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Dragotin Cvetko

revised by Clytus Gottwald

(b Rašica, nr Turjak, June 9, 1508; d Derendingen, June 28, 1587). Slovenian theologian. He studied theology in Trieste (where he was a singer in Bishop Bonomo’s chapel) and in Vienna. A Catholic priest in several places in Slovenia, he became a supporter of the Reformation and in 1548 had to flee to Nuremberg. He preached at Rothenburg ob der Tauber, officially joining the Protestant sect, and was later pastor in Kempten and Urach. In 1561 he returned to Slovenia and became a member of the Reformation movement there. He became superintendent in Ljubljana but was again forced into exile in 1565, at first in Tübingen, and in 1566 in Lauffen and Derendingen, where he stayed until his death. His funeral sermon was given by Jakob Andreä, chancellor of Tübingen University.

Trubar was notable chiefly as the leader of the Reformation in Slovenia, where he strongly emphasized the importance of music in Protestant schools and churches. He is also noteworthy for having arranged and edited the first Slovenian hymnbook, ...


Margaret Bent

revised by Andrew Wathey


(b ?Champagne, 31 Oct 1291; d 9 June 1361). French composer, theorist, and bishop.

The early career of Philippe de Vitry remains obscure: he is often styled ‘magister’, but there is no direct evidence either that he studied at the University of Paris (though some contact with its members seems likely) or that he held the degree of magister artium (he is called ‘master of music’ in F-Pn lat.7378A). Vitry is first documented in 1321, when he was presented to a canonry with the expectation of a prebend at Cambrai; in the event no vacancy occurred and Vitry dropped his claim to this position between 1327 and 1332. He may, however, already have been a canon of the collegiate church of Notre Dame in Clermont-en-Beauvais, the family church of the counts of Clermont; he certainly held this position by August 1322, probably acquiring it through the patronage of Louis de Bourbon, Count of Clermont, with whom he was closely linked, as clerk, administrator, and diplomat, over the next 20 years. A connection with Louis de Bourbon may originate before ...


Esther R. Crookshank

(b Southampton, England, July 17, 1674; Stoke Newington, London, Nov 25, 1748). English hymn writer, clergyman, scholar, and author. Watts wrote hymns from age 20 for his Southampton congregation and from 1702 served as pastor in London. After giving up public ministry for health reasons in 1712, he exerted great influence on Puritan leaders in the American colonies through extensive correspondence and his published collections, which contained nearly 700 hymns and psalm paraphrases.

With The Psalms of David Imitated in the Language of the New Testament (1719) he undertook large-scale reform of Dissenting (non-Anglican) worship by writing new “Christianized” versifications of the Psalms; he believed the Psalter required revision to fit it for New Testament worship. His reform succeeded far beyond his expectations for many reasons, including the strong appeal of his vigorous, singable lyrics to Puritan ministers and worshippers in colonial New England, where they took deep root. Called the “liberator of English hymnody,” Watts produced psalm paraphrases and hymns that broke the grip of strict metrical psalmody in use for over a century in Protestant Britain and North America. Dozens of American compilers produced ...