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Josephine Wright

(b Cleveland, Dec 20, 1932). American composer. He attended Oberlin College (BMEd 1955), California State University, Long Beach (MA 1967) and Ohio State University (PhD 1973), and studied privately with Herbert Elwell, Robert Starer, Vittorio Giannini, Leon Dallin, Edward Mattila and Marcel Dick. He has taught at Stillman College (1963–4), Florida A&M University (1968–9) and the University of Kansas (1969–78). His honours include composition awards from the National Association of Negro Women (1963) and the Christian Arts Annual National Competition for Choral Music (1979), fellowships from the Rockefeller Foundation (1979) and Yaddo (1980, 1984), and commissions from the Center for Black Music Research, the Cleveland Orchestra and the Ohio Chamber Orchestra.

Adams writes in a lyrical style that fuses elements of jazz and black folksong with 20th-century compositional techniques. A few of his works, including ...

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Robert E. Eliason

(b Dunstable, NH, Aug 21, 1783; d Milford, NH, March 16, 1864). American brass instrument maker. He invented a valve with movable tongues or flaps within the windway. A trumpet in F by Adams with three such valves is displayed on board the USS Constitution; it dates from about 1830. A similar instrument, unsigned, with three primitive rotary valves, is in the Essig Collection, Warrensburg, Missouri. Adams is listed as a musical instrument maker in Longworth’s American Almanack, New-York Register, and City Directory for 1824. For the next four years he was bandmaster on the USS Constitution. About 1828 he settled in Lowell, Massachusetts, continuing there as a musical instrument maker until 1835. The latter part of his life was spent as a machinist and repairer of ships’ chronometers in Provincetown, Massachusetts. He was the composer of at least one published song, The Ruins of Troy, written while on board the ...

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Gary Carner

[Park Frederick, III ]

(b Highland Park, MI, Oct 8, 1930; d Brooklyn, NY, Sept 10, 1986). American jazz baritone saxophonist and composer. He grew up in Rochester where he took up tenor and baritone saxophones and clarinet, but settled on baritone after moving to Detroit in 1947 as a means of finding work in the city’s fiercely competitive music scene. After serving for two years in the US Army Band, Adams returned to Detroit in 1953 and worked there with Tommy Flanagan, Barry Harris, Kenny Burrell, and Elvin Jones, in the house band at the Blue Bird and at Klein’s. In 1956 he moved to New York and was a member of Stan Kenton’s big band for six months following a recommendation from Oscar Pettiford. From the following year, Adams spent 20 years working in big bands led by Maynard Ferguson, Benny Goodman, Quincy Jones, Lionel Hampton, and Thad Jones and Mel Lewis. During this period he also performed in small ensembles whenever possible and was in demand as a recording artist. Notably, he co-led a quintet with Donald Byrd from ...

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Herman Klein

revised by Harold Rosenthal

(b Cambridge, MA, Nov 28, 1872; d London, Feb 5, 1953). American soprano. She studied with Mathilde Marchesi and Bouhy in Paris and made her début at the Opéra in 1895 as Juliet; she seems to have studied both Juliet and Faust's Marguerite with Gounod himself, who greatly admired her brilliant yet flexible tone and fine technique. She sang at Covent Garden (...

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Miriam Miller

(d London, 1620). English bookseller and publisher. He was established in London from 1591 and financed several significant musical publications, including John Dowland’s The Third and Last Booke of Songes or Aires, printed by Peter Short in 1603, and Robert Dowland’s A Musicall Banquet, printed by Thomas Snodham in ...

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Nicholas Temperley

(b London, Sept 5, 1785; d London, Sept 15, 1858). English organist and composer. At 11 years of age he began to study music under Thomas Busby. He became organist at Carlisle Chapel, Lambeth (1802), at St Paul's, Deptford (1814), and at St George's, Camberwell (1824). On his appointment to the newly rebuilt church of St Dunstan-in-the-West, Fleet Street (1833), he retained the Camberwell post and he continued to hold both until his death. He was one of the most prominent organists of his time, and gave many performances of a kind that would now be termed ‘recitals’. He was much in demand at the openings of newly built organs, and from 1817 onwards he supervised and often took part in the periodic evening performances on Flight & Robson's giant ‘Apollonican’ in St Martin's Lane, London.

Adams was a master of the developing art of imitating orchestral effects on the organ. A typical recital of his, at the opening of the new Exeter Hall organ on ...

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Maya Gibson

(Yvette )

(b Houston, TX, Aug 27, 1961). American gospel music singer. Adams credits her earliest musical influences as James Cleveland, the Edwin Hawkins Singers, Nancy Wilson, and Stevie Wonder. She worked in a variety of jobs, including stints as a fashion model, television news anchor, and schoolteacher, before devoting herself to gospel music. She began her career as a lead singer touring with the Southeast Inspirational Choir, with whom she garnered the attention of composer/producer Thomas Whitfield who oversaw her debut solo album Just As I Am (1988) with Sound of Gospel Records. Grounded in traditional church music but open to diverse musical influences, Adams is known for infusing traditional gospel with urban musical influences such as jazz, R&B, and hip hop. Her mainstream album Mountain High … Valley Low (Elektra, 1999) is of particular importance in this regard because its diversity of musical styles had the ability to reach both Contemporary Christian and urban music listeners. The album achieved multi-platinum status and went on to earn a Grammy for Best Contemporary Soul Gospel Album (...

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Almonte Howell

(b Algemesí, province of Valencia; fl 1775–87). Spanish composer and teacher. According to early biographers, he was organist at the Madrid royal chapel and the Convento de los Desamparados. He is best known for a small treatise, Documentos para instrucción de músicos y aficionados que intentan saber el arte de la composición (Madrid, 1786), whose stated purpose was to compensate for the lack of teaching materials on secular music in Spain. Quite elementary, it consists mostly of examples of counterpoint and free composition, and also gives the instrumental ranges. It was attacked in a satirical Carta laudatoria a don Vicente Adán (Madrid, 1786), to which Adán replied in Respuesta gratulatoria de la carta laudatoria (Madrid, 1787). Various 18th-century publishers’ lists and bibliographies indicate that many volumes of his compositions were printed in Madrid in the 1780s. Most of these were for the psaltery, which experienced a strong revival in the 18th century, although it had been known in Spain since the Moorish occupation. Adán’s compositions for this instrument include preludes, sonatas, divertimentos and fandangos as well as an instruction book; there is also evidence that he published organ works and vocal music, both sacred and secular. None of these other publications are extant, although one untitled piece of his for psaltery survives (in ...

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Adaptation of lips on the cup-like trumpet mouthpiece, showing the cup covered equally by the upper and lower lips (with the horn the cup covers about two-thirds of the upper and one-third of the lower lip)

Reproduced by permission of British Dental Journal

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Adaptation of lips to the flute

Reproduced by permission of British Dental Journal

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Adaptation of lips, teeth and tongue to the clarinet mouthpiece (single-lip embouchure), showing compression of lip on lower incisors by mouthpiece, and pressure of upper incisors on upper surface of mouthpiece

Reproduced by permission of British Dental Journal

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Adaptation of lips, tongue and teeth to the oboe reed (double-lip embouchure), showing compression of lower and upper lip against lower and upper central incisor teeth

Reproduced by permission of British Dental Journal

Article

William Aide

revised by Gordana Lazarevich

(b Toronto, March 28, 1906; d Victoria, May 6, 2002). Canadian composer, conductor and violinist. He studied the violin with Luigi von Kunits, Kathleen Parlow and Marcel Chailley, and was a member of the Toronto SO (1923–36) and the Toronto Trio (1938–52). He began composition studies with John Weinzweig in Toronto in 1944 and continued with Charles Jones and Darius Milhaud. In 1952 he became head of the music department at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, where he was appointed composer-in-residence in 1966. His other activities included co-founding the Canadian League of Composers (1951), conducting the Saskatoon SO (1957–60) and serving as a member of the Canada Council (1966–9). His numerous CBC commissions included the Algonquin Symphony (1957–8), Rondino for nine instruments (1961) and an opera, Grant, Warden of the Plains (1967). After his retirement in ...

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(b St Petersburg, 10/Feb 22, 1846; d Bonn, July 26, 1926). Russian composer and ethnomusicologist. The name Adayevskaya is a pseudonym derived from the notes of the kettledrum (A, D, A) in Mikhail Glinka’s Ruslan and Lyudmila. At the age of eight she started piano lessons with Henselt, continued with Anton Rubinstein and Dreyschock at the St Petersburg Conservatory (1862–4), and later gave concerts in Russia and Europe. She also studied composition at the conservatory with N.I. Zaremba and A.S. Famintsïn and about 1870 began composing choruses for the Imperial Chapel Choir. Two operas followed, Nepri′gozhaya (‘The Homely Girl’)/Doch′ boyarina (‘The Boyar’s Daughter’, 1873) and Zarya svobodï (‘The Dawn of Freedom’, 1877), the latter dedicated to Alexander II but rejected by the censor for its scene of peasant uprising. A comic opera Solomonida Saburova remained in manuscript. A Greek Sonata (...

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Mike Hazeldine

(bNew Orleans, April 21, 1904; dNew Orleans, March 1942). Americandrummer. He first played cigar box in a spasm duo with Raymond Burke (1914). From 1923 to 1925 he was a member of Abbie Brunies’s Halfway House Orchestra, with which he made recordings in ...

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(Fr. sixte ajouté).

In functional harmony a subdominant chord with an added major 6th above the bass (e.g. f–a–c′–d′ in C major, f–a ♭–c′–d′ in C minor); it can also be derived as the first inversion of a 7th chord built on the supertonic. The ambivalent construction of the added 6th chord engenders an ambivalence in the way it resolves, as Rameau observed in the ...

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Ex.1 (a) (b)

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Kenny Mathieson

(b Tampa, FL, Nov 25, 1931; d Lakeland, FL, Jan 2, 2000). American jazz cornetist, bandleader, and composer, brother of Cannonball Adderley. He took up trumpet as a child at the suggestion of his father, a cornetist, but switched to cornet in 1950. His career was closely linked with that of Cannonball. They formed their first band as children and played together through school, college, and the Army. Adderley then played with Lionel Hampton (1954–5), before joining Cannonball’s new band after the saxophonist’s Café Bohemia debut (1955). He then worked with J.J. Johnson and Woody Herman (1957–9) while his brother was with Miles Davis, after which he spent 16 years as a member of Cannonball’s successful quintet (1959–75). During this period he played the trumpet part for Sammy Davis Jr. in the film A Man Called Adam (1966). Following Cannonball’s death in ...

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Addiction performs at CBGB on its closing night, August 31, 2005. UPI Photo/Ezio Petersen/Landov