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(b Paris, ?March 19, 1785; d Paris, Oct 29, 1853). French pianist, teacher and composer. The son of a Paris piano maker, he entered the Conservatoire in 1798 to study piano with Boieldieu and harmony with J.-B. Rey and then Catel. In 1800 he won a premier prix for piano (over Kalkbrenner) and in 1802 a premier prix in harmony; later he studied composition with Cherubini. From 1811 he assisted in teaching the piano at the Conservatoire and in 1816 was appointed professor. In 1821 he was selected to succeed A.-F. Eler as professor of counterpoint and fugue, but decided to teach the piano only and the vacant post went to Fétis. He was one of the most influential French keyboard teachers of his time; his pupils included Franck, Alkan, Louis Lacombe, Ambroise Thomas, Bizet and A.-F. Marmontel (who succeeded him in 1848). He also taught Gounod (who became his son-in-law). He retired early from public performance in order to devote himself to teaching and composition. His ...


Tully Potter

(b Lahr, Oct 8, 1966). German viola player. Encouraged by her elder siblings, who wanted to play trios, she started playing a small viola at three and at five began learning the piano. From 1979 she studied with Ulrich Koch at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Freiburg and from 1986 with Sándor Végh at the Salzburg Mozarteum. She was a prizewinner at international competitions at Geneva in 1982, Paris in 1983 – where she was awarded a new Etienne Vatelot viola – and Budapest in 1984. She then began an outstanding career which has taken her all over the world. Her US début was made in 1993 and in 1995 she gave her first recital in Carnegie Hall, New York. Zimmermann is among today's finest viola virtuosos, with a superb technique and an ample, supple tone; but she is also an artist of rare profundity. She is often heard in concert with the pianist Hartmut Höll or the conductor David Shallon, and other close colleagues are the oboist Heinz Holliger, and violinists Gidon Kremer, Thomas Zehetmair and Frank Peter Zimmermann (not related to her). She gave the first performances of Volker David Kirchner's ...


(b Husum, Holstein, bap. March 8, 1743; d Ludwigslust, June 23, 1801). German instrumentalist and composer , brother of Hardenack Otto Conrad Zinck. His father, also named Bendix Friedrich Zinck, was a town musician in Husum, then cathedral organist in Schleswig (c1783), who wrote Kleine Duette für verschiedene Instrumente and other pieces for wind instruments (according to GerberL). Zinck studied the violin, harpsichord and organ with his father. About 1764 he visited Norway and stayed for a time in Christiania (now Oslo), and in 1767 he became a violinist at the Ludwigslust Hofkapelle of the Duke of Schwerin, where he served until his death. From Ludwigslust he made several concert tours to Dresden, Hamburg (where he studied composition with C.P.E. Bach), Berlin, London and elsewhere, becoming known as a violinist and keyboard player. In 1781 he married the court singer Charlotte Nussbaum (1760–1817)....


(b Husum, Holstein, July 2, 1746; d Copenhagen, Feb 15, 1832). German composer and instrumentalist, brother of Bendix Friedrich Zinck. Like his brother, he was taught several musical instruments and harmony by his father. He continued his studies in Hamburg for ten years and performed in both amateur and public concerts there; he also had the special esteem of his teacher, C.P.E. Bach, under whose direction he performed as a singer in 1768. In 1777 he was recruited as first flautist and chamber musician in the Ludwigslust Hofkapelle of the Duke of Schwerin, where he dedicated himself increasingly to composition, learning from imitation of Classical models and from C.P.E. Bach’s Versuch, Kirnberger’s Kunst des reinen Satzes and Marpurg’s theoretical writings (preface to his Sechs Clavier-Sonaten, 1783). In August 1786 he visited Copenhagen, where he gave a highly successful concert, appearing as a flautist, keyboard player and composer. A year later he was offered the post of ...


A. Lindsey Kirwan

revised by Stephan Hörner

(b Konstanz, c1570; d Augsburg, Feb 1622). German composer and instrumentalist. He matriculated at Freiburg University in 1589. For 11 years he was a musician in the service of Cardinal Andreas of Austria at Konstanz. He then moved to Augsburg and worked as a cornettist, organist and composer in the service of the town, the cathedral and the influential Fugger family, Maximilian Fugger being a particular patron of his. In 1614 he applied for the post of Kapellmeister at Augsburg Cathedral, in succession to Bernhard Klingenstein, but Georg Mezler was preferred to him. He was a talented instrumentalist and received a special subsidy for training younger cornett players. He was also highly esteemed at the Munich court, where he frequently performed as a cornettist; he received five payments for compositions, the last being in 1619. He was also connected with the court at Innsbruck, being personally acquainted with Archduke Leopold, a keen patron of music....


Gary W. Kennedy

[Corujo de Magalhàes Alves, Carlos ]

(b Lisbon, Dec 15, 1948). Portuguese violinist. He studied classical music at a conservatory in Lisbon (c1953–1965) and learned organ at a school of sacred music (1967–8). During the 1960s he was a member of a chamber orchestra at Lisbon University, and in 1967 he founded the group Plexus, which explored a fusion of rock, contemporary classical music, and improvisation. Following a period in the Portuguese Army, in 1975 he studied graphic art and stage design at a theater school in Lisbon, and from 1974 to 1980 he served as the music director for a theater company, Comicos; later he founded an art gallery of the same name in which he displayed his own works. He also wrote for the theater, and in 1988 he collaborated on an Italian production of a trilogy by Franz Kafka.

Zingaro performed free jazz and improvised music throughout Europe with Daunik Lazro (from ...


Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 21, 1904; d Cologne, Nov 16, 1978). German harpist and musicologist . He was the son of Rudolf Ewald Zingel (1876–1944), an organist, choral conductor and composer in Greifswald. From 1923 to 1927 he studied at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Berlin with harp (under Max Saal) as his main subject. He then studied musicology under Max Schneider, with German literature and aesthetics as secondary subjects, at the universities of Berlin, Breslau (1927–8) and Halle (1928–30). He took the doctorate in Halle in 1930 with a dissertation on harp playing from the 16th century to the 18th. Harpist in the Städtische Orchester of Lübeck from 1932, he joined the Städtische Orchester of Halle in 1934 and the Gürzenich Orchestra in Cologne in 1938, where he remained until his retirement in 1969; he also played in the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra (...


Charles Barber


(b New York, July 10, 1936). American conductor. After early violin studies at the Oberlin Conservatory he studied theory and composition at the University of Minnesota and took up conducting at Tanglewood. He then worked in Maine with Monteux (1958–62), serving as his assistant from 1961 to 1964. Zinman was principal conductor of the Netherlands Chamber Orchestra from 1965 to 1977, music director of the Rochester PO from 1974 to 1985 and chief conductor of the Rotterdam PO from 1979 to 1982. After two years as principal guest conductor, Zinman was appointed music director of the Baltimore SO in 1985, a position he held until 1998. With that orchestra he made important recordings (including a series of Schumann symphonies and much American music) and transformed a regional ensemble into a leading American institution, his musical strengths complemented by an engaging manner, a deep commitment to music education and community relations, deft use of the media and self-deprecating humour (‘I am the Mel Brooks of the violin’, he once declared). He has also appeared with leading orchestras and festivals in the USA, Canada and Europe. Zinman has given numerous premières at Baltimore and elsewhere, including works by Adams, Bolcom, Danielpour, Daugherty, Kernis, Kirchner, Rouse and Torke. His recording of Gorecki’s Symphony no.3 with the London Sinfonietta was an international bestseller. Zinman became music director of the Zürich Tonhalle Orchestra in ...


Anton Haefeli

(b Geneva, May 9, 1941). Swiss composer and flautist. He studied the flute at the Geneva Conservatory, the Paris Conservatoire and the Accademia Chigiana, Siena. After playing in various European orchestras (1964–7), he became a member of the Zürich Tonhalle-Orchester (1967–75). It was during this period that he began to study composition, working with Hans Ulrich Lehmann at the Zürich Conservatory (1973–5) and privately in Stuttgart and Hanover with Helmut Lachenmann (1975–7). From 1976 to 1978 he was an active participant in the Darmstadt summer school. He later lived in the USA (1979–80, 1983), Berlin (1981–2) and Paris (1982), where he worked at IRCAM. In 1986 he co-founded the Tage für Neue Musik Zürich with Thomas Kessler, serving as co-director until 1994. His honours include the title of guest of honour at the Leningrad Spring Festival (...


Kyle Gann

(b Chicago, 1959). American composer and clarinettist. He took the BA at Yale (1981) and the MA and doctorate at the University of California, Berkeley. His composition teachers included Bresnick, Imbrie, Grisey, Lewin, Schwantner, Felciano and Anthony Davis. He also studied the clarinet (with Keith Wilson), Balinese drumming and jazz performance. After graduating from Yale, Ziporyn spent a year in Bali studying under I Made Lebah. From 1990 he taught at the MIT, in 1993 he became director of the ensemble Gamelan Galak Tika (a group that has provided him with opportunity to explore combinations of Indonesian and Western instruments) and in 1997 he joined the staff at Yale. For several years he has been a prominent performer at the New York Bangon a Can festival.

Ziporyn's career embodies jazz clarinet playing, composition in a postmodernist vein and ethnomusicology. Not surprisingly, his music embraces the differences between music cultures. For instance, in ...