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(b Regensburg, Dec 26, 1723; d Gotha, Dec 19, 1807). German critic and diplomat. He was active in Paris from 1750 to the Revolution. A disciple of Gottsched, he studied at Leipzig and published a five-act tragedy, Banise, at the age of 20. His extensive training in literature was not complemented by any formal training in music. As secretary to Count Friese of Saxony he went to Dresden in 1748, a time when the Italian opera there under the direction of Hasse was at its height. From this experience came his lifelong devotion to the bel canto style. Count Friese took him to Paris in 1749 and installed him in his house in the Faubourg St Honoré; this soon became a favourite rendezvous for the Encyclopedists, who adopted Grimm and formed many of his ideas. Two essays on German literature in the Mercure de France in 1750–51 represented Grimm’s début as a critic. His first essay in music criticism followed in the same journal early in ...

Article

Thomas Bauman

(b Vienna, Sept 27, 1735; d Vienna, July 30, 1764). German playwright. He served as a secretary in the Viennese municipal court during his short life, and wrote a series of successful plays that developed a distinctively Viennese brand of written comedy out of local improvisatory traditions. His lone musical text, the three-act Zauberlustspiel ...

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Jamie C. Kassler

(b London, Dec 24, 1786; d London, Aug 7, 1853). English writer and musician. He served in the British Army retiring from active service in 1813. Although he is remembered chiefly as a writer on sport and an improver of firearms, he deserves notice as a music enthusiast, who studied the piano in England and on the Continent and whose several English residences were frequented by musicians. In 1818 he spent three months studying harmony and composition in the London academy of J.B. Logier; in 1821 he was a piano student of H.J. Bertini in Paris and, at an unspecified date, of F.W.M. Kalkbrenner. Hawker promoted Logier and his system of musical education in an anonymous publication, Advice to a Nobleman on the Manner in which his Children should be instructed on the Pianoforte (London, 1818, 5/1840). In 1819 Hawker’s invention of hand moulds ‘for running over the keys of a pianoforte in a mathematically true position’ was accepted for manufacture by Chappell in London and Pleyel in Paris. The hand moulds, similar to those invented by Logier, were patented on ...

Article

(b Langenwiesen, nr Ilmenau, Feb 15, 1746; d Aschaffenburg, June 22, 1803). German aesthetician and writer on art and music. As a youth he was a mediocre student, but he eventually pursued law at the universities of Jena and Erfurt. At Erfurt he studied with the aesthetician F.J. Riedel and made the acquaintance of Wieland, who recommended him to Gleim at Halberstadt. With the sponsorship of Gleim he became a private tutor and freelance writer at Quedlinburg. In 1774 he collaborated with the Jacobi brothers on the magazine Iris at Düsseldorf. He began a three-year trip to Italy in 1780, staying mostly in Rome, where he immersed himself in art and translated Orlando furioso and Gerusalemme liberata. Back in Düsseldorf, he wrote on the aesthetics of art in the novel Ardinghello (c1784–5), but his interests soon returned to music. Entering the service of the Elector of Mainz, Heinse became lecturer in ...

Article

Judith Tick

revised by Laurie Blunsom

(Dorothea )

(b Liverpool, England, Sept 25, 1793; d Dublin, Ireland, May 16, 1835). English poet. She spent most of her life in Wales and became well known in literary circles, being much admired by Byron, Scott, Shelley, and Wordsworth. Her works were extremely popular at home and abroad, notably in the United States before the Civil War. She rivaled Thomas Moore in the extent to which her works were included in literary anthologies and equaled Tennyson in the degree to which her poems became part of the conventional education of American youth. “Cassabianca” (The boy stood on the burning deck) and “Pilgrim Fathers” (The breaking waves dash high) were standard school recitations until the early 20th century. Four collected editions of Hemans’s verse appeared in the United States between 1825 and 1850. Her importance to American musical life lies in the settings made of her poetry by her sister, Harriet Mary Browne (later Mrs. Hughes, ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(d Glaucha, nr Halle, 1744). German organist and writer on music. His only known position was as Kantor at St Georg, Glaucha, from 1732 (he should not be confused with the organist of the same name at the Johanniskirche in Leipzig, 1747–66). Hille was acquainted with J.S. Bach, whom he visited in Leipzig some time about 1739; Bach returned the visit to Hille in Glaucha early in 1740. Both trips are confirmed by a letter to Hille from Bach’s cousin Johann Elias (see David and Mendel, eds.), who asked Hille to sell him as a gift for Anna Magdalena Bach a linnet which had been trained to sing beautifully and which Bach had admired during his stay with Hille. As a composer Hille has been credited with the chorales in Einige neue und zur Zeit noch nicht durchgängig bekante Melodeyen zu dem neuen Cöthenischen Gesangbüchlein, dieselbe mit und ohne Generalbass gebrauchen zu können...

Article

(b Nancy, July 11, 1760; d Passy, nr Paris, April 25, 1828). French librettist, critic and playwright. After winning the Nancy Académie’s poetry prize in 1784, he decided to follow a literary career in Paris. The patronage of Megret de Serilly, trésorier général de la guerre, helped him to achieve his first major public success: Phèdre, set by Lemoyne in 1786, was given its première at Fontainebleau. After a trip to Italy in 1787, Hoffman and Lemoyne collaborated again: Nephté was praised for its dramatic integrity, although it did not remain in the repertory long. The two fell out. Hoffman offered his next libretto, Adrien, first to Cherubini (who declined it, but accepted the next, Médée) and then to Méhul, who became his favourite partner during the 1790s.

In 1789–90 Hoffman had the first of many disagreements with theatres. He opposed the Opéra’s wish to add what he felt were unsuitable ...

Article

Ellwood Derr

(b Arnstadt, Aug 24, 1740; d Kahla, nr Jena, June 25, 1823). German writer on music and organist. On the title-page of his first published treatise, Versuch eines Lehrbuchs der praktischen Musik (Gera, 1783), he is referred to as a registered attorney to the dukes of Saxony and church organist in Eisenberg, and in 1801 he had been promoted to Hofadvokat and still held the post of organist. His Versuch is a practical treatise on basic musicianship, which discusses musical signs, melody and harmony (both separately and together), tuning, temperament, enharmonicism and continuo. In the foreword he draws attention to the integral relationships of rhetoric and poetry to music, as well as the necessity for composers to know how to arouse and calm passions. Probably the most useful section of the work (pp.232–58) is that on continuo performance in ensemble genres current in the last decades of the 18th century. He prefers the harpsichord for this purpose as it can be more distinctly heard than the fortepiano. Finally, for a more comprehensive treatment of the matter, he refers the reader to the continuo performance section in the second part of C.P.E. Bach's ...

Article

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, Oct 18, 1777; d Wannsee, nr Potsdam, Nov 21, 1811). German writer. He was the great-nephew of the poet Ewald Christian von Kleist. Orphaned at an early age, he joined the army in 1792 but resigned in 1799. He travelled extensively, pausing at Dresden and Paris (1801), Berne, Königsberg (1805–6), Dresden (1807–9) and Berlin, near where he committed suicide with his incurably ill mistress.

Kleist played the flute and clarinet and, though untutored, attempted composition; yet music plays a rather small part in his literary works (one of his less successful stories is Die heilige Cäcilie, oder Die Gewalt der Musik). Many of his plays and stories have been used as the basis for musical compositions, with no diminishment of interest in the 20th century. Among these works are Draeseke’s incidental music for Die Hermannsschlacht, Marschner's and Wolf’s incidental music to ...

Article

Julian Rushton

revised by Manuel Couvreur

(b Paris, Nov 20, 1739; d Paris, Feb 11, 1803). French man of letters. He wrote several tragedies, of which Le comte de Warwick (1763) was the most successful, but he is chiefly remembered for his didactic and critical works. These include the Cours de littérature in 16 volumes (1799–1805), in which he holds a special place for French librettists of the 17th and 18th centuries, and an Eloge de Racine (1772). A dogmatic critic with little understanding of music, he joined with Marmontel to support the Italians against Gluck, and particularly favoured Sacchini; his virulent attack on Armide in the Journal de politique et de littérature (5 October 1777) was ridiculed by Gluck himself in the Journal de Paris (12 October 1777) and by La Harpe’s colleague J.B.A. Suard using the pseudonym ‘L’anonyme de Vaugirard’. His Correspondance littéraire...

Article

Julian Rushton

(b Belfort, 1713; d Paris, Dec 19, 1779). French writer. He left the Jesuit order, in which he was educated, and devoted himself to the literature, theatre, and opera of Paris. He wrote a comedy and two librettos for Leclair, translated the works of Pope, edited literary periodicals and contributed to the Mercure de France; his published work consists chiefly of anthologies and chronicles of the Paris theatres, with valuable details of plays and operas, authors, performers and receipts.

only those relating to music included

Almanach historique et chronologique de tous les spectacles de Paris, 1 (1752); Nouveau calendrier historique des théâtres de l'opéra et des comédies françoise et italienne et des foires, ii (1753); Spectacles de Paris, ou Suite du Calendrier historique et chronologique des théâtres, iii–xxvii (1754–78) [continued after 1778 by Duchesne and others] with J.B.A. Suard: Nouveaux choix de pièces tirées des anciens Mercures et des autres journeaux...

Article

Elisabeth Cook

(b Manosque, Basses-Alpes, July 25, 1713; d Paris, April 7, 1769). French writer. A man of wide cultural interests educated by Jesuits, he preached at the French court, edited the austere weekly Gazette de France and spent many years in Germany as an ambassador's secretary. His writings include a 12-volume history of the Venetian republic, works on painting and architecture and a 78-page essay, Apologie de la musique françoise contre M. Rousseau (Paris, 1754), penned during the Querelle des Bouffons in response to Rousseau's Lettre sur la musique françoise.

A staunch advocate of French music, Laugier nevertheless defended his views in the Apologie candidly, thereby avoiding the anti-philosophe stance characteristic of many of the debate's pro-French pamphlets. He disagreed with Rousseau's severe criticisms of French music and his theory of a close association between a nation's music and the character of its language, arguing that many French poets had proved the beauty of the French language and that it was possible to temper its worst effects. Moreover, since for Laugier the essential elements of music were harmony, tempo and melody – music depended far less on language than on ...

Article

(b Brussels, May 23, 1735; d Vienna, Dec 13, 1814). Flemish writer. As the head of one of the most prominent aristocratic families in the southern Netherlands, he had a primarily military and diplomatic career in the service of Austria. His wit and his cheerful disposition won him the friendship of writers (including Voltaire, Rousseau, Casanova and Goethe) and of monarchs (Catherine II, Frederick II, Joseph II and Louis XVI). He expressed his ideas on the theatre in his Lettres à Eugénie sur les spectacles (1774, 2/1796). He himself wrote some 30 dramatic works, including masquerades performed in Brussels and comédies mêlées d'ariettes et de vaudevilles intended for society theatres (Colette et Lucas, 1779; Le désenchantement des compagnons d'Ulysse, 1796; La noce interrompue, 1796; Le sultan du Congo, ou Mangogoul, 1796). During the 1770s he was involved in the financial and artistic management of the Théâtre de la Monnaie in Brussels, which experienced a period of unprecedented brilliance at this time. His ...

Article

( b Sparneck, Upper Franconia, Oct 1, 1730; d Hof, Jan 8, 1782). German critic and writer on organ building . He was a postal clerk in Hof and, after 1764, accountant at the Vierling bookshop. He was a member of several scientific and economic societies and his contact with distinguished organ builders (such as J.A. Silbermann) enabled him to acquire a thorough knowledge of organ building. Ludwig was a friend and business partner of G.A. Sorge (whom he supported in his polemical arguments, interspersed with personal insults, with F.W. Marpurg), and probably wrote the pamphlet Eine helle Brille für die blöden Augen eines Albern Haberechts zu Niemandsburg, which was published anonymously during these polemics. His writings contain valuable information about J.J. Graichen (1701–60) and J.N. Ritter (1702–82), pupils of Gottfried Silbermann working in Franconia.

Versuch von den Eigenschaften eines rechtschaffenen Orgelbauers (Hof, 1759) Gedanken über die grossen Orgeln, die aber deswegen keine Wunderwerke sind...

Article

Howard Serwer

(b Seehof, nr Wendemark, Brandenburg, Nov 21, 1718; d Berlin, May 22, 1795). German critic, journalist, theorist and composer. Gerber claimed that Marpurg had told him that he lived in Paris around 1746; Carl Spazier confirmed this, adding that Marpurg was friendly with Voltaire, D'Alembert and others when he was secretary to a ‘General Bodenburg’. This is generally assumed to refer to Generallieutenant Friedrich Rudolph Graf von Rothenburg, a favourite of Frederick the Great and Prussian emissary to Paris in 1744–5, and the dedicatee of Marpurg's Der critische Musicus an der Spree (1749–50).

From 1749 to 1763 Marpurg devoted himself almost exclusively to writing and editing books and periodicals about music and to composing and editing lieder and works for keyboard. In 1752, at the request of the heirs of J.S. Bach, he wrote a notable preface for a new edition of Die Kunst der Fuge...

Article

Michael Kassler and Jamie C. Kassler

( fl Broomholm, Dumfriesshire, 1762–84; d 1806). Scottish writer on music . His Essay upon Tune (Edinburgh 1781, 2/1794), published anonymously, has been ascribed to Francis Kelly Maxwell (d London, 1782), chaplain of the London Asylum for Female Orphans, but its likeness to John Maxwell’s General Sketch of the Defects of the Present Scale of Musick and Some Account of an Essay Discovering the Degrees Necessary to Produce Perfect Tune … (MS, 1773, US-SM PU 1628) and statements in Maxwell’s letters (also SM ) confirm the present attribution.

In his Essay, Maxwell proceeds from a major scale in just intonation to a division of the octave into 44 ‘degrees of tune’ which, with comparatively insignificant compromises to just intonation, can accommodate all 24 major and minor keys. The Essay includes rules whereby a violinist can produce these degrees and a design for an organ upon which they can be played. In this design a standard keyboard is supplemented by 24 ‘stop keys’: each stop key selects one of three to four ‘degrees of tune’ for each key of the keyboard, and the entire organ thereby becomes set to play in a particular major or minor key. The ...

Article

Robert Stevenson

(b ?Lisbon, c 1735; d Lisbon, ? Dec 14, 1797). Portuguese writer on music . He belonged to a family of violinists that João V brought to Lisbon from Parma before 1719. While a chamber musician at the court of José I he won the favour of Frei Manuel do Cenáculo Vilas Boas, elected Bishop of Beja in 1770 and Archbishop of Évora in 1802. 17 poems by him, dedicated to the bishop, and a graceful Canzoneta e minuete, composed for the bishop’s birthday (1 March 1791) are in the Biblioteca Pública in Évora. By 1791 Mazza had evidently left Lisbon to accept a post, which his patron had created for him, teaching Italian at Beja. A note in his manuscript translation of Iriarte’s La música (in P-EVp ) says that Mazza died at Faro in 1798 or 1799 but the records of the Lisbon Brotherhood of St Cecilia, to which he belonged, give the date as ...

Article

Julian Rushton

( b Montpellier, c 1740; d Paris, Feb 19, 1821). French writer . He studied arts at Avignon and law in Paris, but adopted literature as a profession. With deplorable fecundity, he contributed to every fashionable stage genre, including tragedy, comedy of manners, bourgeois drama and Revolutionary sansculottide. He was advocate to the parlement, then secretary to the Convention (1792–4). Among his few, generally poor, librettos, two were outstandingly successful at the Opéra: the adaptation of Calzabigi for Gluck's Orphée (1774), and the most important stage work of J.-F. Edelmann, Ariane dans l'isle de Naxos (1782). He also wrote the texts for Edelmann's Diane et l’amour (1802) and Candeille's pastoral Laure et Pétrarque (1778); he adapted Vadé's text for a revision of Gluck's L'arbre enchanté (Versailles, 1775), and translated Paisiello's Il re Teodoro in Venezia for Fontainebleau (1786...

Article

(b Nuremberg, bap. March 3, 1720; d Altdorf, cFeb 5, 1771). German theologian and writer on music. After studies at Altdorf and Halle he held posts at the Dominican church at Nuremberg and parish church at Rasch before becoming professor of theology and deacon (later archdeacon) at Altdorf in ...

Article

(b Normanville, Eure, April 10, 1716; d Paris, Aug 2, 1786). French writer. A nobleman, who served as an officer of the Gardes Françaises and as a commandeur in the Ordre de Malte, he also had a literary career. His first stage work, a comedy entitled Les effets du caractère (1752), was a failure. As an attaché to the French embassy in Vienna, he met Gluck and became his first and principal propagandist in Paris. Supported by Marie-Antoinette, he made imperious demands on the Opéra in 1774; later, he may have acted discreditably in Gluck’s interest by endeavouring to prevent improvements in the libretto of Sacchini’s Renaud. He started the fashion for adapting 17th-century tragedies for the Opéra with Iphigénie en Aulide (for Gluck) in 1774, apparently the only libretto for which he was wholly responsible. He also translated the prefaces to Gluck’s Alceste and Paride ed Elena...