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(b Zwickau, June 17, 1951). German musicologist. He completed his first degree in musicology in 1974 at the Humboldt University, Berlin, where he worked as an assistant and took the doctorate in 1980. In 1983 he founded the Forschungszentrum Populärer Musik at the Humboldt University and completed the DSc in 1986. In 1988 he joined the faculty of Carlton University, Ottawa as an adjunct professor and returned to the Humboldt University that same year to fill the post of chief research assistant in musicology. He was appointed lecturer at the university in 1990 and professor of popular music in 1993. He was a member of the editorial staff for Beiträge für Musikwissenschaft, 1974–84; other professional appointments include president (1985–93) and general secretary (1987–91) of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music, member of the editorial board of Popular Music (from 1990) and ...


Jocelyn Mackey

(b Schwäbisch Hall, bap. Sept 15, 1572; d Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Oct 31, 1634). German composer, organist, instrumentalist, teacher and poet.

Widmann came of a well-educated family. The Lateinschule at Schwäbisch Hall provided a good musical training in the 1580s under Johannes Crusius, and young Widmann ‘sang a good discant’ there and learnt to play the organ, harpsichord, lute, zither, viol, flute and trombone. On 28 April 1589 he entered the University of Tübingen and passed his bachelor’s examinations in 1590; at the university, students could study plainsong, notation and polyphony. Widmann is next heard of as an organist at Eisenerz, Styria, in 1595, and from 1596 until 1598 he held a similar position at Graz. He was a Lutheran, but since the Peace of Augsburg (1555) Protestantism had spread in Austria, and during the 1570s it was even tolerated. In 1598, however, on the orders of Duke Ferdinand, Lutheran ministers were given two weeks to leave. Moreover, in the same year Widmann almost lost his position because of trouble with women: two young women accused him of breach of promise, while he professed to wish to marry a third (he married Margarethe Ehetreiber on 12 June). Because of the action against Lutherans he returned in late ...


Gerard Béhague

(b Aarau, April 25, 1927; d Aarau, Jan 3, 1990). Brazilian composer and teacher of Swiss birth. He studied with Burkhard, Frey and Hoerler at the Zurich Conservatory, graduating in composition, piano and music education in 1950. After working as a private teacher and choral conductor in Switzerland he went to Salvador, Bahia, in 1956 on the invitation of Koellreutter, director of the Seminários Livres de Música. There he taught the piano, composition, orchestration and music literature, also conducting the Bahia University Madrigal Group (1958–67). On Koellruetter’s departure from Bahia in 1963, Widmer was appointed chief composition professor at the Federal University of Bahia, and took up the directorship of the Seminários (1963–5, 1967–9, 1976–80), later renamed the Escola de Música e Artes Cênicas then the Escola de Música. He had a pivotal role in making the city of Salvador one of the most important centres of new music activity from the 1960s to the 80s. As a teacher he exerted a profound influence on his students, many of whom became successful composers, and he espoused the rejection of all principles in order to cultivate independent development in the Grupo de Compositores da Bahia, which he founded in ...


Félix Raugel and Andrew Thomson

(b Lyons, Feb 21, 1844; d Paris, March 12, 1937). French organist, composer and teacher known primarily for his organ symphonies.

Félix Raugel

His mother was of Italian ancestry, and his paternal grandfather was an organ builder of Hungarian descent; his father was both an organ builder and performer who gave Widor his first lessons. The boy showed great ability and at the age of 11 became the organist at the lycée in Lyons. Upon the recommendation of Cavaillé-Coll, Widor went to Brussels, where he studied composition with Fétis and the organ with J.-N. Lemmens. Lemmens, who was the most recent member of a line of teachers connected directly to Bach, taught him traditional German interpretations of Bach to which he remained loyal for the rest of his life. He played the organ at St François in Lyons from 1860 and performed frequently in the provinces until 1870...


(b Hamburg, Oct 3, 1720; d Norden, Ostfriesland, Jan 14, 1800). German teacher. Born into a family of musicians, he was taught music by his father, Matthias Christoph Wiedeburg (b Berlin, 1 March 1690; d Altona, 17 Jan 1745), who from 1728 was Kapellmeister and Kantor at the court of Prince Georg Albrecht of Cirksena in Aurich (a post for which Telemann had recommended him). His grandfather was organist at the Marienkirche in Berlin. As a teenager he was a frequent participant in the twice-weekly court recitals organized by his father; he also assisted him as a substitute organist in the court chapel. In 1741 Wiedeburg competed unsuccessfully for the prestigious post of organist at the Ludgeri-Kirche in Norden, but was appointed vice-principal at the local Latin school. He competed again for the organist’s post in Norden less than seven years later, this time successfully, and remained there until his death....


Alena Němcová

(b Ivanovice na Hané, Nov 10, 1883; d Prague, Nov 5, 1951). Czech organist and composer. He studied at the theological faculty in Olomouc (1904–8), occasionally deputizing for the organist or the conductor of the choir at Olomouc Cathedral. He abandoned his theological studies to concentrate on music and studied the organ at the Prague Conservatory with Josef Klička (until 1909) and composition with Vítězslav Novák (1909–10). He was organist at Brno Cathedral (1910–11), at the Emmaus monastery in Prague (1911–17), and was director of the choir at Prague University (1917–19). At the same time he played the viola with the Czech PO. From 1917 he taught at the Prague Conservatory and from 1944 at the Masters School there; he was professor at the Prague Academy of Arts from 1946. He made his début in 1905 and after his arrival in Prague he gave regular recitals at the Emmaus monastery and, in the years ...


Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b St Petersburg, Jan 8, 1850; d St Petersburg, March 15, 1911). Polish cellist and teacher . He studied in Warsaw, and at the Conservatory in St Petersburg in the class of Karl Davïdov. In 1877 he succeeded Davïdov as concertmaster of the Italian Opera in St Petersburg, and in about 1885 (perhaps as early as 1882) was appointed concertmaster of the [Russian] Imperial Opera. After the death of Davïdov, in 1889 he became professor of cello at the St Petersburg Conservatory, where his pupils included Leopold Rostropovich, father of Mstislav. He travelled widely, achieving considerable success as a soloist and chamber musician. At the initiative of Anton Rubinstein he was invited to Paris to participate in the renowned series of ‘Concerts populaires’ (before 1894), and from there he set out on an extensive European tour to Vienna, Berlin, Leipzig, Copenhagen and later Italy. In 1898 he gave concerts in Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, Minsk, Moscow, Vilnius and Łódź. He appeared in Warsaw for the first time in ...


Michal Ben-Zur

(b Tel-Aviv, Jan 9, 1927). Israeli cellist and teacher. He studied at the academies in Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv, at the Juilliard School in New York and with Pablo Casals. In 1953 he won the Piatigorsky Prize, and he also won prizes in the International Cello Competition in Moscow and the Pablo Casals International Competition in Israel. Wiesel was the first to perform the full cycle of Bach's cello suites in Israel, as well as concertos by Berio, Ligeti and Lutosławski. As dedicatee he has given the first performances and made recordings of concertos and pieces for unaccompanied cello by many Israeli composers. Wiesel was also a founder member of the Tel-Aviv String Quartet (1959–93). He was appointed professor at the music department of Tel-Aviv University in 1965, and has taught many of Israel's leading cellists. He has given masterclasses in cello and chamber music internationally, and has been a jury member in international cello competitions. He specializes in Baroque repertory, and has contributed many articles to ...


Rolf Haglund

(b Buvika, nr Trondheim, Norway, June 13, 1927). Swedish pedagogue, administrator and composer. As well as studying the piano with G. Boon and H. Leygraf and composition with Blomdahl, he completed a business course, and composing has always taken second place to his administrative work. Up until 1962 he taught the piano, including in Darmstadt (1953–5). As the energetic chairman of Fylkingen (1959–69) he established an electronic music studio for the Workers’ Educational Association and organized the congresses ‘Art and Technology’ (1966) and ‘Music and Technology’ (1970) in Stockholm. With technical assistance he invented Music Box, a programme for computer music generation, and the Music Machine no.1, which produced random, complex sound structures and gave birth to the idea of a much larger Music Machine no.2. In 1964 he was commissioned by Swedish radio to build up an advanced electronic music workshop (known from ...


Miroslav K. Černý

(b Police u Broumova, north-east Bohemia, June 5, 1855; d Prague, May 1, 1920). Czech cellist and teacher . At the Prague Conservatory he was a pupil of František Hegenbarth whom he succeeded in 1888 as professor of cello and chamber music. Previously, Wihan had been a member of orchestras in Nice, Prague, Berlin, Sondershausen and Munich, and he finished his training under Karl Davïdov, whose methods formed the basis of his own teaching. Having taught the players of the Czech Quartet, which he founded, he took the place of his dying pupil Otto Berger in it, and remained a member of the quartet for 20 years, throughout its most glorious period. Having retired in 1914, he returned to the conservatory in 1919. During his career as soloist over all Europe he became acquainted with Wagner, Liszt, Bülow and Strauss, who wrote for him the Sonata in F. Dvořák composed some works for him, among them the Cello Concerto, although the first performance of this work was in fact given by Leo Stern....


David Cope

revised by Anders Tobiason

(b Caterham, Surrey, England, Oct 9, 1922; d Kewaunee, WI, Aug 24, 2001). American composer, photographer, and digital artist of English birth. He attended the Juilliard School (1947–9) and studied composition privately with Jerzy Fitelberg; at the New England Conservatory (BM 1951, MM 1953) he was a pupil of Judd Cooke. During the summers of 1950–52, he studied at the Berkshire Music Center, where his teachers included Jacques Ibert, aaron Copland, and Luigi Dallapiccola. He received a DMA from Boston University, where his principal teacher was Gardner Read (1960–62). From 1951 to 1956, he was producer and director for FM radio and television at WGBH, Boston. He taught at Cardinal Cushing College, Boston (1958–9), and Case Institute of Technology in Cleveland (1960–67) before joining the faculty of DePaul University, Chicago, where he became full professor in 1979. During the bicentennial year, he recorded a daily radio series for WFMT in Chicago entitled ...


(b Paris, Dec 18, 1781; d Paris, April 26, 1842). French teacher . He was the originator of a system of teaching sight-singing to classes of adults and children which in 1840 was adapted by John Hullah for English use. He was the son of an army officer and after a short period as an army cadet was admitted to the Paris Conservatoire in 1801. He then became teacher of music successively at the Military Academy of Saint-Cyr and the Lycée Napoléon. When the monitorial system of teaching was introduced in Paris in 1815, Wilhem devised a musical manual laid out in the form of question and answer to enable monitors to undertake the elementary instruction of a class of children. After four years’ experimental use his system was formally adopted in 1820 in the monitorial schools controlled by the Society for Elementary Instruction in Paris. In 1835 its use was extended to the city’s municipal schools....


Giles Bryant

(b Balham, London, Oct 12, 1880; d Toronto, Feb 16, 1968). Canadian composer, teacher, organist and choirmaster. Particularly influential as a teacher, he also wrote many choral and organ works that have been frequently performed across North America.

His early education was undertaken privately. At the age of eight he entered St Saviour’s Choir School, Eastbourne, where he studied until 1895. Several positions as organist and choirmaster in and around London culminated in his appointment to St John the Baptist, Holland Road, in 1903. After further studies with W.S. Hoyte, he gained the FRCO in 1899. A close association with Francis Burgess led to membership in the London Gregorian Association in 1910.

In 1913 Willan was appointed head of theory at the Toronto Conservatory and organist of St Paul’s. In the next year he became a lecturer in music at the University of Toronto. He later served as vice-principal of the conservatory (...


Arthur Jacobs

revised by Ian Carson

(Valentine )

(b Newquay, Dec 30, 1919). English conductor, organist and teacher . He was a chorister at Westminster Abbey (1929–33) and studied at the RCM before becoming organ scholar at King's College, Cambridge (1939). War service, during which he won the Military Cross, interrupted his studies, but he returned to complete them (1945–7), then became organist of Salisbury Cathedral (1947–50) and of Worcester Cathedral (1950–57), during which time he conducted the Three Choirs Festival. He introduced Duruflé's Requiem to Britain in 1952. Willcocks returned to Cambridge in 1957 to become organist of King's College Chapel and director of the chapel choir. He developed its already famous choral tradition with distinction, enlarged the choir's repertory, and brought it before a wider public through broadcasts, recordings and overseas tours. He toured with the choir in Europe, Canada and Africa. The annual Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols on Christmas Eve became a distinctive mixture of the new and the familiar, heard and seen in many parts of the world through television and radio broadcasts....


Susana Salgado

(b Buenos Aires, Nov 23, 1862; d Buenos Aires, June 17, 1952). Argentine composer, conductor, pianist and teacher. Born into a family of musicians, he began to compose very early. His first piano lessons were with Pedro Beck; he also attended the Colegio S Martin and, from its foundation, the Escuela de Música de la Provincia, where he studied with Luis Bernasconi (piano) and Nicolás Bassi (harmony). While still a pupil at the school he played works by Paer and Liszt at the Teatro Colón; one of his first public performances was in 1879 at a Sociedad del Cuarteto concert organized by Bernasconi. Two years later he published his first work, the mazurka Ensueño de juventud. A scholarship took him in 1882 to the Paris Conservatoire, and there he was a pupil of Georges Mathías (piano), Emile Durand (harmony) and Benjamin Godard (instrumental ensemble), also studying composition with Franck. In Paris the piano works ...


Claude Conyers

(b Salem, MA, March 12, 1914; d Boston, MA, May 8, 1984). American ballet teacher and company director. Having developed a passion for dance as a girl, she was allowed to take classes in ballet and “fancy dancing” at age eight. By twelve she was performing with small amateur groups. A career as a ballet dancer was, however, out of the question, as her strait-laced parents forbade her to appear on the commercial stage. She resigned herself to teaching, opening her first school in the suburbs of Boston. In 1940 she moved into Boston proper and opened the E. Virginia Williams School of Ballet, where she trained many students who went on to have illustrious professional careers. In 1958 she formed the New England Civic Ballet. Five years later, upon the recommendation of George Balanchine, she received a substantial grant from the Ford Foundation that permitted her to put her company on a professional basis. Renamed the Boston Ballet, it made its début at the Boston Arts Festival in ...


Gene Biringer

(b Canton, OH, June 23, 1887; d Toledo, OH, May 28, 1964). American conductor and music educator. After graduating from Otterbein College (Westerville, OH) in 1911, he studied voice with herbert wilber Greene , herbert Witherspoon , and david Bispham in New York, and organ with Karl Straube in Leipzig. He became minister of music at the Westminster Presbyterian Church in Dayton, Ohio, and formed a choir there in 1920. The choir achieved an excellent reputation, and he toured with it in New York, Boston, Chicago, and other cities. Inquiries from churches throughout the country made Williamson aware of the need for well-trained church musicians and led to his founding the Westminster Choir School in 1926. In 1929 the school moved from Dayton to Ithaca, New York, and in 1932 to its current location in Princeton, New Jersey. Williamson remained its president until his retirement in 1958, during which time he continued to conduct its choir both in the United States and abroad (it made four world tours). He edited the Westminster Series of Choral Music and was the author of several articles, including one on organizing and training a choir (...


Clement A. Miller

[Jobst ]

(b Resel, Värmland, c1486; d Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 12, 1552). German humanist, physician, writer and musician . The generally accepted birthdate for him is about 1486, but according to Pietzsch it is 1501. In 1516 he entered the University of Frankfurt an der Oder, where he probably studied music under Johann Volckmar. After graduating he taught music from 1522 to 1539. In 1524 Willich became professor of Greek and in 1540 professor of medicine. Although he retained his connection with the university until his death, he was frequently called to other countries (such as Poland and Hungary) because of his renown as a physician. He corresponded with Erasmus and was personally acquainted with Luther, Melanchthon and Glarean. More than 60 writings on philology, antiquity, philosophy, theology, law, medicine, mathematics and music, some of which remained current into the 18th century, gave Willich a position as one of the outstanding German humanists of his time. An ardent lutenist, he founded about ...


Robert Gannon

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b Harrogate, England, Dec 7, 1941). English writer and photographer. She wrote about jazz from the age of 18 and in 1959–60 studied photography in London. During the following decades she contributed hundreds of articles to Melody Maker (1960–1970s), Down Beat (of which she was the British correspondent from 1966 to 1970), Jazz Journal, Jazz Monthly, Crescendo, Jazz magazine, Musica jazz, Swing Journal, Jazz Forum, The Wire, and many other periodicals and national newspapers. She also provided the photographs used to illustrate several books as well as those used in John Jeremy’s film Jazz is our Religion (1972). Wilmer has written extensively on the contribution of black British musicians, lectured and chaired forums in this area, and conducted interviews of numerous women and black British musicians for the oral history collection at the National Sound Archive of the British Library. Her own books include ...


Jan ten Bokum

(bap. Witzhelden, nr Solingen, March 30, 1772; d Amsterdam, July 19, 1847). Dutch composer of German birth . He received some lessons in piano and theory from his father and his eldest brother; he later studied the flute. In 1791 he went to Amsterdam, where he became a piano teacher. He was second flautist in the orchestras Felix Meritis and Eruditio Musica, where as a pianist he also introduced concertos by Mozart and Beethoven. He became one of the most important musicians in the Netherlands, being on several committees, including the music faculty of the Koninklijk Nederlandsch Instituut voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schoone Kunsten in Amsterdam (1808–47), and the Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Toonkunst (1829–41). He served on the juries of composition competitions, examined organists for church appointments and was Amsterdam correspondent of AMZ (1814–15). From 1823 to 1846 he was the organist at the United Baptist Church in Amsterdam....