)...


Israel J. Katz

(b Vienna, Aug 1, 1901; d New York, July 28, 1988). American musicologist of Austrian birth . He attended the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (graduated 1924) and the universities of Berlin, Graz, Göttingen, Prague and Vienna, simultaneously studying composition (with Busoni, Reitsch and Schreker), musicology (with Adler, Fischer, Lach, Ludwig, Sachs, Schünemann and Wolf) and Judaic studies. He took the doctorate in musicology (Strasbourg, 1928), with Théodore Gérold. Werner taught at Saarbrücken Conservatory (1926–33) and the Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau (1935–8).

In 1938 he fled the Nazi regime, emigrating to the USA where in 1939 he joined the faculty at Hebrew Union College (Cincinnati) as A.Z. Idelsohn’s successor. There he drew upon the magnificent Eduard Birnbaum collection for his early research on Jewish music. At Cincinnati he conceived the idea for a school of sacred music in New York to be linked with the Jewish Institute of Religion (founded in ...


Erik H.A. Jakobsen

(b Copenhagen, Feb 21, 1937). Danish composer and teacher. After completing studies in Danish and music at Copenhagen University in 1964, he worked until 1970 as programme secretary at Danish Radio. As a composer he was a late starter and essentially self-taught: he had one of his first compositions, the wind quintet Jubilus, accepted for performance at the 1968 Palermo festival. He was principal of the Fyn Conservatory in Odense between 1974 and 1989, during which period he founded the organization Funen Young Musicians (1982), and briefly, together with Poul Nielsen, edited the Dansk Musiktidsskrift (1972–4). He also served as a member of the National Music Council (1983–91), and from 1992 as chairman of the state-sponsored record company DaCapo.

Werner’s extensive involvement in administration and in Danish cultural and musical debate has limited the volume of his production. His output nonetheless contains many substantial and personal works. While the most prominent influences on his music are those of Stockhausen and the Polish avant garde, Lutosławski especially, his works incorporate a variety of stylistic elements, and cover a wide range of genres. He has written works for both television (...


Patti M. Tolbert

(b LaConner, WA, Aug 18, 1905; d Haverford, PA, April 9, 1994). American music educator. He obtained degrees in music from the State College of Washington in Pullman (BA 1927, MA 1938), and studied further at the University of California at Berkeley and Teachers College, Columbia University. He received honorary doctorates from Temple University (Humane Letters 1964), Waynesburg College (Pennsylvania) (Music 1954), and the Philadelphia Musical Academy (Music 1968). He was director of music for the public schools in Tacoma, Washington (1934–44) and Philadelphia (1944–72). Wersen served as president of the Northwest Division of the Music Educators National Conference (MENC) (1964–6) and of the national organization (1966–8). He was chair of the MENC National Building Fund Campaign for the headquarters building in Reston, Virginia. He represented MENC at the Tanglewood Symposium (1967) and on advisory committees for the US Department of State, American Society of Composers, Arrangers, and Publishers, Juilliard Repertory Project, and Presser Foundation. He was also president of the National School Orchestra Association (...


L. Brett Scott


(b Minneapolis, MN, Apr 26, 1932; d Norwalk, CT, Feb 20, 2008). American conductor, teacher, and organist. Westenburg graduated from Lawrence University, Wisconsin, in 1954 with a Bachelor of Music degree in organ performance. He completed a Master’s degree in Musicology at the University of Minnesota and a Doctor of Sacred Music degree at Union Theological Seminary, New York. In 1959, invited by the French organist Pierre Cochereau, he traveled to Paris, where he spent a year studying with Cochereau, Jean Langlais and nadia Boulanger.

Westenburg became a nationally known organist, performing recitals across the country. He worked at several prominent churches in New York City, including Central Presbyterian Church, the Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine, and Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church. In 1964 he founded Musica Sacra, which quickly became one of the premier choirs in the New York area and gained a national reputation. The choir was known for its annual performances of G.F. Handel’s ...


Dena J. Epstein

revised by Joanna R. Smolko

(b Bowling Green, VA, Feb 23, 1848; d Chicago, IL, April 19, 1923). American composer, bandmaster, and music teacher. Westendorf spent much of his life working as a bandmaster and teacher in reform schools, including those located in Kentucky, Indiana, and Washington. He composed approximately 300 songs and a similar number of instrumental works within the genres of parlor songs, minstrel songs, and popular dances. I’ll Take You Home Again, Kathleen, composed in 1875 and published in 1876, was his most popular and enduring work, received with great acclaim during his lifetime. It apparently was composed as a response to the song Barney, Take Me Home Again, (1875) dedicated to Westendorf by its composer, George W. Persley. The song, particularly in its use of the name Kathleen, evokes the stylized Irish balladry popular in America during the period. Its popularity continued into the 20th century through numerous arrangements, and by its inclusion in several motion pictures, including ...


Kirk MacKenzie

(b Osnabrück, April 8, 1946). Canadian composer, teacher and soundscape researcher, of German origin. She emigrated to Canada in 1968 and settled in Vancouver where she studied at the University of British Columbia (BMus 1972) and at the Department of Communication, Simon Fraser University (MA 1988). She began to teach courses in acoustic communication at Simon Fraser in 1982. In 1972 she married the Canadian poet and playwright Norbert Ruebsaat, with whom she has collaborated on a number of projects. Her contact (c1969) with R. Murray Schafer through the World Soundscape Project (WSP), a research group at Simon Fraser University dedicated to exploring the sonic landscape, has been very important to her creative work. She joined the WSP as a research assistant in 1973. In 1991 she began the Soundscape Newsletter, which was later adopted as the official publication of the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology, an international, interdisciplinary organization formed in ...


Charlotte Erwin

(b Gleiwitz, upper Silesia [now Gliwice, Poland], Feb 26, 1875; d Erfurt, Jan 16, 1935). German composer and teacher. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatory but soon moved to Munich, where he studied privately with Thuille (1899–1900) and attended lectures at the university. After two years as Kapellmeister in the theatres of Stralsund and Barmen he returned to Leipzig. In 1906 he moved permanently to Erfurt, where he took over the direction of the Musikverein and the Singakademie. He taught composition and music history at the Erfurt Conservatory (1911–14) and at the Weimar Musikhochschule (after 1916). In 1920 he was made professor and in 1928 he was elected, alongside Stravinsky, to the Berlin Akademie der Künste.

Wetz’s earlier music was strongly influenced by Wagner and Liszt, but his initial encounter with Bruckner during the first years of the 20th century caused him to modify his outlook and adopt an increasingly conservative position within German musical life. The First Symphony (...


Buell E. Cobb and Harry Eskew

(b nr Spartanburg, SC, Sept 20, 1800; dAtlanta, GA, Dec 5, 1879). American singing- school teacher, composer and tune book compiler (seeShape-note hymnody §2). A self-taught musician, he wrote three-part tunes using four-shape notation. In collaboration with Elisha J. King he published The Sacred Harp ([Hamilton, GA] Philadelphia, 1844, 3/1859/R, 4/1869), one of the most significant shape-note tune books of the pre-Civil War South and the longest-lived tune book in four-shape notation. Several editions were produced in White's lifetime, and the book is still used, in a number of revised versions, at singing conventions in the South and has also spread to other areas. His brother-in-law was William Walker, whose Southern Harmony (1835) and Christian Harmony (1867) were the chief rivals of The Sacred Harp.

G.P. Jackson: ‘Benjamin Franklin White of Georgia and his Associates’, ...


Marcel Joly

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b New Orleans, Nov 29, 1954). American clarinetist. He was an undergraduate at Xavier University, pursued graduate studies in Spanish at Tulane University (MA 1979, PhD 1984), and then joined the faculty at Xavier, where he was a professor of Spanish and also taught African-American music. He first played jazz with Doc Paulin’s brass band in 1975, and was deeply inspired when in 1978 he first heard George Lewis (i) on record. He then joined the Young Tuxedo Brass Band (1979). In 1980 he performed with the show One Mo’ Time, and the following year he played at Preservation Hall with Kid Sheik Cola and formed his own trio and band. From around 1984 he led the Original Liberty Jazz Band, whose members initially included the veterans Chester Zardis, Louis Nelson, Emanuel Sayles or Danny Barker, and Sadie Goodson (on piano), and two younger players, Gregg Stafford and the drummer Stanley Stephens. In ...


Graham George

revised by Kelly Rice


(b Peterborough, July 10, 1887; d Amherst, NS, April 1, 1974). Canadian organist, choir director, composer and teacher of English birth. Taught by C.C. Francis and Haydn Keeton, both of Peterborough Cathedral, and later by A.E. Hull, he moved in 1912 to Canada, where his chief posts were at St Peter’s, Sherbrooke (1915–22), Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal (1922–47) and Trinity-St Stephen’s United Church, Amherst (1953–71). From 1947 until his retirement in 1953 he was head of music at Mount Allison University, New Brunswick. He took the degrees of BMus (Toronto) and DMus (McGill), and the diplomas of FRCO (with which he was awarded the Lafontaine Prize) and FCGO (1913, the first Fellow by examination in the new guild, which had been formed in 1909 and some ten years later became a college), and was awarded several honorary degrees. He was president of the (Royal) Canadian College of Organists (...


Mary Robb

(b Illinois, Aug 27, 1881; d Dec 10, 1956, San Mateo, CA). American piano educator and writer. Whiteside received her earliest education at a public school in Vermillion, South Dakota. She majored in music at the University of South Dakota, graduating with highest honors in May 1899. After working as a piano instructor at the University of Oregon from 1904 to 1907, she moved to Germany, where she continued music studies with Swiss pianist rudolf Ganz . Upon her return to the United States, Whiteside joined the newly established Portland division of the University of Oregon School of Music in 1917 as the piano faculty member. In 1923 she relocated to New York, where she set up a successful piano studio. She resided there for the rest of her life, developing a philosophy of piano pedagogy that centered on “basic rhythm.” Whiteside’s pioneering approach taught that continuous fluid movement in the entire body was fundamental to musical expression. When playing with basic rhythm, the whole body responds naturally and emotionally to the contours of a musical phrase. Students absorbed technical facility through emotionally involved playing and an awareness of musical meaning in the pieces they studied. Piano exercises and drills were not part of Whiteside’s method because she believed that they encouraged mechanical playing and ignored tone production and musical phrasing. Many of Whiteside’s successful students were composers and pianists including ...


N. Lee Orr

(b Woodstock, VT, June 4, 1842; d Brattleboro, VT, d Aug 3, 1914). American organist. After studying organ with local teachers he became a student of John Knowles Paine in Boston and later taught organ at the New England Conservatory. In 1871 he became organist/choirmaster at the Church of the Advent in Boston, working for 26 years as one of the early advocates of the choral excellence and liturgical propriety exemplified by the growing Oxford Movement in England. He also led one of the first boy choirs in the United States and established one of the first English Cathedral Services in this country. With J. C. D. Parker and others he founded and directed the Massachusetts Choir Festival Association and led many choral festivals throughout New England. Along with Dudley Buck and Paine he was among the first organists to introduce the organ works of Bach to American audiences. He was also a founder of the American Guild of Organists....


Elaine Moohan

(b Horn, nr Hamburg, Sept 13, 1836; d Horn, March 19, 1906). German teacher and composer . She worked in Hamburg and in Manchester, where Slater’s Directory lists her (1887–96) as a teacher of singing, music and harmony; she returned to Hamburg in 1896. Her published music seems to have been primarily teaching material and salon music. It includes Consecrated Melodies, being Favourite Secular Tunes with Sacred Words (London, 1897) – arrangements and adaptations of 41 folksongs, ten Schubert songs and other pieces. That 25 ein- und zweist. Lieder für kleine und grosse Kinder (Leipzig and London, n.d.) is op.43 illustrates the size of her output. Most of this collection is in Twenty-Two Songs in One and Two Parts for Children Old and Young (translated by Lady Macfarren, Miss Marie Liebert and others; London, 1883). Her success is borne out by Alte und neue Weihnachtslieder für Schule und Haus...