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Felicia M. Mundell

revised by John Brearley

Country in southern Africa. It has an area of 581,730 km² and a population of 1·62 million (2000 estimate). Its main inhabitants are the Tswana who are related to the Sotho of Lesotho and the Pedi of South Africa. Other peoples in Botswana include the Kalanga peoples of the north, who are related to the Shona peoples of Zimbabwe and the Khoisan of the Kalahari desert, who were formerly called ‘Bushmen’ (and many of whom still prefer to be so-called) and later referred to as ‘San’, a term that is now considered by some to be even more derogatory. Variations in the terrain, climate and vegetation have tended to mould and modify the tribal styles of music-making to suit both the environment and the temperament of local peoples. Vegetation further restricts the construction of instruments to those types for which the raw materials can be found locally, so that drums are generally found in forest areas, flutes where there are reeds and unaccompanied choral singing in open grass plains. These types of music-making are all found in Botswana....



Gerard Béhague

(Port. República Federativa do Brasil)

Country in South America. It is bordered by all other South American countries except Chile and Ecuador, and by the Atlantic Ocean to the east. It was colonized by Portugal after 1500, but the culture of the indigenous peoples survived. São Paulo, the largest centre of production in Latin America, is its financial capital, and Rio de Janeiro its cultural capital. The official language is Portuguese.

Relatively little is known about art music activities and composition during the first two centuries of Brazilian history. The substantial documentation attesting to important musical activities in Pernambuco (Olinda, Recife) and Salvador, Bahia, was not compiled and studied until the mid-20th century. Throughout the colonial period most music-making related directly to church services, and surviving colonial music is therefore mainly sacred. The regular clergy was responsible for first organizing Christian religious life in Brazil. The Franciscans started using music in the conversion of the Amerindians, but it was the Jesuits who had the strongest influence on the musical life of the colony, and as early as ...



Virginia Gorlinski

[State of Brunei Darussalam] (Malay Negara Brunei Darussalam)

Country in South-east Asia. An independent Islamic sultanate, Brunei is located on the north-west coast of the island of Borneo, about 440 kilometres north of the equator. The country is bounded on its northern edge by the South China Sea and on all other sides by the Malaysian state of Sarawak.

Despite a relatively small land mass of 5765 km² Brunei is anything but geographically and demographically homogeneous. Swampy tidal plains line the coast, hilly lowlands mark the western interior, and thickly-forested mountains rise in the east to 1850 metres above sea-level. The inland areas are sparsely inhabited compared to the coastal plains, where more than 85% of the population resides. According to 1998 estimates, the population of the sultanate is approximately 323,600. About 67% of this figure comprises the ‘Brunei Indigenous’ peoples, a governmental category officially embracing Brunei Malays, Kedayan, Tutong, Belait, Bisaya, Dusun and Murut communities. The Brunei Malays are numerically (and culturally) dominant, having been reported in various sources to amount to more than 50% of the total population. Recent censuses, however, do not provide figures for the less statistically substantial groups, largely because of increasing ambiguity of ethnic affiliations, the result of intermarriage and cultural assimilation. Consequently, diverse Brunei Indigenous peoples are typically subsumed under the official rubric ‘Malay’, despite differences in language, history and religion etc. Second to the Brunei Malays in numerical significance are the ethnic Chinese, who constitute their own census category. Government statistics indicate that 15% of the population is Chinese, though studies conducted during the 1990s suggest that a much higher figure, 25–30%, might be more accurate. ‘Other Indigenous’ communities, primarily Iban and Kelabit peoples who have entered the sultanate through Sarawak, form about 6% of the population. The remaining inhabitants of Brunei include Europeans (mainly British), Indians and assorted non-indigenous groups....


Stoyan Petrov, Magdalena Manolova, Milena Bozhikova and Donna A. Buchanan

(Bulg. Republika Bălgariya)

Country in south-eastern Europe. Bulgaria is a country of 110,994 sq. km with a population of approximately 7.25 million people, about 70% of whom live in urban centres. The national language is Bulgarian, a south-Slavic language. Orthodox Christianity is the official religion. Minority groups include Pomaks (Slavic Bulgarian Muslims), ethnic Turks, Macedonians, Christian and Muslim Roma, Jews, Albanians, Vlachs, and Armenians.

Stoyan Petrov, revised by Magdalena Manolova and Milena Bozhikova

Bulgarian musical culture began to take shape when the Bulgarian state was founded in 681, and its character was initially determined by the interaction of three fundamental ethnic groups: the Slavs (who were in the majority), the Proto-Bulgarians, and the remnants of the assimilated ancient Thracian population. After the introduction of Christianity in 865 the starobălgarskiyat napev (old Bulgarian church chant) came into being, at first influenced by Byzantine chant. Kliment, Naum, and several other followers of SS Cyril and Methodius restored the Slav chantbooks which had been destroyed in Moravia, and created new ones. The musical traditions were handed down from generation to generation and the old Bulgarian chant was gradually formed: it took on certain distinctive characteristics, primarily because of the discrepancy between the number of syllables and the differences of stress in the Greek and Bulgarian languages, and also because of the influence of folk music. Among the few musical works to have survived are the 9th-century ...


Jim Rosellini

revised by Trevor Wiggins

[formerly Upper Volta]

Country in West Africa. It has an area of 274,122 km², with a rapidly expanding population estimated at 12·06 million in 2000, representing 54–60 ethnic groups. The country was annexed by France in 1896 and granted independence in 1960; the colonial period had a profound effect in the absorption of French customs and the French language. There are, however, three general musical areas, the Voltaic, Mande and Sahelian, which correspond fairly closely with the linguistic, ethnic and geographic divisions of the country, although such generalizations often misrepresent the degree of variation in musical styles.

The Voltaic area, made up of central, southern, eastern and south-western Burkina Faso, includes the following groups (fig.1 ): the Mossi, Gurma, Kurumba, Yarse, Bwa (Bobo), Lela (Lyela), Kasena, Nuna, Ko, Pwo (Pwẽ), Nankanse (Nankani), Birifor, Dagara, Lobi, Gan, Komono (Khisa), Sénoufo (Senufo), Karaboro, Gouin, Wara and Ble (Blé). These groups, as well as the Mande groups listed below, use gourd drums, hourglass tension drums, cylindrical and conical drums to perform complex interwoven rhythms based on ostinato-like figures. There is a strong emphasis on chanting, while solo singing is less common. The Birifor, Dagara, Lobi and Sénoufo also use xylophones, often for funeral music but also for recreation. These instruments usually have 14–18 keys with gourd resonators. The style and pitch of the instruments vary greatly across the region, with the northern instruments resembling the Malinké ...




Sam-Ang Sam

(Khmer Preah Reach Ana Pak Kampuchea)

Country in South-east Asia. It is bordered by Laos in the north, Vietnam in the east, the Gulf of Thailand in the south and Thailand in the north and west. Its population is more than 90% Khmer but also includes small numbers of Vietnamese, Chinese, Khmer Loeu (‘Highland Khmer’) and Cham. This entry mainly concerns the music of the Khmer majority.

During the 12th century, Mahayana Buddhism had strong royal support and consequently became the state religion; by the beginning of the 14th century the Khmers had converted to Therevada Buddhism, which has been practised up to the present.

By the beginning of the Christian era, Kaundinya (believed to have been a Brahman) had set to sea from India to conquer and defeat the indigenous queen Soma, whom he wedded. He was crowned as the first King of Funan (Founan), the centre of which was situated on the lower Mekong delta with its territory covering the southern part of present-day Vietnam, the middle Mekong and large parts of the Menam valley and the Malay peninsula....


Gerhard Kubik

(Fr. République du Cameroun)

Country in West Africa. It has an area of 475,440 km² and a population of 15·13 million (2000 estimate). The national languages are French and English, reflecting colonial legacy. Cameroon was a German protectorate until 1916, after which time four-fifths of the territory became a French mandate, and the remainder formed a British mandate. The French administration granted the territory independence in 1960 and the British in 1961, forming a joint territory.

Geographically, and in its ethnic and linguistic divisions, Cameroon is extremely varied. Dense tropical forests extend from the Atlantic coast to the south-eastern borders. The coastal and southern populations, for example the Duala, Beti, Bulu and Fang (Faŋ), and several ‘pygmy’ groups (notably in the area of Yokadouma), all speak Bantu languages. Among populations in the centre, from the Bamenda Highlands grassland in the west to Bétare Oya in the east, there is a patchwork of languages historically classified as ‘semi-Bantu’ or ‘bantoid’, but now grouped together with other Bantu languages as part of the greater Benue-Congo family. Further north, on the Adamawa plateau, long-established millet agriculturalists such as the Kutin (Peere), Chamba (Samba Leko) and others speak Adamawa-Eastern languages, as do the Gbaya on the eastern border. The FulBe (Fulɓe, Fulani or Fula) who migrated to the Adamawa area in the 19th century speak a West Atlantic language. Languages of the Chadic family in northernmost Cameroon are spoken by mountain dwellers such as the Matakam, and Saharan languages (e.g. Kanuri), are found among peoples living near Lake Chad in the north....



Carl Morey, Gordon E. Smith, Elaine Keillor, Jay Rahn, Geoffrey Whittall and Rob Bowman

Country in North America. It is bounded to the north by the Arctic ocean, to the west by the Pacific and to the east by the Atlantic; the only land borders it shares are with the USA, on the south and between Yukon and Alaska in the north-west. Although it occupies almost 10,000,000 km², the vast majority of the population of 35 million (Statistics Canada 2013) live within 160 km of the Canada–US border. The first permanent settlements of Europeans were established by the French in the early 17th century.

Carl Morey

In the French colonies during the 17th century music was almost exclusively religious, associated either with the liturgy or with the conversion of the Amerindian peoples, whose attraction to European music was often noted by missionaries. In 1635 Father Le Jeune (1591–1664) began teaching elementary music, as did members of the Ursuline order after 1639...


Susan Hurley-Glowa

[Republic of Cape Verde](Port. República de Cabo Verde)

Country in West Africa. The archipelago of ten islands and five islets is approximately 570 km west of Senegal, with a total area of 4033 km² and a population of 500,585 (2011 estimate).

The Cape Verde Islands were uninhabited at the time of their discovery by Portuguese explorers in 1456 and were subsequently settled with Portuguese and other Europeans and enslaved Africans brought from the Guinea Coast as labourers. The islands proved valuable to Portugal because of their strategic maritime location rather than for natural resources. Cape Verde was a Portuguese colony until gaining independence in 1975. Over the centuries, a Cape Verdean Luso-African creole culture developed with distinctive music, literature, food, dress, and language, Although Portuguese is the official language, Cape Verdean Creole (Crioulo, Kriolu, Kriol, Krioulo) is the mother tongue used by its citizens throughout the islands. It is used in Guinea-Bissau as well as in the Cape Verdean diaspora. About 90% of Cape Verdean Creole’s vocabulary comes from archaic Portuguese; however, its grammatical structures resemble related Caribbean creole languages, and it is not easily understood by Portuguese speakers. The Cape Verdean population is almost entirely of mixed European and African ancestry....


Maurice Djenda and Michelle Kisliuk

(Fr. République Centrafricaine)

Country in Central Africa. It serves as a link between the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaïre), the Congo Basin and the Sudanic-Sahelian zone. It has a surface area of 622,436 km² and a population of 3.64 million (2000 estimate). The west of the country contains the largest concentration of population, while vast regions in the east remain uninhabited. The south-west has dense equatorial forests that receive large amounts of rainfall, favouring the growth of lush vegetation, including various medicinal plants. The people of the country live by subsistence agriculture and forestry. A great many commercial plants are grown, including coffee, cocoa, cotton and rubber, and the forests have been heavily depleted as a result of the exploitation of their wood during the last two decades of the 20th century.

Maurice Djenda

The population of the Central African Republic belongs to approximately 85 ethnic groups. Primary ethnic groups include the Banda, Manza and the Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka in the centre and central-eastern part of the country; the Zande and Nzakara in the east; the Gbaya in the west; the Ngbaka, Bogongo, Isongo (Mbati), Kako and Mpyemo (Mpiemo) in the forested regions of the south-east; the Gbanziri and Yakoma along the banks of the Ubangi; and the Sara Kaba, Surma and Runga in the north and north-east (...



Monique Brandily

(Fr. République du Tchad)

Country in Central Africa. A former French colony, it has been independent since 1960. Its territory extends over 1,284,000 km², from the Tropic of Cancer in the north to beyond the 10th parallel in the south, i.e. from the desert zone to that of the forest. The population of 7·27 million (2000 estimate) thus lives in areas of great climatic and geographical contrast. Since in addition the inhabitants are descended from different ethnic groups, it is not surprising that their ways of life and socio-religious traditions vary considerably, as do their musical traditions. Knowledge of the music is superficial since there have been few specialized studies. The only information available is dispersed in general ethnological and anthropological studies and in the printed commentaries accompanying musical recordings, so that the discussion below focusses especially on the organological aspect of the traditional musics of Chad. The various peoples north of the 15th parallel are Saharan and mostly semi-nomadic livestock breeders who have been converted to Islam. In contrast, the southern inhabitants are principally sedentary cultivators, largely animist, some of whom have been converted to Christianity or Islam only comparatively recently....



Juan Orrego-Salas and María Ester Grebe

(Sp. República de Chile)

Country in South America. It is bordered in the north by Peru, east by Bolivia and Argentina and south and west by the Pacific Ocean. The country occupies a narrow strip of land running for 4200 km from north to south, with an area of 736, 905 km². Further territory includes Easter Island (Rapa-Nui), the Juthan Fernández Islands and many other islands to the west and south.

Juan Orrego-Salas

References to music in chronicles and histories dealing with the 16th century are scarce. Opportunities for the Spanish soldiers to sing villancicos, to play the vihuela, flute or trumpet, were limited at a time when the settlers lived under the constant menace of Indian attacks. Yet by the end of the century the officials of the Spanish Church, who had observed the power that music had over the indigenous peoples, began using it as a missionary tool. The singing of the Mass with the participation of Spaniards and indigenous peoples became customary, and Amerindians were trained to make and play European instruments....


Alan R. Thrasher, Joseph S.C. Lam, Jonathan P.J. Stock, Colin Mackerras, Francesca Rebollo-Sborgi, Frank Kouwenhoven, A. Schimmelpenninck, Stephen Jones, Han Mei, Wu Ben, Helen Rees, Sabine Trebinjac and Joanna C. Lee

(Chin. Zhonghua renmin gonghe guo)

Country in East Asia. China is composed of 22 contiguous provinces, five autonomous regions originally inhabited largely by ‘minority’ groups (Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang-Uighur, Guangxi-Zhuang, Ningxia-Hui and Tibet), three centrally-controlled municipalities (the capital Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin) and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. Its total area of about 9,573,000 km² also includes the area formerly called Manchuria (now the three north-eastern provinces). According to the 2010 census the total population was 1.37 billion, with 55 minority nationalities, ethnically distinct from the Han Chinese majority, comprising 8.49%.

The majority of the 23.2 million people (2012) of the Republic of China on the island of Taiwan originate from Fujian and eastern Guangdong provinces of mainland China; about 2.5 million came from other parts of mainland China with the Nationalists in 1949.

The number of Chinese living outside China (including Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau) in 2012 was approximately 50 million. The largest groups of Chinese include about 32.7 million in South-east Asia (the biggest populations being in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore), 3.8 million in the USA and 1.3 million in Canada. The music of these groups is discussed, as far as possible, in the articles on the countries in which they went to live....


Gerard Béhague, George List and Lise Waxer

(Sp. República de Colombia)

Country in South America. Formerly part of Nueva Granada, it is bordered to the north-west by Panama and the Caribbean, to the east by Venezuela and Brazil, to the south by Peru and Ecuador, and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. The region was colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. The area that constitutes modern Colombia was established in the years following independence from Spain (1819).

Gerard Béhague

Nueva Granada (later Colombia), which became an autonomous viceroyalty in 1566, was musically one of the most active countries in South America during the colonial period. The coastal city of Cartagena de Indias was founded in 1533, and four years later its first musician, Juan Pérez Materano (d 1561), settled there. He was an organist, an expert in plainchant and the author of an unpublished treatise Canto de órgano y canto llano. Bogotá Cathedral was the chief centre of sacred music. In ...



Alan P. Merriam, Kishilo W’itunga and Kazadi Wa Mukuna

(Fr. République Démocratique du Congo) [formerly Belgian Congo, Zaïre]

Country in Central Africa. It is the third largest country in Africa, with an area of 2,344,885 km² and a population of 51·75 million (2000 estimate). Recognized as The Congo Free State in 1884, it was annexed to Belgium in 1908 as the Belgian Congo. It became independent in 1960 and was renamed Zaïre in 1971. In 1997, following Laurent Kabila’s defeat of the government of Mobutu Sésé Séko, the country was renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo ( fig.1 ).

Alan P. Merriam, revised by Kishilo W’itunga

Archaeological excavations undertaken over several years in the Lupemba region, situated along the Congo river in the marshy lakeland area of Kisale and Lupemba in the middle of Katanga province, has shown that these parts have been inhabited since the 9th millennium bce. However, no remains of musical instruments preceding the Congolese Iron Age (i.e. before ...


Justin Serge Mongosso and Michelle Kisliuk

(Fr. République du Congo)

Country in West Central Africa. Proclaiming its independence from France in 1960, the Republic of the Congo retains relations with the former colonial power and continues an economic partnership. The country is situated in the equatorial zone of Africa bordering the Atlantic Ocean in the south-west, with approximately 170 km of coastline. Its land and river-marked borders are Gabon to the west, Cameroon to the north-west, the Central African Republic to the north-east and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south-east. There is also a small border with the Cabinda region of Angola to the south-west. The country covers a surface area of 341,821 km². In 2000 the population was estimated to be approximately 2.98 million inhabitants, with close to one million living in the capital, Brazzaville, and about 600,000 living in the port city Pointe Noire. Rural flight has become one of the biggest problems in the country because outside of the cities there is almost no work available for young people. In the sparsely populated rural areas, people live by fishing, hunting and gathering. A small number of people, mostly women, practice agriculture in these areas....


Bernal Flores Zeller and Laura Cervantes Gamboa

(Sp. República de Costa Rica)

Country in central America. It is bordered by Nicaragua to the north, by Panama to the south-east, by the Caribbean Sea to the east and by the Pacific Ocean to the south and west.

Bernal Flores Zeller

‘Costa Rican music is a white man's music, and of all Latin American countries is the least influenced by either the Indian or the Negro culture’ (Slonimsky, 1945). The recorded history of music in Costa Rica begins in 1845, when the Dirección General de Bandas was organized by the Guatemalan musician José Martínez; Martínez was succeeded on his death in 1852 by Manuel María Gutiérrez (1829–87), composer of the national anthem (1852), who was succeeded by Rafael Chávez Torres (1839–1907). These last two composers wrote marches, mazurkas, waltzes and similar pieces for band. Chávez Torres was followed by the Belgian Jean Loots (1872–1929), who organized the first, short-lived symphony orchestra (...


[Republic of the Ivory Coast]

Country in West Africa. The modern state, covering an area of 320,783 km² and with a population of 15·14 million (2000 estimate), comprises about 60 different peoples whose diversity of culture and language is reflected in their music. The music of the peoples belonging to the four large linguistic groups recognized in Côte d'Ivoire is discussed here: the Dan of the Mande group, the Wè (Guere or Gere) of the Kru group, the Baoulé (Baule) of the Akan group and the Sénoufo (Senufo) of the Volta group (fig.1). The Dan inhabit the edge of the savanna and the forest in the west of Côte d'Ivoire and in the hinterland of Liberia; in the north-west they border on Guinea. The Wè, who live entirely in the forest, are also established partly in Côte d'Ivoire and partly in Liberia. The Baoulé live in the V-shaped wedge of savanna that cuts into the centre of Côte d'Ivoire, but originally came from forest areas in present-day Ghana. The Sénoufo live in the savanna in the north of Côte d'Ivoire, and in Burkina Faso and Mali....