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Akama  

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Akanono  

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Ferdinand J. de Hen

Long drum of the Alur people of the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The single lizard-skin head is glued to the narrow wooden body and is beaten by hand. It is used in witchcraft ceremonies.

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Akpossi  

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Alindi  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[lukumbi]

Double-headed drum of the Komo and Lega peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is conical, 40 to 50 cm tall, head diameter 25 to 30 cm, foot diameter 10 to 20 cm. The wild-goat-skin heads are laced together in a V pattern and the upper head is beaten with a stick in one hand and also by the other hand. It is used only to accompany dances....

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Allun  

[tagnza]

Frame drum of the Berber people, particularly of Morocco (the High Atlas). Its width varies from 40 to 75 cm and its depth from 8 to 15 cm. It is similar to the bendīr, but usually has no snares.

B. Lortat-Jacob: Musique et fêtes au Haut-Atlas (Paris, 1980).

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Article

Alastair Dick

The old South Indian Tamil name for a double-headed hourglass drum. Its name appears to derive from the Sanskrit āmanrikā (‘summoning’). The drum was held in the right hand and played with the left. It was covered with cowhide and has been equated with the i ṭakkai; it was probably of variable pitch....

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Amor  

F.J. de Hen

Drum of the Alur of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, reserved for the use of the king. The two cowhide heads are laced together with leather thongs on the wooden shell. It is beaten with two sticks, or by two men each beating one head with two sticks. (...

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Amponga  

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Natalie M. Webber

Double-headed cylindrical drum of Sri Lanka, now rare. It is a small version of the daula, about 30 cm long and beaten with one hand and a stick. It was used to play ana-bera, a drum pattern played by a public crier to draw attention to a proclamation about to be made. As late as the 1980s the services of a crier were still occasionally needed in villages, when the ...

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J. Richard Haefer

Term for a kettledrum among the Chiriguano (Chawuncu) people of Argentina and Bolivia. It probably originated by covering a food-preparation mortar (angúa) with a hide head. It was reported early in the 20th century as a water drum. A larger version is called angúahuasi. The Toba, Bororo, and Mataco peoples also have a wooden kettledrum made from a mortar; the Toba instrument is called ...

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Apinti  

J. Richard Haefer

[apintie]

Single-headed conical drum of Ashanti origin, used by Maroon groups and rural and urban black Surinamese people. It is about 35 cm tall with a diameter of 12 cm at the head and 6 cm at the foot. The tanned-hide head is held on a hoop with cord lacing and is struck by bare hands. Larger versions (up to 70 cm) were used in the past. Nowadays a commercial conga drum may be substituted.

Less often among the same people, the term refers to a small double-headed cylindrical drum with hoop and lacing, played with a stick on one head and a hand on the other. It is used by Ndjuka (Aukan) and Matuay Bush people to accompany song and dance genres, and rural and urban black groups use it for the kawina, a popular Creole call-and-response music and dance genre.

Other Surinam drums include the agida (adjida, single-headed and about 3 m long), used in the ...

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Arbana  

Pribislav Pitoëff

Frame drum of the Māppila (Muslims) of Kerala, south India. The jackwood frame, in which are affixed five sets of little cymbals (each consisting of two to four iron or brass discs), measures 25 cm in diameter and 5.5 cm deep and is reinforced by iron flanges. The head, of goatskin, is glued to the frame without being tightened; before the drum is used, the head is stretched by inserting a piece of vine in the space between the skin and the frame. The ...

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Arekwa  

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Ari (i)  

Peter Cooke

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Christian Poché

[‘arṭab, ‘arṭāba, ‘urṭuba]

Abyssinian drum, lyre, or lute of the early Islamic era. The word sounds foreign to the language and has no known derivation in it, but an Ethiopian origin remains plausible. Some Arab lexicographers have identified the instrument as an Abyssinian drum, similar to the kūba, but there is no solid evidence for this. Others have identified it as a ṭunbūr, which might be a lyre or a long-necked lute. Evidence presented by the 9th-century historian al-Hamdān (Iklīl, viii, 160–65) suggests a lyre as the more likely, but the possibility of a lute cannot be rejected. Since the classical era (9th and 10th centuries) the instrument has been classed with the ‘ūd, as have other types such as the kinnāra, barba , muwattar, and mizhar. Andalusian writers specify the quality of the instrument’s strings, which they call ma ḥbad (‘bow string or string of a wool-carder’), but Abbasid authors are more general in their descriptions. The instrument was finally integrated into the lute family and the name transformed by metathesis into ‘atraba’, as mentioned by the 16th-century writer Ibn Ḥajar al-Haythamī (...

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Arub  

Article

David P. McAllester

revised by J. Richard Haefer

Water-drum of the Navajo of the southwestern USA. The body is an elongated earthenware pot 20 to 25 cm deep with a rounded bottom and a slight lip around the mouth; it is half-filled with water. The buckskin head is soaked in water, stretched over the opening and bound in place with strips of wet buckskin. The drum is prepared ceremonially with appropriate songs for each stage of assemblage and is given ‘life’ by having eyes and a mouth punched in the head with an awl. The drumstick (‘ásaa’ bee yiltazhí) is made from an oak twig about 25 cm long and 6 mm thick at the base. The tip is bent and tied in a circular loop about 12 cm in diameter. One or two downy eagle feathers are usually bound to the end of the loop so that they project slightly beyond it. The loop of the stick is used to strike the drumhead. The drum accompanies the public Squaw Dance songs of the Enemyway ceremony....