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Adam Cegielski and Barry Kernfeld

(b Wrocław, Poland, June 10, 1964). Polish trumpeter and flugelhorn player. He studied jazz at the academy of music in Katowice and joined its faculty after graduating in 1987; from that same year into the mid-1990s he made many recordings as a member of Krzysztof Popek’s ensemble Young Power. In 1988 Wojtasik gave a successful performance at the Jazz Jamboree in Warsaw as a member of the group New Presentation. From 1992 to 1995 he was a member of Jan Wróblewski’s group Made in Poland, and in 1994 he formed the Traveling Birds Quintet, with Piotr Baron, Kuba Stankiewicz, Darek Oleszkiewicz, and the drummer Cezary Konrad. From 1996 he has led his own quintet, of which Maciej Sikała is a member. He has organized special groups for tours and recordings with Gary Bartz, Billy Harper, Buster Williams, Ben Riley, and Ed Schuller, among others; the sidemen on his album ...


Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Berlin, April 17, 1869; d Munich, May 25, 1947). German musicologist . In addition to his practical music studies at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik, Wolf studied musicology (under Spitta and Heinrich Bellermann) and German literature at the University of Berlin. He took the doctorate under Riemann at Leipzig in 1893 with a dissertation on an anonymous music treatise of the 11th–12th centuries. After studying medieval music sources in France and Italy he completed the Habilitation in 1902 at Berlin University with a work on Florence and 14th-century music history, and lectured on early music history and church music. From 1899 to 1903 he was secretary of the new International Music Society. He became professor in 1907. From 1908 until 1927 he also taught at the Akademie für Kirchen- und Schulmusik in Berlin. In 1915 he became director of the early music collection at the Prussian State Library, Berlin, and in ...


Jere T. Humphreys

(b Akron, IA, Sept 18, 1937). American music educator and administrator. She received degrees in music education from Morningside College, Iowa (BME 1959) and the University of Michigan (MM 1975, PhD 1978). She taught and served as acting dean and associate dean of music at the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music (1978–87). She was director of the School of Music at the University of Minnesota (1987–91), dean and professor of music at the Oberlin College Conservatory of Music (1991–9), and dean of the School of Music at the University of Michigan (2000–05). In 2003, President George W. Bush appointed her to the National Council on the Arts, an advisory body to the National Endowment for the Arts. Wolff also served as president of the National Association of Schools of Music (2003–5), and on the boards of the Minnesota Orchestra, Minnesota Opera, Minnesota Composers Forum, Greater Twin Cities Youth Orchestra, Ohio Chamber Orchestra, University (of Michigan) Musical Society, Michigan Shakespeare Festival, and Interlochen Center for the Arts. Her research has focused on the effect of music education on children’s intellectual and social development, and on public policy in relation to the arts....


Friedrich Baser

revised by Rudolf Walter

(b Schwarzenbach am Wald, Upper Franconia, Dec 17, 1854; d Samaden, Grisons, May 8, 1919). German conductor, concert organizer, teacher and composer. He became an elementary teacher at the Altdorf teachers' seminary. In 1875 he was appointed second music teacher at the Bamberg teacher's seminary. He then studied in Munich at the Königliche Musikschule with Rheinberger and Franz Wüllner. Humperdinck was a fellow pupil, and they became lifelong friends. Wolfrum returned to the Bamberg seminary from 1879 to 1884, when he was appointed to teach music at the University of Heidelberg. He became music director at the university in 1885, and in the same year founded and directed the Akademischer Gesangverein and the Bachverein, which made Heidelberg an important musical centre. Wolfrum was made professor of music history in 1898. His pupils included Fritz Stein, Karl Hasse and Hermann Poppen.

Wolfrum was a champion of the works of Liszt, Bruckner, Strauss and Reger. He conducted all of Reger's works composed between ...


Francisco J. Albo

(b Alzey, Rheinhessen, Germany, Dec 14, 1834; d Deal Beach, NJ, July 30, 1907). American pianist, teacher, conductor, and composer of German origin. He studied with Aloys Schmitt in Frankfurt, making his début there in 1848. Later he studied with Vincenz Lachner and toured Bavaria. After a two-year stay in London, he moved to the United States in 1854, settling in Philadelphia. A scholarly performer, for the next twenty years he gave annual series of chamber music concerts and piano recitals, introducing many classical works to American audiences. He gave recitals devoted entirely to the piano music of Chopin and Schumann, a rare feat at the time. In 1866–7 he performed the complete piano sonatas of Beethoven in a series of matinées in New York. In 1873 he moved to Chicago, where he gave momentum to the musical life of the city and founded the Beethoven Society choir. His goal being education through the works of the masters, he gave several “historical” recitals with programs designed chronologically, from Couperin to Brahms. Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler was one of his pupils....


Jewel A. Smith

(b Schkeuditz, nr Leipzig, Sept 27, 1827; d New York, Sept 18, 1863). German pianist, composer, and teacher. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatorium with Julius Knoor (piano) and Moritz Hauptmann (composition). Following his arrival in the United States in 1845, he appeared as pianist on various occasions with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and in other concerts, and attained a distinguished career as a pianist, teacher, and composer. In 1855 he undertook a successful concert tour of Europe. He wrote nearly 100 compositions, chiefly for the piano, including five Morceaux caractéristiques en forme d’Etude, op. 22; Nocturne, op. 29, no. 10; A Bord de l’Arago, valse brilliant, op. 33; Fantasia, “Il Trovatore,” op. 43; Stories of Nocomis, for four hands, op. 48; Star Spangled Banner, paraphrase brilliant, op. 60; and many transcriptions and arrangements. His compositions have been successfully used as teaching pieces, and many of them were also published in Europe....


William D. Gudger


(b Wiesentheid, Oct 11, 1917; d Wiesentheid, Aug 7, 1978). German composer and teacher. His early studies were in Regensburg, where he was a choirboy at the cathedral. In 1937 he was appointed assistant chorus master at the Stadttheater in Regensburg, where he also attended classes at the Catholic church music school. He began studies in 1939 at the Mozarteum in Salzburg, attending the master classes of Wolf-Ferrari, Krauss and Walther Lampe. Wolpert taught music theory and the piano at the Mozarteum from 1941 to 1944; from 1950 he taught in Salem on Lake Constance. He received the Düsseldorf Schumann Prize in 1956. His music adopts the harmonic language of Bartók and Hindemith; in particular, the Banchetto musicale no.1 (1952) demonstrates an affinity with Bartók’s earlier string quartets. Wolpert’s book Neue Harmonik is an admirable summary: all vertical sonorities are explained through Rameau’s principles as triads, triads with notes added, or chords built in 4ths; further possibilities are created by the inversion or respacing of these sonorities....


Jeremy Dibble

(b Armagh, June 15, 1866; d Cambridge, July 12, 1926). Irish composer and teacher. A chorister at Armagh Cathedral, he was educated at the cathedral school. He received training in harmony and counterpoint (1880–81) from T.O. Marks, the cathedral organist, as well as encouragement from his elder brother, William Wood (1859–95), himself a professional musician. In 1883 he was elected to the Morley Open Scholarship in Composition at the newly instituted RCM where he studied composition with Parry and Stanford. He won an organ scholarship to Selwyn College, Cambridge in 1888 where, after five terms, he migrated to Gonville and Caius as organ scholar. In 1888 he was appointed to teach harmony at the RCM and the following year he was made a lecturer in harmony and counterpoint at Caius. He was elected a fellow there in 1894, and in 1897 he became university lecturer in harmony and counterpoint, succeeding George Garrett. At Cambridge, Wood was awarded the degrees of BA and MusB in ...


Pamela Fox

(b Easthampton, MA, April 7, 1857; d Florence, Italy, Dec 20, 1944). American composer, pianist and teacher. She studied the piano with B(enjamin) J(ohnson) Lang in Boston, performed locally in solo and chamber music recitals, and was active in many of Boston's leading musical organizations. Lang encouraged her to compose, and she continued to study the piano and composition in Boston with Arthur Foote, then in New York, with Henry Huss, Albert Parsons and J. H. Cornell. Her songs, chamber works and sacred vocal music display solid craftsmanship and a conservative, refined style. She married A. B. Mason and lived in Florence for many years.

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Robert M. Copeland

(b Beverly, MA, Oct 23, 1819; d Columbia, SC, Oct 26, 1858). American composer, editor, teacher and writer. He studied music in Boston, London and Paris. On his return he worked as a private teacher, church organist and choral conductor. His first musical publications were tune books compiled in collaboration with his cousin Benjamin F. Baker, with whom he also formed the National Musical Convention, a training school for teachers.

During the 1840s and 50s Woodbury travelled extensively as a choral conductor and baritone soloist. He was organist at Marlborough Chapel, Boston (1843–4), and from 1846 to 1848 was corresponding editor of the World of Music. He was organist at Rutgers Street Church, New York (1850–51); he also edited the American Monthly Musical Review (1850–53) and the New York Musical Pioneer (1855–8). His health began to fail in the 1850s and he spent his final years struggling against tuberculosis; he visited Europe and the Mediterranean in ...


J.M. Schlitz

(b Waterloo, NY, Jan 1872; d Los Angeles, CA, 1938). American Whistler and founder of a school of whistling. She grew up in Tecumseh, Michigan, and studied voice at the Detroit Conservatory. She later sang and taught locally until overstraining her voice. At age 30 she, her mother, and her aunts moved to California, where, after modeling certain bird species in the Sierras, Woodward began performing as a whistler. With the earlier successes of alice j. Shaw still fresh in the public’s mind, Woodward attracted many female students, and in 1909 she opened her California School of Artistic Whistling in Los Angeles.

Woodward’s “Bird Method” of whistling combined popular parlor tunes with chirped ornaments, each associated with a specific bird species and musical symbol. Her school was known for its touring Women’s Whistling Chorus of 30–50 members, which Woodward also directed. Noted students included Margaret McKee, who performed and recorded extensively, and Marion Darlington, who provided the whistling talent for early Disney films (...


Rodney H. Mill

(b Boston, MA, Nov 6, 1902; d Cambridge, MA, July 18, 1969). American choral conductor, organist, and music educator. At Harvard University he studied history (BA 1924) and music (MA 1926), and on a Paine Traveling Fellowship he studied conducting under Malcolm Sargent at the Royal College of Music, London (1927–8). As an undergraduate he was accompanist for the Harvard Glee Club and on graduating he was appointed instructor of music at Harvard and conductor of the Radcliffe Choral Society (1924). Later he conducted the Pierian Sodality Orchestra (1928–32) and the Harvard Glee Club (from 1933), and served as university organist and choir director (from 1940); he succeeded A.T. Davison as James Edward Ditson Professor of Music (1954–69). In 1958 he resigned all conducting and performing posts to devote himself to teaching. From 1951 he broadcast a series of lectures called “Tomorrow’s Symphony” on Boston radio (WGBH). He was first president of the College Music Society (...


Kevin O’Brien

(b Hartford, CT, Jan 7, 1923; d Charlottesville, VA, March 16, 1994). American composer, keyboard player, conductor, and teacher. He studied piano with Charles King, organ with Ernest White at the Pius X School of Liturgical Music in Manhattanville, New York, composition with Franz Wasner, and chant at Solesmes Abbey in France. In 1944 he enrolled at Catholic University of America as a seminarian; he was ordained a priest in 1947 and received a master’s degree in Romance languages in 1948. He continued composition studies with nicolas Nabokov at the Peabody Conservatory and Nadia Boulanger. Woollen was the youngest charter faculty member of Catholic University’s music department in 1950. Originally in charge of choruses and chant studies, he later taught composition, paleography, history, organ, art song literature, and diction. He attended Harvard University (MA 1954), where he studied composition with walter Piston and musicology with Tillman Merritt. In ...


Adrian Thomas

(b Dunajowce, Podolia, Dec 5, 1899; d Katowice, July 11, 1980). Polish composer, pianist and teacher. He studied the piano with Michałowski at the Chopin High School of Music in Warsaw (1920–4) and immediately embarked on a performing career that took him throughout Europe and to North America. At the same time he studied composition with Szopski and Maliszewski, followed by three years in Boulanger’s class in Paris (1929–32). During World War II the ‘Woytowicz Café’, which he organized in Warsaw, was a vital public focus for Polish music-making as well as being a centre for underground activities of the resistance. After the war, he was appointed to positions at the conservatories in Katowice (from 1945) and in Kraków (from 1963); his pupils included the composers Baird, Kilar and Szalonek.

Woytowicz is at his most inventive in the surviving orchestral works. Poemat żałobny...


Milan Poštolka

revised by Roger Hickman


(b Nová Říše, Moravia, June 13, 1761; d Vienna, Aug 6, 1820). Czech composer, violinist and music teacher active in Vienna, brother of Paul Wranitzky. He attended the grammar school at the Premonstratensian monastery in Nová Říše and later studied philosophy and law at a Jesuit seminary in Brno. His earliest musical training included violin lessons from his brother; he was also known for his beautiful voice. Before December 1783 he became choirmaster to the chapel of the Theresianisch-Savoyische Akademie in Vienna (until the abolition of church music there with the reforms of Joseph II). In Vienna he studied composition with Mozart, Haydn and J.G. Albrechtsberger, and became renowned as a violin teacher and virtuoso. By 1790 he had entered the services of Prince J.F. Maximilian Lobkowitz as a composer, music teacher, Konzertmeister and (from 1797) Kapellmeister of the prince’s private orchestra; in these duties he was active at Vienna, Prague and the prince’s country seats in Bohemia (at Roudnice, Jezeří and Bílina). After the prince took charge of the Vienna court theatres (...


John Bourgeois

(b Wasco, OR, March 8, 1925).American music educator and conductor. She studied at the University of Oregon (BA 1948, ME 1953). She married Al Wright in 1953. As a teaching band director she led the high school bands of Elmira, Oregon (1948–53), Otterbein, Indiana (1954–61), Klondike, West Lafayette, Indiana (1963–70) and William Henry Harrison, West Lafayette, Indiana (1970–84). The William Henry Harrison Band toured extensively throughout the USA, Europe, Central America and Canada; she won the Gold Medal of the World Music Contest of Kerkrade, Holland in 1974. She is the founding president of the Women Band Directors National Association, founding editor of Woman Conductor magazine, and the first woman band director elected to the American Bandmasters Association and the National Band Directors Hall of Fame of Distinguished Band Conductors. In 1995 she was elected to the National Hall of Fame of Distinguished Woman Band Conductors. She is a vice president of the John Philip Sousa Foundation, where she chairs the Sudler Flag and Cup awards, which acknowledge the achievements of outstanding high school and middle-school bands. She is the composer of two quickstep marches, ...


Jamie C. Kassler

(b Stockton-on-Tees, Sept 18, 1763; d Wycliffe Rectory, nr Barnard Castle, Nov 24, 1829). English musician and inventor . Wright was instructed in music by his father, Robert, by John Garth and, as an articled apprentice, by Thomas Ebdon. On expiration of his articles about 1784, he succeeded Garth as organist at Sedgefield. In 1794 he married Elizabeth Foxton and set to music her operetta, Rusticity. In the ‘Advertisement’ to his Concerto for Harpsichord or Pianoforte (London, c1796), he promoted his invention of a pendulum for keeping musical time as more practicable than the timekeepers of Loulié, Sauveur and others. A model of the invention, owned by Wright’s granddaughter, Miss Edith Wright of Wakefield, was seen by Frank Kidson, when compiling his article for Grove’s Dictionary (3rd edn). In 1797 Wright succeeded his father as organist at Stockton. In 1817 he was organist at Kirkleatham near Redcar; but sometime after he returned to Stockton and remained there as organist, teacher and composer until his death....


Rudolf Klein

revised by Martin Elste

(b Vienna, June 29, 1900; d Mannheim, Dec 27, 1975). Austrian pianist and teacher . At the Vienna Music Academy (1915–20) he studied the piano with Franz Schmidt, music theory and composition with Joseph Marx, and conducting with Ferdinand Löwe. He also studied law and musicology at the University of Vienna. In 1923 he began to tour as a concert pianist. He was also a much sought-after and influential piano teacher, at the Vienna Music Academy (1922–32, 1939–45), the Mannheim Musikhochschule (1934–6, 1952–8), Kiel (1936–9), the Salzburg Mozarteum (1948–51) and Munich (1955–68). He had a special interest in the Viennese Classical and German Romantic and late-Romantic composers, and performed and published his own two-hand arrangements of all Schmidt’s works that had been written originally for the one-armed pianist Paul Wittgenstein. Between 1923 and 1928, as a founder-member of the Austrian section of the ISCM, he performed many works by contemporary composers. His many recordings (including the first complete set of Schubert’s sonatas) testify to a style of playing that combines clear articulation with warmth of expression. Wührer composed piano works, string quartets and songs, as well as cadenzas for Mozart concertos; he wrote ...


Gaynor G. Jones

revised by Bernd Wiechert

(b Münster, Aug 19, 1858; d Kiel, March 19, 1938). German baritone, reciter and actor , son of Franz Wüllner. He studied the violin and the piano at an early age and sang at the Maximilian Gymnasium in Munich. From 1876 to 1880 he studied German philology at the universities of Munich and Berlin and in 1881 he completed his dissertation, Das hrabanische Glossar und die ältesten bayrischen Sprachdenkmäler, at the University of Strasbourg. After further study in Berlin, he lectured at the Münster Academy and performed as a violinist, singer and reciter. He left Münster in 1887 for extended studies in singing (with Benno Stolzenberg), composition and piano at the conservatory in Cologne, where he also became a choir conductor. After two years he left Cologne for Meiningen; there he joined the court theatre company as an actor. Several successful concerts in Berlin in 1895–6 established Wüllner's reputation as a lieder singer. He was also very successful in operatic parts, particularly in the title role of Wagner's ...


George Gelles

(b Reading, PA, Dec 31, 1899; d San Francisco, Sept 6, 1977). American flautist . He began studying the violin at the age of nine and took up the flute at 15, learning first with André Maquarre, then with Georges Barrère. In 1924 he joined the Detroit SO and remained there until ...