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Ryan Bruce

(b Montreal, Canada, Nov 10, 1932; d Montreal, Jan 3, 2016). Canadian jazz pianist, composer, record producer, and bandleader. He was established by the age of 17, when Oscar Peterson recommended him as his replacement for the last year of an engagement at the Alberta Lounge in Montreal. After moving to New York to attend the Juilliard School (1950–54), he became part of the traditional and modern music scenes and recorded his first album as leader, with Charles Mingus and Art Blakey among his sidemen (Introducing Paul Bley, 1953, Debut). He also played with other notable musicians such as Ben Webster, Lester Young, Roy Eldridge, and Charlie Parker during the 1950s. In 1957 he moved to Los Angeles where he performed at the Hillcrest Club. His quintet, which included Charlie Haden, Billy Higgins, Don Cherry, and Ornette Coleman, became Coleman’s quartet when Bley left for New York in ...


Roger Steffens


(b St Peter, Barbados, 1953). English reggae guitarist, bandleader and producer. He grew up in London where in the early 1970s he co-founded Matumbi, one of the first reggae groups in Britain, and also ran the Jah Sufferer sound system. Although he recorded with such rock and punk bands as the Pop Group and the Slits, his true strength was dub music which he recorded under the name Blackbeard (Strictly Dub Wize, Tempus, 1978). Brain Damage (Fontana, 1981), released under his own name, provides an overview of Bovell's creative production, with its shrieks, deep echo effects and syncopated hi-hats. In 1979 Matumbi recorded Point of View which placed traditional reggae toasting in a big band setting. Bovell is perhaps best known for his collaborations, in the studio and on tour, with the political dub poet Linton Kwesi Johnson. Among their best work is Dread Beat an' Blood...


Malcolm Turner

(b Wigan, Sept 15, 1890; d Aylesbury, May 24, 1979). English organist and educationist. He was a pupil of and assistant organist to Bairstow at Leeds (1907–12), and took the BMus (1908) and DMus (1914) degrees at Durham University, becoming a Fellow of the Royal College of Organists in 1909. His first important post, suborganist at Manchester Cathedral (1912–15), was interrupted by war service, after which he was organist at St Michael’s College, Tenbury (1919), and organist and choirmaster of Exeter Cathedral (1919–27). On Nicholson’s retirement from Westminster Abbey in 1928, Bullock succeeded him as organist and Master of the Choristers. In this post he was obliged to provide the music for several royal functions; for the coronation of King George VI (1937) he wrote the fanfares and conducted the choir and orchestra, in acknowledgment of which he was created CVO. He also provided all but one of the fanfares for the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II (...


Warren M. Sherk

(b New York, Aug 3, 1902; d San Diego, Jan 1, 1983). American composer, arranger, conductor, music director, and pianist. He was musically trained by, and performed with, the Grace Church Choir School in New York from age eight. Deciding on a music career as a teenager, he attended what is now the Juilliard School, where he was a student of pianist Helena Augustin and studied music with Percy Goetschius and A. Madley Richardson. After receiving a diploma in 1921, he enrolled in the postgraduate piano program for two years before furthering his music studies with conductor Clemens Heinrich Krauss in Austria, and with conductor Hugo Rühr and composer Walter Courvoisier in Germany. He supported himself in Europe by playing piano in small jazz combos in nightclubs and coaching opera singers. Returning to New York in 1927, he found work writing, arranging, performing, and conducting music for the National Broadcasting Company. As an NBC radio artist, he was associated with the Cities Service Concerts and served as a vocal coach and arranger for the Cavaliers quartet. For two years in the early 1930s he was a radio station musical director in Schenectady, New York. A brief job at Fox Music Publishing in New York led to his relocating to Hollywood in ...


R. Allen Lott

revised by Scott Alan Southard

(b Parma, Italy, Sept 1, 1860; d Chicago, IL, Dec 19, 1919). Italian conductor, opera manager, and violinist. After violin study in Parma, he began to conduct there in 1880. Campanini was assistant conductor with the Metropolitan Opera in its inaugural season (1883–4), often leading his brother, tenor Italo. Returning to Europe, Campanini conducted extensively in Italy; successes there led to engagements in Spain and South America. In 1887 Campanini returned to the United States and conducted the American premiere of Verdi’s Otello (Academy of Music, New York, 16 April 1888). His wife Eva, sister of Luisa Tetrazzini, sang Desdemona. Returning once again to Europe, he conducted at Covent Garden, London, and led the premieres of Cilea’s Adriana Lecouvreur (1902) and Puccini’s Madama Butterfly (1904) at La Scala, Milan. Campanini was principal conductor of Oscar Hammerstein’s Manhattan Opera Company during its first three seasons (...


John C.G. Waterhouse and Virgilio Bernardoni

(b Turin, July 25, 1883; d Rome, March 5, 1947). Italian composer, organizer, pianist and conductor. He was the most influentially innovative figure in Italian music between the two world wars.

After studying with his mother, he showed precocious promise as a pianist, first playing in public in 1894. He also became intensely interested in science, and for a time wavered between two possible careers. Music prevailed and in 1896, following the advice of Martucci and Bazzini, his parents sent him to study at the Paris Conservatoire. The rich musical and cultural life of the French capital (which remained his base for the next 19 years) broadened his horizons and had a lasting influence on him. Before long the focus of his interests shifted from the piano to composing, and in 1900–01 he attended Fauré’s composition classes. His close friends at this time included Enescu and Ravel; and he developed immense enthusiasm not only for the music of Debussy but also for that of the Russian nationalists, Strauss, Mahler and in due course Bartók, Schoenberg and Stravinsky. Revolutionary trends in the visual arts (cubism, futurism, ...


Alice Lawson Aber-Count

(b London, 1784; d after 1835). English violinist, harpist, composer, tenor, conductor and music seller. He studied the violin with Claude Joseph Duboeck, making his début at the age of 9 and performing a concerto at the age of 11. Articled to study with John Ashley in 1796, he became a violinist and assisted in the Oratorio orchestra at Covent Garden and at Ranelagh Gardens. He conducted the bands at the Richmond Theatre (1799), the Birmingham Theatre (1800) and Sadler's Wells (1803/4); he also studied the harp and the piano, which he played brilliantly. He became a member of the Royal Society of Musicians and published four preceptors, for the flute, harp, piano and violin.

In 1807 Challoner was the first tenor at the Harmonic City Concerts, where Mozart's Don Giovanni was first performed in England. From 1809 to 1829 he was the harpist at the Italian Opera in London. An associate of the newly formed Philharmonic Society, he sang principal second tenor at its concerts from ...


Lise Waxer

[Colón Román jr, William Anthony; ‘El malo’]

(b South Bronx, New York, April 28, 1950). American bandleader, composer, arranger, trombonist, popular singer, producer and actor. Dubbed ‘El malo’ (the ‘bad boy’) of salsa, he began playing the trumpet in 1963 with the teenage band the Dandees. Switching to trombone, he made his professional début at 17 with the album El malo (Fania, 1967). Both as a bandleader and a member of the Fania All-Stars, he quickly moved to the fore of the burgeoning New York salsa scene, cementing the raw, trombone-heavy ‘New York sound’ inspired by earlier artists such as Eddie Palmieri and Mon Rivera. Between 1967 and 1973 he made a series of important recordings with vocalist Hector Lavoe, which included the albums Asalto Navideño I and II (Fania, 1972 and 1973) with cuatro virtuoso Yomo Toro, where traditional Puerto Rican Christmas aguinaldos were fused with salsa. During his second period (...


Guy Bourligueux

(b Lisbon, April 22, 1828; d Lisbon, Nov 26, 1880). Portuguese composer, cellist, conductor and administrator of French descent. He had training in the piano, harp and cello from his parents and studied harmony with Santos Pinto. In 1843 he was elected to the Brotherhood of S Cecilia, became a cellist of the S Carlos theatre orchestra and made the first of several successful concert tours to Paris and London. In 1849 he was made a court chamber musician. He went to Paris in 1853 and played for two years in the Opéra orchestra. After his return to Lisbon he organized an important series of popular concerts in the Lisbon casino. In 1861 he became professor of the cello and double bass at the Lisbon Conservatory and was appointed its director two years later. Having published his first compositions when he was 20, he continued to compose, even though later in life he became increasingly involved with the theatre, sharing with Campos Valdez and Guilherme Lima the direction of the Teatro de S Carlos from ...


Travis D. Stimeling

[Charles Edward ]

(b Wilmington, NC, Oct 28, 1936). American session guitarist and fiddler, record producer, and Southern rock bandleader. After taking up the guitar at the age of 15, he was working as a professional rock musician by his early 20s, touring North Carolina, Virginia, and Washington, DC, with the Rockets and, after the band changed its name to the Jaguars, recording two sides for Epic Records in 1959 with the producer Bob Johnston. In 1962 Daniels and Johnston co-wrote “It hurts me,” which RCA Victor released as the B-side of Elvis Presley’s “Kissin’ Cousins” (RCA, 1964). Encouraged by Johnston, he moved to Nashville to become a session musician for CBS in 1967, in which capacity he recorded with Bob Dylan, Al Kooper, Leonard Cohen, and Flatt and Scruggs, among others. In 1969 he produced the Youngbloods’ album Elephant Mountain (RCA, 1969) and joined Leonard Cohen’s touring band. Daniels signed with Capitol Records in ...