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E. Fred Flindell

(b Frankfurt, June 20, 1914; d Freiburg, Oct 7, 1997). German composer, teacher and organist. In 1933 he attended the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt, where he studied the organ with Walcha and composition with Sekles, and also studied at the university of Frankfurt. From 1934 to 1938 he continued his studies at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musikerziehung und Kirchenmusik in Berlin-Charlottenburg, where his teacher of composition was Armin Knab. Under Knab’s influence Zipp developed a keen and lasting interest in German and international folk music and particularly the treasury of old chorale tunes. He learnt to compose with the most archaic musical elements, convinced that they would best convey his personal musical expression. From 1938 until his war service (1941–5) he was active in Frankfurt as an organist and teacher. In 1947 he was appointed lecturer in composition at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Frankfurt, later becoming a professor (...


Joseph S.C. Lam

(b Yangzhou, 1899; d Tianjin, 1991). Chinese qin zither master . Born in the historical site of the Guangling school, Zhang studied qin as a teenager with Sun Shaotao. By his early twenties he was already an accomplished performer, though remaining true to the amateur ideal of the qin. In the 1930s Zhang moved to Shanghai, acquainting himself with the qin players Zha Fuxi and Peng Zhiqing; their regular meetings led in 1936 to the founding of the Jin Yu qinshe (Qin Society of Contemporary Yu Region) in Suzhou. After the founding of the People’s Republic, Zhang was enlisted to the state-sponsored Shanghai Folk Music Troupe (Shanghai minzu yuetuan), and in 1957 he was appointed a teacher of qin at the Shanghai Conservatory. Zhang promoted the Guangling style through his performances, teaching and publications. His distinctive style of rhapsodic rhythm and flexible phrasing can be heard in his recordings of pieces such as ...



Eckhard Neubauer

[Abū ’l-Ḥasan ‘Alī ibn Nāfi‘ ]

(b Iraq; d Córdoba, Spain, Aug 852). Arab musician . A mawlā (‘freedman’) of Caliph al-Mahdī (775–85) at Baghdad, he was a pupil of Ibrāhīm al-Mawṣilī and a rival of Isḥāq al-Mawṣilī at the court of Hārūn al-Rashīd (786–809). He left Baghdad for Syria, served the Aghlabid ruler Ziyādat Allāh (817–38) in Qairawan (Tunisia), and later received a generous welcome from ‘Abd al-Raḥmān II (822–52) in Córdoba. His influence there as a court musician and companion (nadīm) must have been exceptional: customs in clothing and eating that he had brought from Baghdad became fashionable, and the tradition of his school of music was maintained by his descendants at least two generations after his death. Like his contemporary al-Kindī he seems to have known the musical theory of late antiquity and to have reconciled it with the teachings of his masters in Baghdad. Details of his vocal training techniques are described by Ibn Ḥayyān (...


Stana Duric-Klajn

(b Belgrade, May 25, 1901; d Belgrade, June 29, 1964). Serbian composer, musicologist, teacher and conductor. He studied at the Stanković Music School in Belgrade, where he also graduated in law in 1924; his composition studies were continued with Grabner at the Leipzig Conservatory (1925–9) and with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum (1929–31). He directed the Stanković Music School (1937–47) and taught at the Belgrade Academy of Music (1937–64), where he was professor of composition, rector (1951–7) and dean (1957–60). At the latter institution he was responsible for the training of many who later became leading composers. In 1958 he was elected to corresponding membership of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. His compositions treat folk elements in a modern harmonic style, and his treatise on harmony is an original contribution.

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Lada Duraković

(b Sovinjak, nr Buzet, June 1, 1910; d Pula, Oct 27, 1993). Croatian conductor, composer, and musical pedagogue. He received the degree in composition in 1934 at the Music Academy in Zagreb. Until 1941 he worked as city kapelmaster and director of the Music School in Sušak. From 1941 until the war he worked at the Croatian State Conservatory in Zagreb and led the Croatian Choral Society ‘Lisinski’. During the war years he conducted the choir of the Central Theatre Troupe of the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH). From 1946 he worked as conductor of the choir of the Radio-television, music editor of Radio Zagreb, and professor of conducting at the Music Academy. From 1965 until his death he lived in Pula. He worked as director of the School of Music ‘Ivan Matetić Ronjgov’, research associate and ethnomusicologist of the North Adriatic Institute of Jugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts (JAZU), taught at the Academy of Pedagogy, and collected folk-music material....


Sigrid Wiesmann

(b Vienna, Jan 9, 1950; d Hanover, March 21, 1991). Austrian composer and percussionist. He studied at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik, where his teachers included Urbanner and Cerha, with Kotonski in Warsaw (1972–3), at Vienna University and at Humboldt University, Berlin (PhD musicology 1978). During this period, he worked at the Institut für Elektroakustik at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik (1969–72) and at the experimental studio of Polish Radio in Warsaw (1972–3). Active as a percussionist, he founded the improvisatory group Spiegelkabinett. In 1985 he served as visiting professor at the University of São Paolo, and from 1987 to 1991 he taught electro-acoustic music at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik. He was appointed president of the Austrian section of the ISCM in 1988.

Following an exploration of aleatory and postserial techniques, Zobl devoted himself to electro-acoustic composition. From his attempts to develop a new approach to tonality grew his work with animation and his collaboration with songwriters and amateur ensembles. Later, he became interested in ethnic music as a stimulus for integral rhythmic composition. He saw in this genre the possibility of overcoming an outmoded European conception of music on the one hand, and a chance to open music up to a variety of historical and cultural phenomena on the other. ‘Rhythmic composition,’ he explained, ‘means the conscious transformation and transposition of the cultural experiences that are deposited in rhythms, and is in no way a superficial borrowing from a foreign culture …’....


Giorgos Sakallieros

[Lisa, Elisabeth]

(b Gavalou, Mesolongi, Aug 8, 1940). Greek guitarist. She studied with Dēmētrēs Fampas at the National Conservatory of Athens (1953–60). Right after graduating, she won the first prize at the International Guitar Competition of Naples. She became the first Greek female professional classical guitarist as well as the first Greek guitarist to perform concertos with orchestra (transcr. of Vivaldi’s Mandoline Concerto in D major, RV93 (8 March 1958) and Castelnuovo-Tedesco’s Guitar Concerto no.1, op.99 (3 April 1960)). With her classmate, and subsequent life-partner, Euangelos Asēmakopoulos, they formed the first Greek classical guitar duo. After studying, under consecutive scholarships, with the famous guitar duo Presti Lagoya at the International Summer Guitar Academy of Nice (1964–7), and with Andrés Segovia at Santiago de Compostela (1967–9), Zōē and Asēmakopoulos embarked on an international career as a guitar duo that has recently celebrated its 50th anniversary. First introduced as ‘The Athenian Guitar Duo’ (...


E. Heron-Allen

revised by John Moran

[Marteau, Léon ]

(b Berlin, March 26, 1840; d London, July 13, 1889). German player of the viola d’amore, bandmaster and composer . At the Berlin Conservatory, Hubert Ries, W. Gärich and A.E. Grell taught him the violin, harmony and counterpoint respectively. He travelled in Germany with an Italian opera company, eventually settling in London in 1873. In 1879 he became bandmaster of the 7th (Queen’s Own) Hussars; in 1884 he was elected a member of the Accademia di S Cecilia, Rome, and in 1885 a similar honour was conferred on him by the Istituto Musicale of Florence.

Zoeller’s compositions include a comic operetta The Missing Heir, a lyric drama Mary Stuart of Fotheringay, church music, a scena for soprano and orchestra The Rhine King’s Daughter, four overtures and other orchestral pieces, a violin concerto, a string quartet and quintet and several songs. As a player of the viola d’amore he did much to revive interest in that instrument, to which purpose he wrote ...


David Cummings

(b Mobile, al , Aug 17, 1949). American soprano. She studied with Elena Nikolaidi at Florida State University and made her début at the Houston Opera in 1975, as Donna Elvira. She has appeared widely in North America as Fiordiligi and Pamina, and as Giulietta in I Capuleti e i Montecchi...


Harry B. Lincoln

(b Rome, c1537; d Loreto, 1592). Italian composer and singer. He spent most of his life in Rome. After singing in the Cappella Giulia from 9 August 1558 until February 1561, he was maestro di cappella of S Luigi dei Francesi from 1561 to 1566. From 1567 to June 1570 he held a similar position at S Giovanni in Laterano, and during this period may also have been in the service of Cardinal Guglielmo Sirleto. On 5 July 1570 he joined the choir of the Cappella Sistina as an alto but, according to an entry in the Diario sistino for August 1577, was obliged to resign because of ill-health in July 1577. On 25 October 1577 he and Palestrina were appointed by Pope Gregory XIII to prepare a corrected edition of the Roman Graduale; Zoilo worked on the Proprium sanctorum and the Antiphonale. Because of lack of funds the project was abandoned in autumn ...