21-40 of 121 results  for:

Clear all

Article

Alan P. Merriam, Kishilo W’itunga and Kazadi Wa Mukuna

Country in Central Africa. It is the third largest country in Africa, with an area of 2,344,885 km² and a population of 51·75 million (2000 estimate). Recognized as The Congo Free State in 1884, it was annexed to Belgium in 1908 as the Belgian Congo. It became independent in ...

Article

Justin Serge Mongosso and Michelle Kisliuk

Country in West Central Africa. Proclaiming its independence from France in 1960, the Republic of the Congo retains relations with the former colonial power and continues an economic partnership. The country is situated in the equatorial zone of Africa bordering the Atlantic Ocean in the south-west, with approximately 170 km of coastline. Its land and river-marked borders are Gabon to the west, Cameroon to the north-west, the Central African Republic to the north-east and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south-east. There is also a small border with the Cabinda region of Angola to the south-west. The country covers a surface area of 341,821 km². In ...

Article

Cyprus  

Nicoletta Demetriou, Vasilis Kallis, Katy Romanou and Kenneth Owen Smith

Country in the eastern Mediterranean. With an area of 9251 km² it is the third largest island in the Mediterranean. In the common era, Cyprus – fully Hellenised under Ptolemaic rule – has been part of the Roman (from 58) and the East Roman Empire (from 395). Thereafter, Franks (from ...

Article

John Clapham, Jan Smaczny, Oldřich Pukl, L. Tyllner, Karel Vetterl, Marta Toncrová and Oskár Elschek

Country in central Europe. It was established in 1992 after the break-up of Czechoslovakia into two separate republics. Czechoslovakia had been created in 1918 out of the former Habsburg territories of Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. This reflects the composition of the 9th-century kingdom of Great Moravia. Slovakia fell to the Magyars in 906 (and remained part of Hungary and later the Habsburg Empire until ...

Article

Denmark  

Niels Martin Jensen, Louis K. Christensen and Svend Nielsen

Country in Scandinavia.

Danish art music in the Middle Ages was largely restricted to the church, the court and the aristocracy. After the first, only partially successful, attempts to convert Denmark to Christianity (9th century), the power of Church and king increased from the 11th century. The bishoprics of Schleswig, Ribe and Århus were established before 948 and five others in the 11th century. Lund in particular seems to have played an important role in the development of church music (...

Article

Christian Poché

Country located in the Horn of Africa. Djibouti came under French rule in 1863 as Côte Française des Somalis and later as Territoire Français des Afars et des Issas. It became independent in 1977 and has since been a member of the League of Arab States. The population is approximately 590,000, consisting primarily of Afars (also called Danakils by Arabs), a nomadic people who live in the northern part of the country, with the town of Tadjoura as their main centre; of Somalis, also nomads, previously known as Issas, who are scattered in the southern part of the country; and of Arabs of Yemenite descent who settled in the urban coastal towns, mostly in the capital, Djibouti. Islam is the official religion....

Article

Martha Ellen Davis and Paul Austerlitz

Country in the West Indies. It occupies the eastern two-thirds of the Greater Antillean island of Hispaniola (La Española), today shared with Haiti. Hispaniola was called ‘Quisqueya’ by the original Amerindian inhabitants, the Taínos (subgroup of Arawak, one of the four major language families of the greater Amazon region), who numbered at least one million at the time of European contact in ...

Article

Eritrea  

Cynthia Tse Kimberlin

Country in East Africa. With an area of 93,679 km² and a population of 6,086,495 million (2011 estimate), it borders the Red Sea to the north and east, Ethiopia to the south and Sudan to the West. There are nine major ethnic groups: Tigrinya-speaking Tigré, Tigré, Saho, Afar, Hadareb (Hedareb), Bilen, Kunama, Nara and Rashaida. The majority are Christian and Muslim and the official language is Tigrinya, but Arabic, Afar and Somali are also spoken. Approximately one million Eritrean refugees live in the Sudan, Ethiopia, Canada, the USA, Sweden, Italy, Saudi Arabia, the UK and Australia. Eritrea achieved independence from Ethiopia in ...

Article

Kay Kaufman Shelemay and Cynthia Tse Kimberlin

Country in East Africa. Located in the northern highland plateau of the horn of Africa, it has an area of 1,104,300 km², and in July 2011 its population was estimated at 90,873,739 million.

Ethiopia was first mentioned by classical writers in the 2nd century ce...

Article

Richard Crawford, Philip V. Bohlman, Chris Goertzen, D.K. Wilgus, Julien Olivier, Bill C. Malone, Barry Jean Ancelet, Mick Moloney, Marcello Sorce Keller, Stephen Erdely, Şahan Arzruni, Christina Jaremko, Mark Levy, Robert C. Metil, Michael G. Kaloyanides, Janice E. Kleeman, Timothy J. Cooley, Kenneth A. Thigpen, Margaret H. Beissinger, Margarita Mazo, Mark Forry, Robert B. Klymasz, Portia K. Maultsby, Gerard Béhague, Charlotte Heth, Beverley A. Cavanagh, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Zhang Weihua, Susan M. Asai, Youyoung Kang, George Ruckert, Amy R. Catlin and Ricardo D. Trimillos

In 

See United States of America

Article

France  

François Lesure, Claudie Marcel-Dubois and Denis Laborde

Country in Europe.

At the end of the 9th century, after the decline of Gallican chant, France was divided both linguistically and on the question of musical notation: the area in which the langue d’Oc was spoken used Aquitanian notation, while further north the notations of Brittany and Lorraine were employed (...

Article

John Kmetz, Ludwig Finscher, Giselher Schubert, Wilhelm Schepping and Philip V. Bohlman

Country in Northern Europe. It extends from the Baltic Sea and the North German Plain to Lake Constance and the Bavarian Alps and Plateau, and from the North Sea and the French border to the Oder and Neisse rivers and the mountainous eastern regions of the Erzgebirge and the Fichtelgebirge. It is bordered by Denmark, Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. After World War II, from ...

Article

Susan Hurley-Glowa

Country in West Africa. Located on the coast between Senegal and Guinea, it has a population of 1.5 million (2011 estimate) and an area of 36,125 km.

The Republic of Guinea-Bissau’s population is diverse, consisting of more than 20 ethnic groups descended from Mande, Fula (Fulbe; Fulani) and Senegambian peoples. The main ethnic groups include the Balanta, the Fula, the Manjaca, the Mandinga, and the Papel. The official language is Portuguese, but Kriol (Kriolu, Crioulo), a Portuguese-West African creole language, serves as the primary language of communication between ethnic groups....

Article

Guyana  

Republic on the northeastern coast of South America with an area of 215,000 km² and a population of 874,000 (2000 estimate). Formerly named British Guiana, it gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1966 and became a member of the British Commonwealth. Though on the mainland, Guyana is a part of the circum-Caribbean culture area and its heterogeneous musical traditions are most similar to those of other Caribbean poly-ethnic or plural societies (...

Article

See United States of America

Article

T.M. Scruggs

Country in Central America. The name Honduras derives from the characteristic steep valleys (Sp. honda:‘deep’) that carve the mountainous terrain making up about two thirds of this republic's 112,000 km². The population of approximately four and a half million is almost 95% mestizo, a mixture of indigenous American and European peoples and cultures. Historically, the area's geography encouraged social and cultural isolation of different segments of the population, a phenomenon that only broke down in the latter half of the 20th century with the marked increase in communications and massive migration to the capital, Tegucigalpa. Latin American, Hispano-Caribbean and, increasingly, North American musics have had a strong impact on the consumption of popular music. During the 1990s, there was a heightened awareness of the country's indigenous peoples and of the Garifuna, who are of mixed indigenous and African descent....

Article

Thomas J. Mathiesen, Dimitri Conomos, George Leotsakos, Sotirios Chianis and Rudolph M. Brandl

In 

See Greece

Article

Robert Stevenson, Louise K. Stein, Albert Recasens, Belen Perez Castillo, Josep i Martí i Perez, Martin Cunningham, Ramón Pelinski, Jaume Aiats, Sílvia Martínez García and Arcadio de Larrea Palacín

In 

See Spain

Article

Marina Frolova-Walker, Jonathan Powell, Rosamund Bartlett, Izaly Zemtsovsky, Mark Slobin, Jarkko Niemi and Yuri Sheikin

In 

See Russian Federation

Article

Tullia Magrini

In 

See Italy