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George J. Buelow

(b Erfurt, Sept 18, 1684; d Weimar, March 23, 1748). German organist, composer, theorist and lexicographer. His father was Johann Stephan Walther, an Erfurt fabric maker; his mother, Martha Dorothea, née Lämmerhirt, was a close relative of J.S. Bach’s family. Walther’s autobiography was published in Mattheson’s Grundlage einer Ehren-Pforte. His education began at the age of four with private instruction; in 1691 he entered the lower school of Erfurt. Organ lessons were begun with Johann Bernhard Bach, organist of the Kaufmannskirche, and continued with his successor, Johann Andreas Kretschmar. Walther said he learnt in less than a year to sing well enough to become a soloist in church music performances. According to Walther, his teacher was Jakob Adlung, but he probably meant David Adlung, the father of Jakob. The latter, born in 1699, became a friend of Walther in the early 1720s and later a prominent Erfurt organist and theorist....


Barry Smith

[Heseltine, Philip (Arnold)]

(b London, Oct 30, 1894; d London, Dec 17, 1930). English composer, editor and writer on music. Born in the Savoy Hotel, he came from a well-to-do family of stockbrokers, solicitors and art connoisseurs; his father died when he was only two. His domineering mother, Edith Covernton, had Welsh connections and Warlock was to have strong ties with Wales throughout his life. In 1903 she married Walter Buckley Jones and mother and son moved to Wales. At preparatory school his interest in music was awakened through the pianola; his education continued at Eton where his musical interests were encouraged by a sympathetic piano teacher, Colin Taylor. It was Taylor who in 1911 obtained permission for him to attend a concert of Delius's music, an event which was to have a lasting effect on his life. Warlock's interest in Delius's music had begun as early as 1909 and, by the time of his first meeting with Delius at the concert in ...


W.H. Husk

revised by Bruce Carr

(b London, March 20, 1804; d Bexley, Kent, March 8, 1881). English organist and writer on music. In 1834 he became organist of St Mary’s (Roman Catholic) Chapel, Chelsea, and composed some masses for its service. Between 1840 and 1860 he published many instruction books for organ, reed organ, concertina and church singing.

Warren was a careful and thorough editor of earlier English music: his edition of Boyce’s Cathedral Music, for example, included new biographies of the composers with exhaustive lists of their works. Such scholarship was facilitated by the large and valuable library he collected during his life, including the partbooks from which he edited Hilton’s Ayres or Fa Las, many unique sale catalogues, and autograph manuscripts of Purcell, A. Scarlatti, Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. The fruits of his research appeared often in the early Musical World.


Paula Morgan

(b Patton, PA, April 2, 1927). American liturgiologist . He took two BA degrees at St Vincent College (1949 and 1952) and the MS in piano at the Juilliard School (1954), and then took further graduate courses at Columbia University. From 1957 to 1967 he was associated with St Vincent College, first as a music teacher and later in administrative positions, including those of chancellor and chairman of the board of directors. He was a member of the university seminar in medieval studies at Columbia, 1957–66. In 1967 he was appointed abbot primate of the Benedictine Confederation and in 1977 he became the Archbishop of Milwaukee. He was also music editor of the New Catholic Encyclopedia. His principal interests are medieval Latin drama and music theorists, and Ambrosian chant. He studied the compositions and theoretical writings of Hucbald, and his transcription of the Play of Daniel...


William E. Boswell

(b nr Salisbury, June 24, 1803; d Orange, NJ, Oct 7, 1887). American music educator, editor and composer of English birth . He studied with Alexander Lucas in Salisbury, then resigned as organist at Falmouth in 1830 and emigrated to Boston, Massachusetts, where he became organist at the Old South Church. Active in many aspects of Boston's musical life, he worked closely with Lowell Mason on educational and publishing projects. He taught in the early years of the Boston Academy of Music, was conductor of the Handel and Haydn Society and the orchestras of the Academy and the Musical Fund Society, and co-edited periodicals and choral collections with Mason and others. In 1870 he moved to Orange, New Jersey, and taught in New York. His compositions, most of which are choral, are musically adept and very much a part of the New England Protestant tradition, though notably less inspired than those of Mason. Only one hymn tune remains in use today: originally written to secular words, it was by ...


Vera Grützner

(b Alfdorf, Württemberg, Sept 20, 1900; d Leipzig, May 14, 1980). German composer and editor. He studied at the Stuttgart Conservatory (1919–21) with Heinrich Schlegel and Heinrich Lang, among others, and at the Leipzig Conservatory (1921–3) where his teachers included Max Ludwig and Sigfrid Karg-Elert; he also studied musicology with Hermann Abert. As an editor, he held positions at the Zeitschrift für Musik, Leipzig (1924–8) and Peters, Leipzig (1929–65, chief editor 1959–65). He taught theory and composition at the Leipzig Musikhochschule (1946–55, 1961–72, professor 1948). In 1969 he became a corresponding member of the Berlin Akademie der Künste.

Weismann was particularly highly regarded for his collected editions of Gesualdo's madrigals (1956–63) and his critical editions of 18th-century works. As a composer, he wrote primarily vocal music. His works for voice and piano comprise: simple strophic folk-like songs, usually with variations; ballad-like compositions; and declamatory settings with piano accompaniment. His early impressions of Italian 16th- and 17th-century madrigals, particularly those of Monteverdi and Gesualdo, left their mark on his extensive body of choral writing. While the early madrigal cycles show a close connection with their historical models, later cycles exhibit greater freedom....


Walter Salmen

(b Landsberg am Lech, Bavaria, 1588; d Seeon, Bavaria, May 29, 1666). German music anthologist, composer and poet . He studied at the monasteries of Diessen and Andechs in Bavaria. In 1609 he became a novice at the Benedictine monastery at Seeon. In 1625 he was appointed prior there and in 1634 choirmaster. The 17th century was a period of particularly rich musical activity in Bavarian monasteries, and Werlin was one of many monks appointed to compose and compile music for use in individual cloisters. To this end, along with antiphonaries and catalogues, he produced his main work, the six-volume Rhithmorum varietas: typi, exempla & modulationes rhythmorum opera & studia (MS, D-Mbs , 1646). It contains 2946 melodies, from simple folktunes to more sophisticated 16th- and 17th-century art songs (Gesellschaftslieder), all with thoroughbass accompaniment and systematically ordered for instruction in prosody and melodic writing. It is the most comprehensive collection of melodies of the Baroque era and important for its poems too....


Buell E. Cobb and Harry Eskew

(b nr Spartanburg, SC, Sept 20, 1800; dAtlanta, GA, Dec 5, 1879). American singing- school teacher, composer and tune book compiler (seeShape-note hymnody §2). A self-taught musician, he wrote three-part tunes using four-shape notation. In collaboration with Elisha J. King he published The Sacred Harp ([Hamilton, GA] Philadelphia, 1844, 3/1859/R, 4/1869), one of the most significant shape-note tune books of the pre-Civil War South and the longest-lived tune book in four-shape notation. Several editions were produced in White's lifetime, and the book is still used, in a number of revised versions, at singing conventions in the South and has also spread to other areas. His brother-in-law was William Walker, whose Southern Harmony (1835) and Christian Harmony (1867) were the chief rivals of The Sacred Harp.

G.P. Jackson: ‘Benjamin Franklin White of Georgia and his Associates’, ...


William Brooks

(b Taunton, MA, March 20, 1829; d Boston, Jan 13, 1892). American composer and publisher. In 1868 he, W. Frank Smith and John F. Perry formed the publishing house of White, Smith & Perry; the next year they began to issue The Folio, an important monthly music periodical. After Perry withdrew in 1872 the firm became White-Smith & Co.; Smith died in 1891 and White became sole owner. White’s son and grandson managed the company until 1942, when its holdings were transferred to Edward H. Morris & Co. (which was absorbed in turn by MPL Communications in 1976).

The firm’s success was largely attributable to White’s over 1000 compositions. His greatest success, Marguerite (1883), sold over one million copies in eight years and was reissued as late as 1945. Though he dabbled in minstrelsy and comedy, White was best in serious genres: simple ‘home songs’ promoting motherhood, temperance, and other virtues (...


Owain Edwards

revised by Ian Woodfield

(b London, 1758–9; d Paris, Oct 1817). English army officer, composer, author and music publisher. He joined the Bengal Army at 19 and sailed for India in 1778. After 20 years on active service there his career as an officer came to a sudden end. He was a captain in the 17th N. India Regiment when he was suspended for having written a letter, signed ‘Mentor’, published in the Calcutta Telegraph on 17 March 1798, in which he criticized the Government’s military policy. He was ordered home, his conduct being found by the Board ‘highly criminal and of a dangerous tendency’, and was later retired on half pay.

On his return to London, Williamson opened a warehouse in the Strand, ‘where a great variety of Music, Instruments, as also Prints and Drawings, may be had’. As a self-proclaimed authority on all matters Indian, his main value as a musical commentator lies in his remarks on the lucrative export trade in instruments between London and India. In his ...


William D. Gudger

revised by Andrew D. McCredie

(b Ampfing, Upper Bavaria, Oct 22, 1885; d Frankfurt, May 30, 1935). German composer and editor. The son of a school teacher and organist, he attended the Munich Academy of Music where he studied with Rudolf Louis, Joseph Rheinberger and others. From 1913 he was an editor and adviser with Schott of Mainz, for whom he compiled Das Buch der Motive (Maine, 1921), which became a standard source for identifying Wagner’s leitmotifs. After military service, he taught theory and piano in Wiesbaden; two years before his death he was appointed director of the Mainz Music School. His music is in the late-Romantic tradition. In addition to orchestral works in conventional genres, he wrote two grandiloquent sacred works: the Missa symphonica (1926) and the Requiem (1929). His small piano pieces (op.37) adopt certain modern trends, inviting comparison with Bartók’s Mikrokosmos.

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Michael Remson

(b Philadelphia, PA, 1837; d Philadelphia, PA, 1918). American composer and publisher. He was the younger brother of Septimus Winner (1827–1902). He followed his older brother into Philadelphia’s growing music publishing business. Evidence suggests Septimus gave his brother a job, possibly as early as 1845. Septimus and Joseph had a contentious relationship, with Septimus permitting his brother to rejoin the business at least once after a separation for unknown causes. By 1854, Joseph opened his own business and maintained it until 1895; his son ran it until 1918. Joseph and Septimus reconciled at least one other time, sharing business locations from 1885 to 1887. Family records describe Joseph’s jealousy of his brother’s compositional successes and, using his middle name as a pseudonym, he published at least 25 songs prior to his 1869 success, Little Brown Jug. By his retirement, he had published well over 50 songs under the Eastburn moniker....


Nicholas E. Tawa

(b Philadelphia, May 11, 1827; d Philadelphia, Nov 22, 1902). American composer, teacher and publisher . His parents were Joseph Eastburn Winner, a violin maker, and Mary Ann Winner (née Hawthorne), a relative of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Largely self-educated in music, he played and taught several instruments. Around 1845 Winner became a music publisher and opened a music store with his brother Joseph. He was active in Philadelphia’s music circle and was a member of the Musical Fund Society, in whose orchestra he played for five years, the Cecillian Musical Society, and the Philadelphia Brass Band.

Winner wrote many simple and highly popular pieces, arrangements and instruction methods for different instruments. He is best known for his songs issued under the pseudonym Alice Hawthorne, which spawned the genre known as ‘Hawthorne Ballads’. Other pseudonyms were Percy Guyer, Mark Mason and Paul Stenton. Recognition came with How sweet are the roses...


Bernd Baselt and Karl-Ernst Bergunder

(b Altenburg, c1660; d Gotha, April 3, 1717). German composer, music editor and teacher. He was first taught music by his father, Johann Ernst Witt, who was Altenburg court organist in succession to Gottfried Scheidt and had come from Denmark when a Danish princess married into the ruling house of Saxe-Altenburg about 1650. The Altenburg male heirs having all died out, the succession passed in 1672 to the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, Friedrich I, who, probably in 1676, gave Witt a scholarship to study in Vienna and Salzburg. He also paid for him to study composition and counterpoint with G.C. Wecker in Nuremberg in 1685–6. On 1 June 1686 Witt was appointed chamber organist at the Gotha court. In 1688 he was again sent to study with Wecker. In 1694 he was appointed substitute for the Kapellmeister, W.M. Mylius, and he succeeded him after his death, in 1713...


Walter Blankenburg

revised by Clytus Gottwald

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Nov 19, 1534; d Strasbourg, Sept 11, 1592). German mathematician, music editor, ?composer and writer on music . From 1553 he studied at the Viadrina at Frankfurt an der Oder, where he was a pupil of the mathematician Helias Camerarius. In 1555 his name appeared, as ‘David Nephelius Wratislaviensis’, in the matriculation register of the University of Wittenberg. From at least 1568 until his death he was a teacher of mathematics and a Kantor at Strasbourg. He is of musical interest for his editing of two volumes of psalms: Psalmen: mit 4 Stimmen zu singen in den Kirchen und Schulen in Strassburg (Strasbourg, 1577) and Psalmen für Kirchen und Schulen auff die gemeine Melodeyen syllaben weiss zu 4 Stimmen gesetzt (Strasbourg, 1583), as well as Die teutsche Litanei: für Kirchen und Schulen zu vier Stimmen gesetzt (Strasbourg, 1583). According to Zahn the first collection of psalms is based principally on old melodies, most of which are in the tenor part. The second contains mainly melodies from Strasbourg and from the Bohemian Brethren, which are in the cantus part. It includes nine unidentified tunes fashioned on definite rhythmic models and thus related to the reformed psalter; Wolkenstein may have written them himself. The second collection can profitably be seen as a link between the French psalter and Lucas Osiander's ...



Nym Cooke

(b Northboro [now Northborough], MA, July 30, 1752; d Northboro, MA, Aug 6, 1804). American composer and tunebook compiler. He worked as a fuller of cloth, served as tax assessor and captain of a militia company, and led a local choir in Northboro. He was a drummer and later a member of the Committee of Correspondence during the Revolution, and several of his compositions relate to that conflict. The magnificent Warren, an elegy for the patriot Joseph Warren, is one of 27 pieces by Wood in his and Joseph Stone’s The Columbian Harmony (Boston, n.d. [1793]). A Hymn on Peace, published independently in 1784, was sold by William Billings, among others. The Funeral Elegy on the Death of General George Washington (1800), also issued separately, was also later adapted and sung after the death of President W.H. Harrison in 1841.

Wood compiled one tunebook on his own, ...


Robert M. Copeland

(b Beverly, MA, Oct 23, 1819; d Columbia, SC, Oct 26, 1858). American composer, editor, teacher and writer. He studied music in Boston, London and Paris. On his return he worked as a private teacher, church organist and choral conductor. His first musical publications were tune books compiled in collaboration with his cousin Benjamin F. Baker, with whom he also formed the National Musical Convention, a training school for teachers.

During the 1840s and 50s Woodbury travelled extensively as a choral conductor and baritone soloist. He was organist at Marlborough Chapel, Boston (1843–4), and from 1846 to 1848 was corresponding editor of the World of Music. He was organist at Rutgers Street Church, New York (1850–51); he also edited the American Monthly Musical Review (1850–53) and the New York Musical Pioneer (1855–8). His health began to fail in the 1850s and he spent his final years struggling against tuberculosis; he visited Europe and the Mediterranean in ...


Hermann J. Busch

(b Cattaro [now Kotor], Dalmatia, June 13, 1863; d Vienna, Oct 22, 1943). Austrian church musician, composer and editor. After studying at the Vienna Conservatory (1880–82), where his teachers included Franz Krenn, he held several teaching and church music positions in Vienna. He also worked as an editor for Universal Edition (1908–31), edited Musica divina (1913–34) and was co-editor of Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich (from 1925). Among other projects, he prepared piano scores of Mahler’s symphonies for publication and edited works by Bruckner. As a composer, he wrote primarily Catholic sacred music; his works show the influence of the Cecilian movement and the music of Bruckner, with whom he had many personal contacts.

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(b Frankenhausen, Thuringia, May 1, 1726; d Brunswick, Jan 30, 1777). German poet and editor . After law studies at Leipzig and Göttingen he became a teacher at the Carolineum at Brunswick in 1748, being appointed to a chair in 1761. Der Renommiste, Zachariä’s most famous work, a comic epic in the manner of Boileau and Pope, was published when he was only 18. He also wrote much lyric verse of various kinds, and tales that enjoyed considerable popularity. His lyrics were frequently set to music in the 18th century, and of his larger works Die Pilgrime auf Golgatha was set by Albrechtsberger and others, and Die Auferstehung, Das befreite Israel and Die Tageszeiten (in the manner of James Thomson) by Telemann. Zachariä also composed, earning warm praise for his Sammlung einiger musikalischen Versuche (Leipzig, 1760–61, enlarged 2/1768) from Hiller, Marpurg and others. His Zwey schöne neue Mährlein...