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(b Philadelphia, PA, Feb 14, 1760; d Philadelphia, March 26, 1831). American tunebook compiler. A former slave, he founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia in 1794 and was elected its first bishop on the incorporation of the church in 1816. He compiled a hymnbook of 54 hymns, A Collection of Spiritual Songs and Hymns, for use by his congregation, the Bethel AME Church, in 1801. Later that year an enlarged version was published as A Collection of Hymns and Spiritual Songs. It was the first hymnbook published by an African American for use by African Americans, and many of the hymns later became sources for black spirituals. With Daniel Coker and James Champion, Allen also compiled the first official hymnbook of the AME Church in 1818.

SouthernB R. Allen: The Life Experience and Gospel Labours of the Right Reverend Richard Allen (Philadelphia, 1887/R) C. Wesley...

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Renee Lapp Norris

(b Northborough, MA, Sept 5, 1830; d Madison, WI, Dec 9, 1889). American classical scholar, teacher, editor, and writer. Allen is best known musically as an editor of Slave Songs of the United States (New York, 1867), also edited by Charles Pickard Ware and Lucy McKim Garrison, who were white collectors of black music.

Allen graduated from Harvard in 1851, subsequently studied in Europe, and returned to the United States in 1856. In 1863 he began an eight-month stint as a teacher on St Helena Island in South Carolina, home to former slaves who remained after plantation owners left in 1861. Here, Allen gained first-hand experience of slave singing that contributed to the detailed explanations of his 36-page prologue to Slave Songs. In 1867 Allen was appointed chair of ancient languages at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, where he remained until his death.

Allen’s interest in philology is evident in the many pages of the prologue to ...

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Diana Poulton

revised by Warwick Edwards

(b ?1560–70; d ?before 1610). English composer. He referred in the dedication of his Psalmes to the late Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick (died 1589/90) as ‘my good Lord and Master’. Allison is represented by 13 compositions in a set of consort books (dated 1588), from the household of Sir Francis Walsingham. Ten four-part settings by him appeared in Thomas East's Whole Booke of Psalms (RISM 15927), and he contributed a dedicatory poem to Giles Farnaby's Canzonets to Fowre Voyces (1598). In 1599 he published his own Psalmes of David in Meter, giving his London address as Dukes Place, near Aldgate, and describing himself as a ‘gentleman’ and a ‘practitioner’ of music. This print also includes his coat of arms, providing much information about his family. In the same year seven of his instrumental works appeared without attribution in Morley's ...

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Carolyn Gianturco and Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Mosso Santa Maria, nr Biella, Jan 31, 1921). Italian musicologist. He took diplomas in piano at the Parma Conservatory (1942) and in choral music at the Turin Conservatory (1948), and studied music history with Della Corte at Turin University, where he took an arts degree (1946). He subsequently taught music history in the conservatories of Bolzano (1950–51), Parma (1951–5) and Milan (1954–88); he has edited the journals Almanacco musicale italiano (1954–5), Ricordiana (1955–7) and Musica d’oggi (1958–63) and has been vice-director of Enciclopedia della musica Ricordi (1960–64). He has been a consulting editor for Ricordi since 1964. Music education is one of his major interests: he became director of the series Manuali di Didattica Musicale and Canti nel Mondo (Ricordi) in 1965, and editor of Educazione musicale...

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Peter Andreas Kjeldsberg

revised by Martin Anderson

(b Fredrikstad, April 29, 1872; d Oslo, Dec 24, 1932). Norwegian composer, conductor and organist. He studied with Peter Lindeman (organ) and Iver Holter (harmony, counterpoint and composition) at the Christiania Music and Organ School (1888–92), and was then a pupil of Reinecke (composition) and Ruthard (piano) at the Leipzig Conservatory (1892–4). Appointments as organist followed in Drammen (1895–1907) and Oslo (1907–32), where he served at the cathedral from 1916; his First Symphony was completed during a course of study in Berlin in 1897. He was one of those responsible for the foundation of the Norsk Komponistforening, of which he was president from 1921 to 1923. As a member of the Koralbokkomiteen (1922–6) he harmonized most of the melodies in the chorale book of the Norwegian Church, and he edited preludes to all of the chorales. He was active as a choir-conductor, leading the Håndverksangforening (...

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Thomas W. Bridges

(fl Venice, 1572–1621). Italian printer. In February 1572 he witnessed a codicil to the will of Girolamo Scotto, in which he is described as a printer, not a bookseller, suggesting that he may have worked in Scotto’s shop in Venice at the time. After a brief attempt in printing music on his own in 1579, he resumed as a partner of Giacomo Vincenti, with whom he printed, between 1583 and 1586, about 80 books. A few were reprints of popular volumes by Arcadelt, Lassus, Marenzio, Palestrina, and Bernardino Lupacchino and Gioan Maria Tasso, but most were first editions of works by some 33 composers, of whom the best known are Asola, Bassano, Caimo, Gioseffo Guami, Marenzio, Stivori and Virchi, as well as anthologies. For their printer’s mark Vincenti & Amadino used a woodcut of a pine-cone, with the motto ‘Aeque bonum atque tutum’. When they began to print separately (from ...

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Klaus Fischer

(b Fossano, region of Cuneo, Oct 19, 1545; d Saluzzo, Cuneo, Aug 31, 1604). Italian music editor, composer and possibly writer on music. He was born into a leading aristocratic family of Melle, about 30 km from Fossano. He was educated at home and, from 1559, at Montpellier and then entered Turin University to study medicine, philosophy and rhetoric; he may also have studied music, since five of his 118 submissions for the doctorate were concerned with music. In 1566 he went to Pavia to continue his medical studies. On 29 January 1567 he graduated with outstanding results in arts and medicine from Turin University, and a few months later he was admitted to the university's college of doctors as a supernumerary lecturer. At the end of 1570 he left lecturing to become tutor and physician in the household of Count Madruzzi di Challant. When the count became an ambassador of the Duke of Savoy he accompanied him to Rome, where he arrived on ...

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(b Mainz, Jan 13, 1883; d Wiesbaden, Sept 15, 1978). German librettist and publisher. In 1909 he joined his father Ludwig Strecker (1853–1943) as a partner in the music publishing house of Schott in Mainz, becoming a director with his brother Willy Strecker (1884–1958) in 1920. From an early age he had shown a deep interest in literature and poetry, and during the 1930s began to develop his skills as a librettist, adopting the professional pseudonym of Ludwig Andersen. His first efforts were in oratorio, but he soon moved on to opera, adapting Franz Graf von Pocci’s tale Die Zaubergeige (1935) for Werner Egk, Karl Simrock’s version of the medieval puppet play Doktor Johannes Faust (1936) for Hermann Reutter, and Hermann Heinz Ortner’s drama Tobias Wunderlich (1937) for Joseph Haas. The first two of these works ranked among the most frequently performed contemporary operas in Nazi Germany and were largely responsible for securing Schott’s reputation as the pre-eminent German publisher of music-theatre works of the period. During World War II Andersen completed librettos for two comic operas, Wolf-Ferrari’s ...

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Alec Hyatt King

(b Galway, March 17, 1891; d London, Oct 26, 1962). Irish editor and translator. She was educated privately and at the universities of Berlin and Marburg, and in 1923, after a short period as lecturer in German at University College, Galway, entered the Foreign Office where she served until 1951, having been seconded to the War Office from 1940 to 1943 for intelligence work in the Middle East. She dedicated most of the scanty leisure of her working life and all her retirement to the successive tasks of editing and translating the letters of Mozart and his family and the letters of Beethoven. Her tireless, worldwide search for original sources of the text was complemented by scrupulous accuracy and thorough annotation. She developed a style of timeless English which she handled in as lively and readable a manner as was consistent with fidelity to the German. Despite an occasional lapse in musicological detail, the two editions were a fine achievement and likely to remain the standard English version for some time to come. Of the two, the Beethoven was perhaps the more remarkable because his illegible handwriting had produced so many inaccurate readings in earlier texts that Anderson, besides mastering his orthography, had either to inspect personally all the extant autographs or else procure photographs. Of the ...

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Roxanne R. Reed

(b Anguilla, MS, March 21, 1919; d Hazel Crest, IL, 15 June, 1995). American gospel director, singer, composer, and publisher. Anderson established a career forming and training gospel groups in Chicago. His formative years were spent as one of the original Roberta Martin Singers, one of the premiere gospel groups of the 1930s and 1940s. He left briefly, between 1939 and 1941, to form the first of his many ensembles, the Knowles and Anderson Singers with R.L. Knowles. He rejoined Martin, but ultimately resigned because of the travel demands. In 1947 he formed Robert Anderson and his Gospel Caravan, but after several members left in 1952, he formed a new set of singers that recorded and performed under the name the Robert Anderson Singers through the mid-1950s. Throughout his career, Anderson recorded on a multitude of labels including Miracle and United with Robert Anderson and the Caravans; and later with the Robert Anderson Singers, on Apollo. Anderson wrote, and often sang lead on, many of the songs his groups performed, including “Why Should I Worry” (...

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(b Comber, Co. Down, Aug 10, 1904; d Oxford, Oct 10, 1965). Northern Irish music scholar, teacher, organist, composer and editor. He went to Bedford School, and studied at the RCM in London, Trinity College, Dublin, and New College, Oxford, gaining doctorates of music at both universities. In 1938, after four years as organist and choirmaster at Beverley Minster, he moved to a similar position at New College. Thereafter, he lived and worked in Oxford, where he was a university lecturer in music and a Fellow of New College, and later of Balliol. He also taught at the RCM.

Andrews's published work consists of three books, various articles (including contributions to the fifth edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music), reviews, and several motets, services and songs. The Oxford Harmony, vol.ii, traces the development of chromatic harmony through standard repertory works and relates this to techniques of composition. The opening chapters of ...

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Henri Vanhulst

(b Liège, 1718/19; d Liège, Jan 12, 1804). Flemish music engraver and publisher. His publications, only rarely dated, bear the address ‘At Liège, behind St Thomas’. Some editions were engraved by Mlle Jeanne Andrez, his daughter, who continued the business until after 1809. He dealt primarily with instrumental music of the ‘Belgian’ composers of the period, publishing works by H. Renotte, J.-J. Robson, J.-N. Hamal, H.F. Delange, G.G. Kennis, F.-J. de Trazegnies, J.J. Renier, J.-H. Coppenneur and others. He also published music by P.C. von Camerloher and F. Schwindl, as well as Boccherini’s op.4 and Beethoven’s op.46. For vocal music he produced the periodical Echo ou Journal de musique françoise, italienne (1758–73; from 1767 titled Journal vocal composé d’airs, duos, trios, or Journal de musique vocale). Besides these, Andrez published a comedy ‘interspersed with songs’, La chercheuse d’esprit by Du Boulay, and a choral work by d’Herlois, ...

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Thomas W. Bridges

(b ?Venice; flVicenza and Venice, 1562–1604). Italian printer and music publisher. He was possibly related to the Parisian publishers Abel and Arnoul Angelier. He printed books in Venice sporadically from 1562 until 1570, when he apparently acquired the printing shop of Claudio Merulo and began to publish in earnest. His 1571 edition of madrigals by Aurelio Roccia employs the same typefaces and ornamental initials that Merulo had used, and the madrigals were ‘per Claudio Merulo da Correggio con ogni diligenza corretti’. Angelieri's seven other surviving music editions are mostly madrigals and use the printer's mark acquired from Merulo: Arcadelt (1572), Rore (1573), Lassus (two books, 1573), Palestrina (1574). He also printed Alard Du Gaucquier's Magnificat octo tonorum (1574), and Costanzo Porta's Litaniae (1575). Three of the music books name Merulo as ‘correttore’, but Merulo seems not to have had any continuing connection with the firm....

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(b Montona [now Motovun], Istria [Croatia], c1480; d after 1538). Italian woodblock cutter, editor, publisher and composer of Croatian birth. His birthplace is frequently appended to his name, as in his papal privilege of 1516: ‘to our beloved son Andreas Antiquus de Montona, cleric of the diocese of Parenzo now living in Rome’. (Despite the reference to clerical status, there is no evidence that he was ordained as a priest or served the church.) Active as a woodblock cutter, editor and music publisher in Rome from 1510 to 1518, in Venice 1520–21 and again from 1533 to 1539, he was the earliest competitor of Ottaviano Petrucci, who had initiated the printing of volumes of polyphonic music at Venice in 1501. Antico was the first to publish such books in Rome.

Antico’s method differed fundamentally from Petrucci’s: Antico was a cutter of woodblocks from which music and text were printed in one impression, whereas Petrucci employed multiple impression from moveable type. Antico both cut the blocks for and published, in collaboration with printers and others, his Roman editions and those of his first two years in Venice. After ...

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Donna G. Cardamone

(b Corato; d Bari, after 1608). Italian composer and anthologist. Antiquis was associated with the basilica of S Nicola, Bari, for most of his career, first as cleric (from 1565), then as canon and choirmaster. From 1606 to 1608 he was chaplain and singing teacher of the Conservatorio dei Poveri di Gesù Cristo in Naples. His two anthologies of 1574 (dedicated to the banker Daniello Centurione) contain 13 of his own villanellas and 31 by various musicians employed in Bari, among them Pomponio Nenna and Stefano Felis. His villanellas usually open homorhythmically and proceed in lightly imitative textures. Two books of madrigals by Antiquis are listed in the catalogue of the library of Federico Franzini, compiled in 1676 (Mischiati nos.XII:26–7); they do not survive. He also published a number of instrumental bicinia in anthologies.

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Jürg Stenzl

(b Berching, nr Eichstätt, c1500; d Berne, aut. 1554). German music printer and publisher. He settled in Basle, where he worked as a bookbinder and was given citizenship on 3 April 1527, having been admitted to the Saffran Guild on 10 December 1525. He seems to have been associated with the Reformation at an early stage; he attended the religious debates held in Berne in 1528, and it was possibly at this time that he met the Berne precentor Cosmos Alder. In 1536 he published three four-part songs by Alder, in a book of songs produced jointly with Peter Schoeffer in Strasbourg; in 1553 he also published hymns by Alder. From the middle of 1533 to 1537 he printed numerous Reformation writings (e.g. by W.F. Capito and M. Bucer) in Strasbourg, and he and Schoeffer jointly published works on music theory and practice, their association probably stemming from Apiarius’s thorough knowledge of music and his contact with composers. On ...

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(b Cairo Montenotte, nr Savona, Oct 18, 1546; d in or after 1600). Italian music editor. Fétis stated incorrectly that he was born at Novara. He was probably educated at Mondovì, but he spent most of his life in Rome, where he was a member of the Congregazione dell’ Oratorio (founded by Filippo Neri) and a friend and colleague of Giovenale Ancina. His only extant publication, Nuove laudi ariose della Beatissima Virgine scelte da diversi autori (Rome, 16005), for four voices, contains 70 laudi by 26 composers, including Animuccia, Dentice, Giovannelli, Ingegneri, Lassus and Vecchi. All the works are contrafacta of secular pieces for which Arascione provided the sacred texts. According to the four dedicatory letters by Ancina and several sonnets prefacing the volume, it was intended as the second part of Ancina’s Tempio armonico, published the year before (RISM 15996). Like Ancina’s volume it was designed for the use of the Congregazione; the pieces are firmly in the religious tradition of the Philippine ...

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Kornel Michałowski

(b Lublin, Dec 31, 1840; d Warsaw, Feb 15, 1916). Polish bookseller and music publisher. He served his apprenticeship in the bookshop of his uncle Stanisław Arct in Warsaw, then at Behr & Bock in Berlin. In 1862 he took over the management of Stanisław Arct’s bookshop, becoming its proprietor in 1881. In 1900 he founded his own printing house, and devoted himself almost completely to publishing, especially dictionaries, encyclopedias, school and children’s literature, and music. As a distinguished authority on music publishing he developed considerably the retailing of scores, as well as introducing a system of lending music for the students of the Warsaw Conservatory. He increased his number of publications to 100 titles yearly, mainly for teaching purposes. The publishing firm M. Arct existed until 1939 and, as the firm S. Arct, from 1946 to 1949.

Music series published by M. Arct include Etudes et exercises, Sonates et sonatines...

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[Roggerio]

(b Castelnuovo di Garfagnana; fl 1612). Italian music editor and composer. He edited Responsoria Hebdomadae Sanctae, psalmi, Benedictus, et Miserere, una cum missa ac vesperis Sabbati Sancti, for eight voices and continuo (Venice, 1612²). It includes pieces by 20 composers, among them Croce and Viadana, and two are anonymous; Argilliano himself, with 11 pieces, is the best-represented composer....