(b Dresden, Aug 1, 1926). German bass-baritone. As a boy he was a member of the Dresden Kreuzchor, and he studied in the city and at Weimar before making his début at the Dresden Staatsoper in 1949. He joined the Berlin Staatsoper in 1952. That year he made his début in a small role at Bayreuth, graduating to King Henry in 1954 and to Wotan in 1963; his later roles there included the Dutchman, Amfortas and Hans Sachs. At the Salzburg Festival he was heard as Ochs (1969) and Wozzeck (1972), and at the Vienna Staatsoper he sang the title role in a new production of Don Giovanni in 1972. Also in Vienna he sang a memorable Pizarro in the Beethoven bicentenary production of Fidelio at the Theater an der Wien in 1970, conducted by Bernstein. His other roles included Philip II, King Mark and La Roche (...
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Thomas Bauman and Paul Corneilson
(b Rohr, nr Rothenburg, Bavaria, Feb 22, 1740, or Munich, July 6, 1743; d Vienna, Aug 24, 1804). German tenor. In 1755 he studied singing with J.E. Walleshauser (Giovanni Valesi) while at the Domus Gregoriana, a Jesuit institution in Munich. In 1760 he joined the Kapelle of Duke Clemens and on Clemens’s death in 1770 was taken into the elector’s Hofkapelle. After making his début at Munich in 1772 he sang leading tenor roles in opere serie at Modena, Venice, Florence, Pisa and Rome (taking the italianized stage name Valentino Adamonti) from 1775 to 1777, then at the King’s Theatre in London until 1779. Following appearances at Florence and Milan, he joined the Singspiel company of the National Court Theatre at Vienna, where he made his début on 21 August 1780. In 1781 he married the Viennese actress Marie Anne Jacquet (1753–1804). On the dissolution of the Singspiel company in ...
revised by Giancarlo Rostirolla
(b Bolsena, Nov 30, 1663; d Rome, July 22, 1742). Italian singer, writer and composer of Venetian origin. After early study at Montefiascone he was sent to Rome. Though his admission to the Cappella Giulia was recorded on 1 December 1682, he did not take up a post there until much later. In 1682 (or at the latest 16 September 1686) Adami became a member of the Congregazione dei Musici di S Cecilia, a fact which would confirm his professional activity in the sacred circles of Rome. He was a castrato of obviously unusual talent, but the remarkable success of his career also owed much to the fact that he enjoyed the protection of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni – the most influential Roman music patron of the day – in whose palace he served as musician-in-residence from 1686 to 1740. On 5 October 1690 he became a member of the Arcadia – the foremost musico-literary academy in Rome – where he was dubbed ‘Caricle Piseo’. Aided by Ottoboni’s patronage he was admitted as a soprano to the Cappella Sistina at the age of 26 (...
(b Verona, Nov 4, 1878; d Milan, Oct 12, 1946). Italian playwright, librettist and journalist . After graduating in law at the University of Padua he devoted himself to literature, first as theatre critic of the Arena (Verona), then as playwright. His first stage work was the one-act comedy I fioi di Goldoni in Venetian dialect; thereafter he proved remarkably successful in a comic-sentimental vein with such plays as Una capanna e il tuo cuore (1913), Capelli bianchi (1915), Felicità Colombo (1935) and its sequel Nonna Felicità (1936). In 1911 he made the acquaintance of Giulio Ricordi, head of the publishing firm, of whom he left a valuable memoir in his Giulio Ricordi e i suoi musicisti (Milan, 1933, 2/1945 as Giulio Ricordi, amico dei musicisti). It was Ricordi who first put him in touch with Puccini, who briefly considered setting his Spanish-derived libretto ...
(b Dobrova, nr Ljubljana, Slovenia; Dec 25, 1877; d Ljubljana, Dec 6, 1936). Slovenian music educator, conductor, and writer on music. Uncle of composer Bojan Adamič. He received his first musical education at the Ljubljana Glasbena Matica society music school, from 1911 to 1912 he studied at the Conservatory in Trieste, and in 1912 he passed the national examination at the Ljubljana Conservatory. During World War I he joined the Austrian Army, and from 1915 to 1920 was a prisoner of war at Tashkent. In 1920 he returned to Ljubljana, where he taught music at the teacher’s college and at the classical gymnasium until his retirement in 1932. From 1925 to 1928 he was conductor of the Orchestral Society at the Glasbena Matica music society, and from January 1928 to December 1929 editor of the Nova muzika (‘New Music’) magazine. He was also active as a music critic and reviewer for the magazines ...
Petr Kofroň and Geoffrey Chew
(b Křemačov, Czech Republic, June 29, 1947; d Valašské Klobouky, July 3, 2009). Czech composer. He studied composition and the piano at the Brno Conservatory (1965–9), and composition at the Janáček Academy in Brno with Ištvan (1969–74) and with Piňos and Ctirad Kohoutek (1976–9). With the exception of a brief period as a teacher at the conservatory in Kroměříž, he lived in seclusion as a village music teacher in Valašské Klobouky.
In the early 1970s Adamík was influenced by the collage and montage techniques of his teacher Ištvan, and combined contemporary idioms with historical elements, notably in Nebeské pastviny (‘Celestial Pastures’, 1972). From the mid-1970s he experimented with unusual instrumental resources: in the Wind Quintet (1979) he used children’s toy instruments in place of their conventional counterparts. Each instrumental part, moreover, is also playable singly. Adamík’s interest in historical models intensified during the 1980s and is evident in compositions such as the Second Symphony (...
revised by George Leotsakos
(b Piraeus, May 19, 1929). Greek composer and musicologist. He graduated in theology from Athens University (1954), in neo-Byzantine music (1955) and harmony (1956) from the Piraeus League Conservatory, and in counterpoint, fugue and composition (1959) from the Hellenic Conservatory, where he studied with Yannis A. Papaïannou. At Brandeis University (1962–5) he studied composition (with Arthur Berger), Byzantine music palaeography and electronic music. In 1950 he revived the boys' choir of the Greek Royal Palace, which he directed until 1967. He also established and conducted the Athens Chamber Chorus (1958–61). Between 1961 and 1963 he taught Byzantine music at the Holy Cross Theological Academy, Boston, Massachusetts. In 1965 he established the first electronic music studio in Athens. He was a founder-member (1965) and later president (1975–85) of both the Hellenic Association for Contemporary Music and the Greek section of the ISCM. In ...
Kendra Preston Leonard
(b Philadelphia, PA, Aug 1, 1962). American composer and librettist. He attended New York University, where he won the Paulette Goddard Remarque award for undergraduate playwriting, and the Catholic University of America, from which he received a Bachelor of Music degree in composition in 1990 and was the winner of the Theodore Presser award for outstanding undergraduate composition. He has taught composition at New York University, City University of New York, and American Lyric Theater. Adamo first came to widespread public attention with the première of his opera Little Women (1998), for which he also wrote the libretto, based on the Louisa May Alcott novel. The international success of Little Women led to his appointment as composer-in-residence at the New York City Opera from 2001 through 2006, where he led the company’s VOX: Showcasing American Composers programme; and to his residency as Master Artist at the Atlantic Center for the Arts in 2003. Adamo’s music, which embraces a wide variety of 20th- and 21st-century techniques and influences ranging from music-theatre to serialism, has garnered commissions for four full-length operas from the companies of San Francisco, Dallas, and Houston, as well as orchestral and chamber works for Washington’s National Symphony Orchestra, Sir James Galway, baritone Thomas Hampson, and the chamber choir Chanticleer. He has served as stage director for a number of his own works, including productions of ...
(b Čepin near Osijek, Sept 15, 1856; d Osijek, Feb 28, 1934). Croatian agronomist and composer. As a boy, Adamović studied piano in Osijek with Đ. Tišler, D. Hercog, and I. Nepomuk Hummel. He graduated with a degree in agronomy from the Die Hochschule für Bodenkultur [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences] in Vienna. After a few years of farm management he returned to Vienna to study composition with H. Graedener, R. Gound, and K. Frühling (1890–93). When he returned he held a variety of jobs: delegate of the Croatian-Hungarian Parliament in Budapest; post office director in Đakovo; and an official in a sugar factory in Osijek. Throughout this time he continued to compose. His works are mostly orchestral (Andante religioso, Adagio in F minor, Finis coronat opus) and instrumental (Intermezzo for piano). A smaller amount of vocal music includes forty songs (some set to his own lyrics). He is best known as the author of the first Croatian ballet ...
Jeffrey R. Rehbach
revised by Charles S. Freeman
(b Warsaw, Poland, March 24, 1858; d Boston, MA, April 18, 1943). Polish violinist, active in the USA. He began violin studies at age seven and later studied under Apolinary Katski and Gustaw Robusky at the Warsaw Conservatory, where he graduated with honors in 1874; he also studied with Massart at the Paris Conservatoire. He made his first American tour in 1879, appearing with Clara Louise Kellogg and Max Strakosch before undertaking his own tour. He settled in Boston thereafter, playing with the Boston SO from 1884 until 1907 (except in 1887–8 when he made a European tour) and teaching at the New England Conservatory. Adamowski appeared 82 times as soloist with the orchestra and conducted the summer popular concerts from 1890–4 and again from 1900–7. He also appeared with orchestras in London, Paris, and Warsaw. In 1888 he formed the Adamowski Quartet with violinist Emmanuel Fiedler, violist Daniel Kuntz and cellist Giuseppe Campanari; the group was reconstituted the following year with A. Moldauer, Max Zach and Adamowski’s brother Joseph (who immigrated to the United States in ...
Dutch manufacturer of percussion instruments. Adams Musical Instruments was established at the end of the 1960s by André Adams at Thorn in the Netherlands. Adams has become one of the leading percussion manufacturers in the world. Its list of products range from lightweight, low-priced pedal timpani designed for schools and bands, through to top of the range professional timpani and concert marimbas. A great deal of thought is given to the adaptability and portability of the instruments, as well as to their quality. For example, playing height of their keyboard instruments is adjustable, and their tubular bells may be adjusted both for height and range. In the contemporary world of percussion these refinements are invaluable for the player. Adams now manufactures timpani, xylophones, marimbas, tubular bells, bell plates, concert bass drums, temple blocks and a range of sticks....
(b St Thomas, VI, Nov 4, 1889; d St Thomas, VI, Nov 24, 1987). American bandmaster, composer and educator. He taught himself to play the flute and piccolo, took correspondence courses from several universities, and received the BMus degree from the University Extension Conservatory of Music, Chicago. In 1910 he formed Adams’ Juvenile Band, which was incorporated into the US Navy when it assumed the administrative duties of the US Virgin Islands in 1917. He was editor of the band department of Jacobs’ Band Monthly (1913–17), the Virgin Islands correspondent for the Associated Press, and the author of articles for various music journals, newspapers and magazines. From 1918 to 1931 he supervised the music programme in the Virgin Islands public schools, modelling it after similar programmes on the mainland. After retiring from the navy in 1947 he produced musical radio programmes featuring classical music from his own substantial record collection for 16 years. Although many of his compositions and arrangements for band were destroyed by fire in ...
(b Kingston, ON, Nov 5, 1959). Canadian rock singer, songwriter, and guitarist, and photographer. The son of a diplomat, he spent his youth in England, Israel, Portugal, and Austria. After returning with his family to North America, he began performing and recording at the age of 15 with rock bands in British Columbia and Ontario. In 1978 he began what became a long and successful songwriting partnership with Jim Vallance, with whom he created most songs recorded under his name up to 1987, as well as songs recorded by Rod Stewart, Kiss, Bonnie Raitt, Neil Diamond, and the Canadian groups Prism, BTO, and Loverboy.
Adams’ albums characteristically alternate between down-tempo piano ballads and straight-ahead rock numbers. His third solo album, Cuts like a Knife (1983) launched him to the status of an international celebrity; its singles included the ballad “Straight from the Heart” and the anthem “Cuts like a Knife,” which both featured for weeks on magazine charts and music television. The next album, ...
H. Wiley Hitchcock
revised by June C. Ottenberg and Jonas Westover
(b Charlestown, MA, Feb 9, 1834; d West Harwich, MA, July 4, 1900). American tenor. Adams was one of the most prominent American singers in European opera houses throughout the 19th century. He studied singing in Boston and in 1856 was soloist in the Handel and Haydn Society’s performance of Haydn’s The Creation. In 1861 he made concert and opera appearances in the West Indies and Holland. He studied in Vienna with Carlo Barbieri and was engaged for three years by the Berlin Royal Opera, then for eight out of nine years (1867–76) as principal tenor of the Vienna Imperial Opera. He also sang at La Scala and Covent Garden. In 1877 he returned to the United States. During the 1877–8 season at the Academy of Music in New York he sang the title role in the first American production of Wagner’s Rienzi. An excellent singer and fine actor, he had a commanding stage presence. His voice was described as very powerful and “a very sweet one and one of great range.” Adams made his way to Chicago in the 1880s, where he regularly performed oratorios with the Chicago Musical Union. Tannhäuser, Lohengrin, Manrico, and Rienzi were his most celebrated parts. From ...
(b Bristol, Dec 20, 1928; d Norwich, April 8, 1996). English bass . He was a chorister at Worcester Cathedral and later became an actor. After singing in the D’Oyly Carte Opera chorus, from 1953 to 1969 he was principal bass of the company. In 1963 he co-founded ‘G&S for All’, with whom he toured extensively in Australia and the USA. In 1983 he sang the Mikado in Chicago, returning for Baron Mirko Zeta and the Theatre Director/Banker (Lulu). He made his Covent Garden début in 1983 as a Frontier Guard (Boris Godunov), and later sang Quince and Frank. For the ENO (1985–92) he has sung Dikoj (Kát’a Kabanová), Mozart’s Bartolo, and Pooh-Bah; for the WNO (1985–7) his roles included Monterone and Rossini’s Bartolo. He also appeared at Glyndebourne (Dikoj, Quince and Swallow), Amsterdam, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Geneva. In ...
revised by Barry Kernfeld
(bCovington, GA, April 29, 1940; dNew York, Nov 14, 1992). Americantenor saxophonist and flutist. As a teenager he attended Clark College, Atlanta, where he was taught by Wayman Carver; while studying in Cleveland in the early 1960s he worked in organ trios, including that of Bill Doggett, playing a hybrid of rhythm-and-blues and jazz. He settled in New York in 1968 and from 1969 to 1973 worked with Roy Haynes, recording with him around 1972. He then played with Art Blakey, Charles Mingus (1973–6), Gil Evans (1975–8), and McCoy Tyner (1976–9), performed with Hannibal Peterson at the festival in Antibes, France (1977), and recorded with James “Blood” Ulmer (1977). In 1975, while touring Europe with Mingus’s band, he made his first recordings under his own name with some fellow sidemen; during this time Mingus’s pianists included Don Pullen and Hugh Lawson, and Dannie Richmond returned as the group’s drummer shortly after Adams joined. In ...
(b c1749; d after 1794). English composer, organist and cellist. According to his recommendation by Francis Hackwood to the Society of Musicians, on 1 February 1784 he was 35 years old, married with two children, organist of Brompton Chapel and a competent violinist, viola player and cellist. He performed as a cellist in the Handel commemoration concerts in 1784 and played in the band for the Academy of Ancient Music during the 1787–8 season. He probably also took part as a cellist in the concerts (held annually) at St Paul’s Cathedral for the relief of the clergy in 1785, 1789, 1790, 1793 and 1795.
From his extant published works it can be seen that Adams was a competent purveyor of small-scale vocal and instrumental works in the manner of Haigh, Osmond or Reeve. His music shows an awareness of changing styles: the early songs and canzonets accompanied either by harpsichord or orchestra with obbligato instrument are in the manner of Arne, giving way to a symphonic style like that of J.C. Bach or Hook in the three sonatas of op.4 (for piano or harpsichord with violin or flute accompaniment); his late sonata for piano duet shows some grasp of larger forms, and ...
(b Worcester, MA, Feb 15, 1947). American composer and conductor. Known particularly for his operatic works on contemporary subjects, he is considered one of the most frequently performed living composers of concert music.
He studied the clarinet with his father and with Felix Viscuglia, clarinettist with the Boston SO. At the age of ten he began theory and composition lessons, and at 14 he had his first piece performed by the community orchestra with whom he practised conducting. He also performed with the orchestra alongside his father, often appearing before an audience of mentally-handicapped patients at the New Hampshire State Hospital. As a student at Harvard University (1965–71, MA 1972) he studied composition with Leon Kirchner, Earl Kim, Roger Sessions, Harold Shapero and David Del Tredici. During this period he performed occasionally as a clarinettist with the Boston SO.
After moving to San Francisco in 1971...
(b Meridian, MS, Jan 23, 1953). American composer. Growing up in the American South and on the Northeastern seaboard, Adams began his musical career with piano and trumpet lessons, rock drumming, and songwriting in his teens. However, it was the music of Frank Zappa that shifted his focus to contemporary classical music, above all the works of Cage, Feldman, and Varèse. Adams studied composition with Leonard Stein and James Tenney at the California Institute of the Arts (BFA 1973). Drawn to environmentalism during his music studies in overdeveloped Southern California, Adams traveled to Alaska in 1975 to campaign for the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. He settled there in 1978 to serve as executive director of the Northern Alaska Environmental Center, but soon thereafter established himself as the composer most strongly associated with Alaska, paying tribute in his compositions almost exclusively to his chosen environment. In the 1980s and 1990s Adams was also active as a performer: as timpanist and principal percussionist of the Fairbanks SO and the Arctic Chamber Orchestra (...
(b Mansfield, OH, Aug 14, 1924). American lyricist and writer. Adams began his career as a writer after earning degrees from Ohio State University and Columbia University. He worked initially as a journalist, while also writing lyrics for summer camp productions and night club revues. In 1949, he met Charles Strouse, and over the next decade the two created songs and specialty material for nightclub and television performers. Their first published notices came for several minor productions in the mid-1950s. Adams and Strouse broke through on Broadway in 1960 with Bye Bye Birdie, which won the Tony for Best Musical. Other notable shows by this team were Golden Boy and Applause (1970 Tony Award for Best Musical), which is perhaps their best work together. The pair had no successes together after 1970, save for “Those Were the Days,” the theme song for the hit television show All in the Family...