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Mikhail Mishchenko

(b Kherson, Ukraine, 11/May 23, 1881; d Leningrad, Dec 16, 1937). Russian composer and teacher. He studied the violin under Ye. Mlïnarsky in Odessa (1892–97) and under K. Prill in Vienna (1898–1900) where he also attended a course in composition and the piano. In the 1900s he entered the St Petersburg Conservatory, studying under Rimsky-Korsakov (orchestration and composition) and Lyadov, graduating in 1910. He later taught there (1915–37) and in 1919 he became a professor. Many outstanding musicians graduated from his class including Andrey Balanchivadze, Mikhail Chulaki, Aleksandr Gauk, Khristofor Kushnaryov, Aleksandr Melik-Pashayev and Mikhail Yudin.


Isabelle Henrion-Dourcy

(b Lhasa, 1922). Tibetan teacher and researcher. He came from an aristocratic family and showed interest in folksongs and dances from an early age. At 16 he entered the Nang-ma'i sKyid-sdug society and studied a range of instruments, especially the pi-wang (fiddle) and the sgra-snyan (lute); his main teachers were Bai Walli and A-jo rNam-rgyal. In 1978 he was appointed music teacher at what was to become Tibet University in Lhasa. He then became vice-director of its arts department and vice-chairman of the Tibet Music Association. With the gar master Pa-sangs Don-grub, he played an important role in the resurrection of Tibetan music, particularly traditional music theory and nang-ma and stod-gzhas forms, although his expertise ranges over all the Tibetan performing arts. He sat at most of the government conferences on traditional performing arts. Together with Garpa Tashi Tsering he is an important figure in the revival of ...


Joshua Rifkin

revised by Konrad Küster

(b Leipzig, bap. June 30, 1695; d Frankfurt an der Oder, May 1, 1760). German poet and cantata librettist . The daughter of a prominent Leipzig family, she began to pursue a professional literary career in her late twenties after she had been widowed twice and lost the children of both marriages. Johann Christoph Gottsched became her mentor and principal sponsor. She published her first collection of verse, Versuch in gebundener Schreib-Art, in 1728; a second volume followed a year later. In 1731 she brought out a collection of letters and became a member of the Deutsche Gesellschaft in Leipzig, whose prize for poetry she won in 1732 and 1734. In 1733, at Gottsched’s recommendation, the Faculty of Philosophy of Wittenberg University elected her imperial poet laureate. Ziegler’s last publication, Vermischte Schriften in gebundener und ungebundener Rede – probably a revised version of a lost collection announced in the Leipzig fair catalogue of ...


Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Palermo, Dec 24, 1937). Italian musicologist, son of Ottavio Ziino . After studying with Aurelió Roncaglia and Luigi Ronga at Rome University and graduating in 1962, he taught history of music at Perugia Conservatory (1962–3). Subsequently he studied musicology at Freiburg University with Reinhold Hammerstein, at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra in Rome with Eugène Cardine and Higini Anglès and at the Scuola di Paleografia e Filologia Musicale in Cremona with Raffaello Monterosso and Federico Mompellio. He taught music history at Cremona, (1967–71), and later at the universities of Messina, Siena (1979–81), Naples (1981–95) and at the Tor Vergata University, Rome, in 1995. He was visiting professor at UCLA during 1986 and has also lectured at Certaldo.

His principal research interests are medieval Italian and French music, with particular reference to the lauda and the Ars Nova. He has identified a number of important manuscript sources, including the Turin manuscript T.III.2 at the Bibliotecà Nazionale Universitaria, and has also worked on subjects from later periods, such as Lorenzo il Magnifico, Palestrina and Tasso, Pietro della Valle, Francesco Lambardi, Stradella and the Roman Baroque cantata, the 18th-century ...


Roberto Pagano

(b Palermo, Nov 11, 1909; d Rome, Feb 1, 1995). Italian composer, conductor and teacher. He was director of the conservatories of Palermo, Naples and Rome, and a member of the Accademia di S Cecilia. He was also director of two important musical institutions from the time of their foundation: the Teatro Lirico Sperimentale in Spoleto and the Orchestra Sinfonica Siciliana, with which he produced interesting series of concerts, of which the Giornate di Musica Contemporanea deserve special mention. In writing his Ricordi di un musicista (Palermo, 1994) at the end of his busy career, Ziino declared that compared with other aspects of his multiple artistic personality, he considered composition to be his main musical activity. A pupil of Antonio Savasta, an exceptional teacher who instilled in him a love of counterpoint, Ziino completed his studies under Pizzetti (composition) and Bernardino Molinari (conducting). He was an active, highly competent conductor, with a repertory which ranged from orchestral music of every period and style to opera; this repertory allowed him to assimilate contemporary idioms, which he did with discernment, never merely copying famous models. A prolific composer, his melodic style – while based on Sicilian folksong – avoids the explicit quotation of folk material; his pieces show a contrast between lively, rhythmic movements and spare-textured calm adagios. Among his most important works are the ...


Boris Schwarz

(Alexandrovich )

(b Rostov-na-Donu, April 9, 1890; d Reno, NV, Feb 22, 1985). American violinist, composer and teacher of Russian birth . His father, a professional violinist and conductor of the Rostov Opera, taught him for the first few years. In 1901 Zimbalist joined Auer's class at the St Petersburg Conservatory, and received the Gold Medal and the Rubinstein Prize on his graduation in 1907. That year he made his débuts in Berlin (7 November) and London (9 December). He made a memorable appearance at the Leipzig Gewandhaus on 1 January 1910 under Nikisch, playing the Tchaikovsky Concerto. At his American début in Boston on 27 October 1911 Zimbalist introduced Glazunov’s Concerto. His success made him decide to settle in the USA. He married twice, in 1914 the singer Alma Gluck with whom he frequently appeared in joint recitals as a violinist and also as an expert accompanist, and in 1943...


Vladimír Zvara

(b Ružomberk, May 16, 1926; d Bratislava, Jan 21, 1993). Slovak composer, pianist and teacher. He studied the organ, the piano with Anna Kafendová (from 1941) and composition with Suchoň at the Bratislava Conservatory before continuing his studies in composition under Farkas at the Budapest Music Academy (1948–9) and in Salzburg (1949). From 1945 to 1948 he contributed to Czechoslovak radio and, for the next four years, taught theory and the piano at the Bratislava Conservatory. Thereafter he devoted his time to composition and, exceptionally, to performance as a concert pianist.

His compositional style had its roots in the work of Suchoň, manifested by his emphasis on concise structure (based mostly on Classical or Romantic forms) and in the use of modally extended tonality, with elements of dodecaphony in works of the 1960s. After an early period of compositional constructivism and sober emotionality (as in the Concerto grosso, ...


Shelly C. Cooper

(b Peoria, IL, March 15, 1929; d Urbana, IL, Feb 15, 1995). American music educator and scholar. She earned degrees from Illinois Wesleyan University (BA 1951) and the University of Illinois (MS 1955, EdD 1963). She taught for three years in the Illinois public schools before joining the music faculties at Illinois Wesleyan University (1955–6), Southern Illinois University (1956–9), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1959–64, 1968–71, 1987–93), and Northwestern University (1964–8). She held several visiting professor positions, including director of the graduate program in music education at Temple University (1978–9) and Distinguished Flora Stone Mather Visiting Professor at Case Western University (1980–81). Known for her seminal research in music conservation based on the work of Jean Piaget, she published more than 50 articles. Among her publications are Musical Characteristics of Children (Reston, VA 1971...


Chris Walton

(b Berne, Aug 7, 1927). Swiss composer and teacher. She studied the piano and music theory in Berne, Lausanne and Paris. Her first composition teacher was Arthur Honegger; she later studied composition and conducting at the Milan Conservatory. She has received many commissions and several works have been recorded for radio and on disc. In 1987 she won second prize at the first international competition for women composers at Unna in Germany. Zimmermann describes her style as ‘atonal, but traditional’, though in her search for new timbres she often employs techniques such as cluster glissandos and quarter-tones that are more commonly associated with a progressive aesthetic.

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(b Paris, ?March 19, 1785; d Paris, Oct 29, 1853). French pianist, teacher and composer. The son of a Paris piano maker, he entered the Conservatoire in 1798 to study piano with Boieldieu and harmony with J.-B. Rey and then Catel. In 1800 he won a premier prix for piano (over Kalkbrenner) and in 1802 a premier prix in harmony; later he studied composition with Cherubini. From 1811 he assisted in teaching the piano at the Conservatoire and in 1816 was appointed professor. In 1821 he was selected to succeed A.-F. Eler as professor of counterpoint and fugue, but decided to teach the piano only and the vacant post went to Fétis. He was one of the most influential French keyboard teachers of his time; his pupils included Franck, Alkan, Louis Lacombe, Ambroise Thomas, Bizet and A.-F. Marmontel (who succeeded him in 1848). He also taught Gounod (who became his son-in-law). He retired early from public performance in order to devote himself to teaching and composition. His ...


Friedrich Spangemacher

(b Schwabach, Franconia, April 15, 1949). German composer. He studied with Heider in Nuremberg (1968–70) and performed as a pianist in the ars-nova-ensemble. In 1970 he went to Cologne, where he attended courses on new music given by Kagel. Largely self-taught as a composer, he later studied at the Institute of Sonology, Utrecht (1970–73) with Otto Laske, at the Jaap-Kunst ethnological centre, Amsterdam, and at the Alexander Hamilton Institute, USA (1974), where he took a computer studies course. In 1977 he founded the Beginner-Studio in Cologne, where he organized concerts for a number of years. He has lectured at the Darmstadt summer courses (1982–4) and taught at the Royal Conservatory, The Hague, the Karlsruhe Musikhochschule and the Essen Folkwang-schule. In 1993 he was appointed professor of composition at the Berlin Hochschule der Künste. His honours include the Förderpreis of the city of Cologne (...


R.M. Longyear

revised by Rodobaldo Tibaldi

(b Naples, April 4, 1752; d Torre del Greco, nr Naples, May 5, 1837). Italian composer and teacher. Left fatherless at the age of seven, Zingarelli was enrolled in the Conservatorio di S Maria di Loreto, where his father had taught singing, and studied with Fenaroli, Speranza, Anfossi and Sacchini. After his graduation in 1772 he became organist and violin teacher at Torre Annunziata. When his first patron the Duchess of Castelpagano gave him her support, however, he began his career as an opera composer, in the theatres of northern Italy, Florence and Rome. His first cantata was performed in 1778 and his first opera, Montezuma, in 1781. Although Haydn did not praise this work as highly as once was supposed, he nevertheless produced it (and later Alsinda) at Eszterháza. Between 1785 and 1803 Zingarelli was principally known as an opera composer.

In 1790 he visited Paris, where his opera ...


E. Fred Flindell

(b Frankfurt, June 20, 1914; d Freiburg, Oct 7, 1997). German composer, teacher and organist. In 1933 he attended the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt, where he studied the organ with Walcha and composition with Sekles, and also studied at the university of Frankfurt. From 1934 to 1938 he continued his studies at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musikerziehung und Kirchenmusik in Berlin-Charlottenburg, where his teacher of composition was Armin Knab. Under Knab’s influence Zipp developed a keen and lasting interest in German and international folk music and particularly the treasury of old chorale tunes. He learnt to compose with the most archaic musical elements, convinced that they would best convey his personal musical expression. From 1938 until his war service (1941–5) he was active in Frankfurt as an organist and teacher. In 1947 he was appointed lecturer in composition at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Frankfurt, later becoming a professor (...


Joseph S.C. Lam

(b Yangzhou, 1899; d Tianjin, 1991). Chinese qin zither master . Born in the historical site of the Guangling school, Zhang studied qin as a teenager with Sun Shaotao. By his early twenties he was already an accomplished performer, though remaining true to the amateur ideal of the qin. In the 1930s Zhang moved to Shanghai, acquainting himself with the qin players Zha Fuxi and Peng Zhiqing; their regular meetings led in 1936 to the founding of the Jin Yu qinshe (Qin Society of Contemporary Yu Region) in Suzhou. After the founding of the People’s Republic, Zhang was enlisted to the state-sponsored Shanghai Folk Music Troupe (Shanghai minzu yuetuan), and in 1957 he was appointed a teacher of qin at the Shanghai Conservatory. Zhang promoted the Guangling style through his performances, teaching and publications. His distinctive style of rhapsodic rhythm and flexible phrasing can be heard in his recordings of pieces such as ...


Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Roman, July 14, 1883; d Sibiu, March 23, 1946). Romanian composer, musicologist, and teacher. He was a Romantic composer and a representative of the national Romanian school (through language and ethos). He studied at the Iaşi Conservatory (1902–5) with G. Musicescu, T. Cerne (harmony), and E. Mezzetti (singing), and then took composition lessons with C. Gatti at the Milan Conservatory (1905–7, 1909–11), and became Magister in composition (1911). Returning to the Iaşi Conservatory to teach harmony (1907–9, 1911–25, 1931–40), he directed the institution from 1922 until 1924, and he was also professor of harmony and singing and director of the Cernăuţi Conservatory (1925–31, now Chernovtsy, Ukraine); in these appointments he established a reputation as a remarkable teacher.

As a composer he was above all attracted to the theatre. Most of his six stage works are based on episodes in Romanian history, and all attest to his supreme handling of the dramatic-lyrical genre of which (together with Caudella, Drăgoi, Nottara, and Stephănescu) he was an originator. His greatest achievements in this manner were the opera ...


Stana Duric-Klajn

(b Belgrade, May 25, 1901; d Belgrade, June 29, 1964). Serbian composer, musicologist, teacher and conductor. He studied at the Stanković Music School in Belgrade, where he also graduated in law in 1924; his composition studies were continued with Grabner at the Leipzig Conservatory (1925–9) and with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum (1929–31). He directed the Stanković Music School (1937–47) and taught at the Belgrade Academy of Music (1937–64), where he was professor of composition, rector (1951–7) and dean (1957–60). At the latter institution he was responsible for the training of many who later became leading composers. In 1958 he was elected to corresponding membership of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. His compositions treat folk elements in a modern harmonic style, and his treatise on harmony is an original contribution.

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Angelina Petrova

(b Ruse, Bulgaria, April 23, 1905; d Sofia, Bulgaria, March 29, 1977). Bulgarian composer and voice pedagogue. In his endeavour to create a pronouncedly Bulgarian vocal colour he composed some of the most popular works in Bulgaria during the 1930s and 1940s. Among others, ‘Sevdana’ and ‘Pastoral’ deserve a special mention.

He began his music education studying the piano at the Music Academy in Sofia (under Ivan Torchanov); he later studied voice in Vienna under T. Lirhamer (1925–9), and composition under Josef Marxs (1927); he was also Lirhamer’s assistant between 1936 and 1938. He taught at the Imperial Academy of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna (1936–8). In 1944 he became a teacher of classical singing, and in 1971 a professor in the State Bulgarian Conservatoire, Sofia. He was a well-known voice pedagogue and his name is often connected with prominent performers, such as Lyuba Velich and Lyubomir Pantchev (in the first half of the 20th century), and Anna Tomova-Sintova and Alexandrina Miltcheva (in the second half of the 20th century)....


Lada Duraković

(b Sovinjak, nr Buzet, June 1, 1910; d Pula, Oct 27, 1993). Croatian conductor, composer, and musical pedagogue. He received the degree in composition in 1934 at the Music Academy in Zagreb. Until 1941 he worked as city kapelmaster and director of the Music School in Sušak. From 1941 until the war he worked at the Croatian State Conservatory in Zagreb and led the Croatian Choral Society ‘Lisinski’. During the war years he conducted the choir of the Central Theatre Troupe of the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH). From 1946 he worked as conductor of the choir of the Radio-television, music editor of Radio Zagreb, and professor of conducting at the Music Academy. From 1965 until his death he lived in Pula. He worked as director of the School of Music ‘Ivan Matetić Ronjgov’, research associate and ethnomusicologist of the North Adriatic Institute of Jugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts (JAZU), taught at the Academy of Pedagogy, and collected folk-music material....


Dimitrije Bužarovski

(b Veles, March 29, 1934; d Skopje, Jan 14, 2000). Macedonian composer and educator. His compositions are among the first large-scale orchestral works (Sinfonietta in Es, Sinfonietta in Si, and Fantasia corale) which, in the 1950s and 1960s, moved Macedonian music toward the contemporary occidental music styles. Both his compositional and educational activities essentially influenced the developement of Macedonian music at the end of the 20th century.

His family was known for the fresco painting artisans (zograf) in the 19th century. He studied at Skopje Music School and Belgrade Music School and graduated from Milenko Zivković’s composition class at the Academy of Music in Belgrade in 1961. After working as a teacher at Skopje Music School and a music journalist for Radio Skopje, he became professor (1967) and dean (1970–71; 1977–9) of Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Music....


Lyudmila Kovnatskaya

(b Taganrog, 24 Feb/March 7, 1872 (?1873); d Moscow, May 25, 1964). Russian composer and teacher. He was the son of an employee from the Taganrog Tobacco Factory. In Rostov-on-Don in 1883 he was elected by the commission for the Court Cappella Choristers to sing in the boys’ choir. He studied with Balakirev and Lyadov at the court chapel in St Petersburg, where his gifts as a composer became apparent (under the influence of Balakirev, with whom he studied composition from 1883 to 1887, he wrote a symphony, completed 70 years later in 1962; he dedicated it to the memory of Balakirev and Rimsky-Korsakov). He continued his musical education with Rimsky-Korsakov at the St Petersburg Conservatory (1898–1900), where he won the Rubinstein Prize for his cantata Ray i Peri (‘Paradise and Peri’), which was presented as his graduation work. In 1902 he wrote his ...