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Article

Karl-Ernst Bergunder

revised by Peter Wollny

(b Grossfurra, Thuringia, Oct 25, 1643; d Gotha, Feb 20, 1676). German composer and writer. After initially going to school in his native town he was sent in 1656 to Eisenach for three years. There he attended the town school, the staff of which included Theodor Schuchardt, a highly respected teacher of music and Latin. From 1659 to 1662 Agricola studied for his school-leaving examination at the Gymnasium of Gotha; the headmaster there was Andreas Reyher, who was the co-author of the Gothaer Schulmethodus, an educational work which set an example for the teaching of music too. In 1662–3 Agricola studied philosophy at Leipzig University and from 1663 to 1668 theology and philosophy at Wittenberg, where he was awarded a master's degree by the faculty of philosophy. His four recorded scholarly essays dating from this period are lost. He had begun to learn the fundamentals of music during his school years, and he may also have been a pupil of the Kantor of the Thomaskirche, Leipzig, Sebastian Knüpfer. He continued his musical training at Wittenberg, completing the study of composition under the guidance of Italian musicians resident there. Returning to his native Thuringia he was able to turn his musical abilities to good use in the Kapelle of the Schwarzburg-Sondershausen court until in ...

Article

Lini Hübsch-Pfleger

(b Hilpoltstein, nr Nuremberg, 1638/9; d Neuburg an der Donau, bur. May 3, 1697). German composer and organist. He was educated at the Jesuit Gymnasium of St Salvator, Augsburg. In 1660 he wrote the music for a play performed there. On 23 October of the same year he matriculated at the University of Ingolstadt, where he read theology. In 1663 he became a chamber musician and court organist at Neuburg an der Donau to Count Palatine Philipp Wilhelm, who was renowned for his patronage and understanding of the arts. The court Kapellmeister was G.B. Mocchi, who had been a pupil of Carissimi and who in 1675 renounced in Agricola’s favour a prebend that Pope Alexander VII had granted him in 1655. Agricola was required to compose a number of large-scale works for weddings in the count’s family. When the count’s eldest son, Johann Wilhelm, married the Archduchess Maria Anna, sister of Emperor Leopold I, in ...

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Lini Hübsch-Pfleger

(b Nuremberg, c1560–70; d ?Erfurt, after 1601). German composer. In 1601, when he published a collection of motets, Agricola was teaching at the Gymnasium Augustinianum at Erfurt; he can scarcely be identified with the Christianus Johannes Agricola who was a discantist in the Kapelle at Weimar in 1594. The surname ‘Noricus’, used on the title-page and in the dedication, meant ‘born at Nuremberg’, and a Johannes Agricola baptized on 29 November 1564 at St Sebaldus at Nuremberg could be the composer. Yet another Johann Agricola (d 1605), Kantor at St Bartholomäus, Frankfurt, in 1591, was probably not the composer.

As a composer Agricola is known only by Motetae novae pro praecipuis in anno festis (Nuremberg, 1601), dedicated to the Erfurt senate; the bass partbook addresses the same dedication to the Mühlhausen senate, so possibly the collection appeared in at least two editions. The preface is a humanistic essay about the importance of music from ancient times to the 16th century. The 26 motets, for four to six, eight and twelve voices, are settings in a freely imitative style characterized by fluent counterpoint. The exact scansion of the Latin texts, which include some on secular subjects, is evidence of Agricola’s humanistic education and profession....

Article

Hans-Christian Müller

(b 1600–10; d c1659). German composer and organist. It is possible that he is the same person as the Christoph Bauer who entered the University of Würzburg in 1625. From 1632 to 1642 he was at Neustadt an der Saale, from 1642 to 1644 at Bodenlauben and Ebenhausen and from 1645 to 1659 at Münnerstadt. In each place he was town clerk and notary; at Neustadt he was organist as well, and at the last three, which are near Würzburg, he was also an official of the Archbishop of Würzburg. He may have been a pupil of the Würzburg court composer Heinrich Pfendner, on works by whom he based eight eight-part masses (1647). His Geistliches Waldvöglein is a large collection of sacred songs in four parts, artless settings of popular, simple, often clumsy verses, in which, however, ‘the beginnings of the Singmesse’ are discernible (see Ursprung)....

Article

(b ?Mexico City, c1625; d ?Toluca, 1695). Mexican composer. He was named as a singer in Mexico City Cathedral on 20 May 1647 with a salary of 100 peso; this was reduced to 90 peso, because of the cathedral’s financial difficulties, some time after 1646, but increased to 120 peso on 30 April 1665. In 1676 Agurto was made maestro de los villancicos, in 1677 maestro compositor and in 1685/6 maestro de capilla. On 3 September 1688 he was succeeded by Antonio de Salazar, but he remained active at the cathedral at least until 1695, the probable year of his death. By then he was living in nearby Toluca.

Agurto collaborated with the celebrated Mexican poet Juana Inés de la Cruz, and with other librettists, on several villancico cycles between 1676 and 1686. The music of only one villancico survives (ed. F. Ramírez Ramírez: Trece obras de la colección J. Sánchez Garza...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Mühlhausen, bap. June 12, 1651; d Mühlhausen, Dec 2, 1706). German composer, theorist, organist and poet, son of Johann Rudolf Ahle. He no doubt received his musical education from his father, whom he succeeded at the age of 23 as organist of St Blasius, Mühlhausen. Like his father he held the post until his death, and he was succeeded by the young Bach. Again like his father, he was elected to the town council. He was described on the title-page of his Sapphisches Ehrenlied (1680) as a bachelor of law, but it is not known where he studied. His education may well have included training in literary composition, for he distinguished himself as a poet and was made poet laureate by the Emperor Leopold I in 1680. His music, some of which is lost, is almost totally unknown. Much of it is scattered through his series of anecdotal novels, named after the Muses, which themselves deserve closer study. He clearly followed his father in his interest in writing songs, both sacred and secular, and his style in them seems to be even more popular and folklike. He also composed music for the church and for occasions such as weddings, anniversaries, celebrations of political events and ceremonies honouring distinguished visitors to Mühlhausen. Among his theoretical writings is his enlarged and copiously annotated edition of his father's singing manual. Here, as in his own treatises, among which the four ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Mühlhausen, Dec 24, 1625; d Mühlhausen, July 9, 1673). German composer, organist, writer on music and poet, father of Johann Georg Ahle. He was a prolific composer of popular sacred music, notably songs, in central Germany a generation before J.S. Bach.

The date of Ahle’s birth derives from a report published in the Neues Mühlhäusisches Wochenblatt (1798, no.31; see Wolf). He was educated first at the local Gymnasium and then, from about 1643, at the Gymnasium at Göttingen. In the spring of 1645 he entered Erfurt University as a student of theology. Nothing is known of his musical training, though in 1646, while enrolled at the university, he was appointed Kantor at the elementary school and church of St Andreas, Erfurt, and at this period he became well known for his ability as an organist. He returned to Mühlhausen to marry in 1650, but only at the end of ...

Article

William E. Hettrick

(b Regensburg, 1564–5; d Augsburg, 20–21 Jan 1628). German composer and organist. He ranks with Hans Leo Hassler among the most important and prolific composers in southern Germany in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.

Aichinger’s birthdate is derived from the inscription on his tombstone in the cloister of Augsburg Cathedral; his age at his death is given as 63. He was still at Regensburg in 1576, and in 1577 he presented a composition to the Bavarian court at Munich and was paid for it. Although the Munich court chapel under Lassus often recruited choirboys from Regensburg, there is no conclusive evidence that Aichinger was a member. On 2 November 1578 he enrolled at the University of Ingolstadt, which had become a stronghold of Jesuit influence. Among his fellow students was Jakob Fugger (ii), a member of one of the most prominent families in southern Germany (...

Article

H. Wiley Hitchcock

revised by Nicholas Temperley

(b Swanton Morley, Norfolk, bap. Jan 15, 1571; d Amsterdam, ?1622–3). English minister and psalmodist. He attended Cambridge University from 1586 to 1591, leaving without a degree. He was expatriated as a ‘Brownist’ in 1593 and settled in Amsterdam, where he became ‘teacher’ of the Ancient Separatist Church in 1596; in 1610 he founded an Independent church, becoming minister of it himself. He took the Calvinist position on predestination. He was the author of a number of controversial religious tracts, annotations, and translations of scripture. Many consider him one of the finest Hebrew scholars of his day. His Book of Psalmes: Englished both in Prose and Metre, with Annotations (Amsterdam, 1612, 4/1644; music ed. in ISAMm, xv, Brooklyn, NY, 1981) contains all 150 psalms in a new metrical version, together with prose translations and annotations. 48 are provided with monophonic tunes (six melodies are used twice and one three times). 21 of the 40 tunes are drawn from the Continental Reformed tradition, and 16 are from English sources (including three of the newer, short variety such as ...

Article

(fl 1684–1706). English violinist and composer. Someone of this name was living in the parish of St Giles-in-the-Fields, London, in 1686. He is listed among the king's musicians between 1687 and 1691, in which year he was in the party that accompanied King William to Holland. Thereafter he does not appear in the Lord Chamberlain’s records, but he was admitted a wait of the City of London in 1695. The following year John Blow wrote to Sir Joseph Williamson recommending him as one of his entourage for the Treaty of Ryswick (1697): he was described as ‘a fit person on several accounts, for his understanding French and Italian, and a good scholar’. Blow mentions that he had been one of the Stewards of the Festival of the Sons of the Clergy the year after Williamson, though in fact it was the year before, in 1687. Apparently in ...

Article

Mariangela Donà

(b Monza, nr Milan, c1598; d Milan, c1630). Italian composer and organist. All that is known of his life derives from the title-pages of his publications and from Picinelli. In 1618 he was organist of the collegiate church in Desio and in 1621 of S Maria dei Servi, Milan. He died at the age of 32. Picinelli praised him as an excellent organist and a wonderful (‘stupendo’) composer. He was an adherent of the monodic and concertato style of, among others, Monteverdi, whose duet Sancta Maria he published for the first time in his Primo libro di concerti ecclesiastici.

Article

Monique Escudier

(b Krempe, Jan 27, 1602; d Brunsbüttel, May 29, 1672). German theologian, historian, poet and music theorist. After studying in Krempe and Hamburg he completed his studies at Leipzig University in 1624 and in the same year became Poet Laureate. Meanwhile in 1621 he had become tutor to the children of a wealthy Leipzig bookseller, Henning Gross. Disappointed at not being made a professor at the university, he became a pastor and from 1630 practised his vocation at Brunsbüttel; he was also assessor to the consistory at nearby Meldorf. He was in contact with the Dutch humanists Johannes Meursius and Daniel Heinsius. He devoted only one work to music, De veterum musica (Schleusingen, 1636). Its point of view is that of a moralist and erudite humanist, and it contains many references to Greek and Latin texts; it is divided into 29 short chapters. After studying the relationship of music to other sciences, Alard presented some rudiments of Greek theory. There follow ten chapters on the effects of music: when well employed it exorcises evil, demons and madness and inspires virtue and piety. Alard then denounced the corrupt music of his time and censured the intrusion of virtuosity and ornaments into religious music. He devoted the last chapter to the mythological or legendary inventors of musical instruments. In an appendix he included the Greek text of a treatise of ...

Article

Charles Beare

revised by Patrizio Barbieri

(b St Nikolaus in Kaltern, March 28, 1621; d Bolzano [Bozen], Feb 7, 1712). Tyrolean violin maker, mainly active in Bolzano. In 1665–6 he worked in Rome for the luthiers Martin Artz (1665) and Andrea Portoghese (1666). Later he might have had his own workshop there, according to a violin labelled ‘Matthias Albano fece in Roma 1668’. In 1697 two Albani violins were inventoried among the four left by the Roman Carlo Mannelli (known as ‘del violino’); in the same year, again in Rome, the violinist and composer John Ravenscroft left five violins, all by ‘Mattheo Albon’.

Many violins, mostly of ordinary 18th-century German manufacture, bear false Albani labels, and his name was for a long time misused by unscrupulous dealers. Albani did not marry until 1671, and since after his death his two sons, Michael and Joseph, made instruments, it is possible that they were partly or almost entirely responsible for much of the work supposed to be by their father. In any case, the Albani influence was strong among 18th-century Tyrolean makers, especially on the Jais family of Bolzano and on Mayr and his fellow members of the Salzburg school. Albani in Bolzano, Joannes Tononi in Bologna, and Kaiser and Goffriller in Venice all emerged in northeastern Italy in the later 17th century, but it is not known who taught whom....

Article

Keith A. Larson

(fl Naples, 1601–16). Italian composer and musician. He was mentioned by Cerreto (Della prattica musica vocale et strumentale, Naples, 1601/R) as one of a number of singers and instrumentalists in Naples. He published two volumes of music at Naples in 1616. The first, Il primo libro di canzoni, e madrigaletti, for three and four voices (RISM 1616¹¹), includes settings of texts by Tasso, Marino and Francesco degl’Atti. The canzoni – in fact canzonettas – usually have four-line stanzas and use triple metre occasionally. The tenor parts can be omitted. The five madrigalettos (one of which is by Scipione Dentice) are longer and avoid triple metre but are similar in style to the canzonettas. Albano recommended that lute, harp or harpsichord accompaniment be used, that the tempo be a little rushed and that, whereas intermediate cadences must be sung in strict time, final cadences could be drawn out a little. His second published volume, ...

Article

Barton Hudson

(b late 16th century; d probably Barcelona, mid-17th century). Spanish composer. He was appointed maestro de capilla of La Seu d'Urgell Cathedral on 15 January 1622. In 1626 he followed Joan Pau Pujol in the same capacity at Barcelona Cathedral, where he probably stayed for the remainder of his life. Only a few of his works survive: masses, motets, villancicos and unaccompanied romances, for four, six and eight voices. They lack Pujol's creative ingenuity and technical brilliance. Albareda's music is all in manuscript in the Cathedral, Barcelona, except the following four pieces, which are in manuscript at the Biblioteca de Cataluña there: responsión, A la media noche, 6vv; Alma, llegad al convite, 6vv; romance, Convidando está a su mesa, 4vv; villancico for the Holy Sacrament, Hoy deste pan consagrado pienso comer un bocado, 8vv. (J. Wolf: Historia de la música, con un estudio critico de historia de la música española por Higinio Anglés...

Article

Sergio Durante

[‘Il Luigino’ ]

( fl 1692–1706). Italian contralto castrato . His name first appears in a libretto in 1692 as Silandro in Pausania (composer unknown) at Crema, and he sang frequently thereafter in the principal Italian centres in lead and second-lead male parts. In Venice he appeared at S Giovanni Grisostomo in operas by C. F. Pollarolo (Tito Manlio, Marzio Coriolano, La fortuna per dote and Il Dafni). Galliard (1743), in the notes to his translation of Tosi’s treatise, indicated that he was a pupil of Pistocchi in the service of Emperor Josef I, but there is no record of such service. He served the Duke of Modena from 1694. Tosi cites him as Pistocchi’s successor only in terms of style. He was one of the best representatives of the generation of castratos after Pistocchi.

P. F. Tosi: Opinioni de’ cantori antichi e moderni (Bologna, 1723; Eng. trans. by ...

Article

Kurt Stephenson

In 

Article

John H. Baron

(b Lobenstein, July 8, 1604; d Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], Oct 6, 1651). German composer and poet. His formal musical training began in 1622, when he moved to Dresden and worked for his cousin Schütz. While a law student in Leipzig from 1623 to 1626 he began to compose arias, some of which he later included in his published collections; he was influenced by Schein, then Kantor at the Thomaskirche. He moved to Königsberg in 1626. In 1627 he set out for Warsaw with some Dutch diplomats and was taken prisoner by the Swedes for a year. He was not an altogether innocent bystander in the Thirty Years War, for when he returned in 1628 he was involved with the science of fortification. From December 1630 he seems to have given up his earlier profession, to become a full-time musician in Königsberg for the rest of his life. He became organist at the cathedral and studied with Johann Stobaeus. In ...

Article

(b Tönning, Schleswig, Jan 11, 1642; d Merseburg, June 14, 1710). German composer and organist. A versatile man, he studied theology at Rostock, intending to enter the ministry. Dogged by ill-health he read law instead at Leipzig University, concurrently studying music with Werner Fabricius to such good purpose that Duke Christian I of Saxony appointed him organist at his court and at Merseburg Cathedral. Alberti also studied with Vincenzo Albrici. An apoplectic stroke caused paralysis, which incapacitated him for the last 12 years of his life.

Although Alberti apparently wrote much sacred and keyboard music, unfortunately only four chorale compositions survive (they are in various manuscripts, mainly in libraries in Berlin, and they have been included in several modern anthologies of organ music such as Orgelmeister des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts, ed. K. Matthaei, Kassel, 1933; 80 Choralvorspiele des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts, ed. H. Keller, Leipzig, 1937...

Article

Ennio Stipčević

[Giorgio ]

(b Split, 1603; d after 1619). Croatian theorist. He was a descendant of the Alberti-Matulić family, and his father Matija was an eminent Croatian writer. He studied music for a short time in Venice with Romano Michaeli and Martio Valinea, who, according to the title-page of Alberti's treatise, was ‘gentilhuomo d'Urbino, musico straordinario in San Marco’. Alberti was only 15 years old when he wrote his treatise, the Diologo per imparare con brevità à cantar canto figurato (Venice, 1619). It was published not long after he had completed his studies, and comprises 40 pages of basic hints on music for beginners keen to learn so that they could ‘con tanta liberta & sicurezza solfegiando … li magrigali’. It is the earliest Croatian treatise to have been printed as a book in its own right, and is a valuable source of the performing practice of early Baroque monody in Dalmatia....