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Margaret M. McGowan

(b PARIS, Sept 27, 1601; d Paris, May 14, 1643). French ruler, patron of music and composer. He was the son of Henri IV, whom he succeeded in 1610. His doctor recorded that from an early age he took a lively interest in music and dancing; he continually invented new steps and songs and had musicians sing and play for him. This passionate interest, however, did nothing to change radically the nature of music at his court. He maintained the same musical establishment as his father (30 musicians in the royal chapel and the ‘24 violons du roi’) and enjoyed the same kind of airs de cour sung in his bedchamber or in public by leading singers of the day; he wrote one or two himself.

Occasionally more ambitious compositions were attempted: to mark Louis’s triumphant return from Brittany in 1614 Jacques Mauduit organized concerts for massed choirs and instruments; and to enhance the melodramatic effects of the ballet ...

Article

David W. Bernstein

[Yurgis]

(b 1931; d Boston, May 9, 1978). Lithuanian-American architect. In 1947 he emigrated from Lithuania to New York, where he studied architecture at Cooper Union. He opened the AG Gallery at 925 Madison Avenue in 1960 with fellow Lithuanian Almus Salcius. After meeting La Monte Young, he agreed to let Young and Jackson Mac Low produce a series of concerts at the gallery featuring musicians, artists and poets active in the New York avant garde. It was largely through his exposure to Young and his circle that Maciunas became acquainted with radical art.

In 1961, Maciunas moved to Wiesbaden where, in the following year, he founded the Fluxus movement. In a lecture entitled ‘Neo-Dada in Music, Theater, Poetry and Art’ Maciunas declared himself a ‘concrete artist’ who preferred noise to so-called musical sounds. His Carpenter’s Piano Piece for Nam June Paik no.13, in which the performer nails down the keys of a piano, demonstrates the iconoclastic nature of his work. Maciunas believed in art’s potential to transform society and adamantly objected to its institutionalization. His activities outside of the creative arts included an urban redevelopment project in lower-Manhattan that contributed to the growth of the SoHo art community....

Article

Michael Hurd

(b Shirehampton" county="Gloucestershire, Jan 21, 1865; d King’s Weston, Gloucestershire, July 19, 1935). English composer and patron. Though heir to a large estate, King’s Weston (designed by Vanbrugh in 1714), he studied in Dresden, and then with Parry and Dannreuther in London, thereafter devoting his energies to promoting music in the Bristol area. He supported Boughton’s Glastonbury Festivals, and in 1924, 1926 and 1927 presented festivals of his own in Bristol where, in 1924, his one-act operas Markheim and Fire Flies were first performed (13 October) and Falla’s El retablo de Maese Pedro received its British première (17 October). A three-act opera Westward Ho! (E.F. Benson after Charles Kingsley’s novel) had been heard at London’s Lyceum Theatre (4 December 1913), but later full-length operas (including a setting of John Masefield’s Good Friday) seem not to have been staged. Markheim, composed in 1919 to a text drawn from Robert Louis Stevenson’s tale of murder and redemption, received a Carnegie Award (...

Article

Horace Fishback

revised by Eva Linfield

(b Kassel, May 25, 1572; d Eschwege, March 15, 1632). German patron and composer. He succeeded his father as Landgrave of Hesse in 1592 and ruled until 1627, when, under the pressures of the Thirty Years War, he abdicated in favour of his son and retired to Eschwege. He encouraged an exceptionally flourishing musical life at his court and himself studied vocal and instrumental music with Georg Otto, court composer and Kapellmeister from 1586. Moritz also encouraged drama, and the Ottoneum, completed in 1605 and named after Otto, was the earliest court theatre in Germany. His patronage not only of music and the theatre but of other branches of art and learning earned him the title ‘Moritz der Gelehrte’ (Moritz the Learned), and the Landgraf-Moritz-Stiftung, an important musicological institution founded in Kassel in 1955, is named after him. In 1598 he founded the Collegium Mauritium, a school for the sons of his court aristocracy and for his choirboys, among whom Heinrich Schütz was the most famous. Moritz was the first to encourage the talents of Schütz: he financed his first visit to Italy, in ...

Article

Lowell Lindgren

(b Venice, July 2, 1667; d Rome, Feb 28, 1740). Italian patron and librettist . In November 1689, a month after his grand-uncle was elected Pope Alexander VIII, he was made a cardinal and given a lifetime appointment as vice-chancellor of the Church. During the brief papacy of Alexander VIII (d 1 Feb 1691), Ottoboni had no rival as a musical patron; Queen Christina of Sweden had died at Rome in April 1689, and Cardinal Pamphili was at Bologna as papal legate in 1690–93. Even though his annual income from numerous benefices exceeded the staggering sum of 50,000 scudi, Ottoboni was perpetually in debt, partly because of the extraordinary amount he spent on music. At his residence, the Palazzo della Cancelleria, he housed some of the finest singers and instrumentalists in Italy, such as the castrato Andrea Adami and the violinist Arcangelo Corelli. Once a week he sponsored an ‘academy of music’, during which cantatas and instrumental pieces were performed. Within his palace was the church of S Lorenzo in Damaso, where on feast days his musicians were joined by many others to perform splendid masses, motets, sinfonias and concerti grossi. Many works were dedicated to him, for example the trio sonatas op.4 by Corelli and op.1 by Albinoni, and 13 Roman dramatic works of ...

Article

Lowell Lindgren

(b Rome, April 25, 1653; d Rome, March 22, 1730). Italian patron and librettist . His immense wealth was largely derived from a pension granted by his great-uncle, Pope Innocent X, his salary as Grand Prior in Rome of the Knights of Malta from 1678, and his benefices as a cardinal from 1 September 1681. His literary gifts are reflected in his post as principe of the Accademia degli Umoristi in Rome (by 1677) and his ‘acclamation’ as Fenicio Larisseo in the Arcadian Academy (12 May 1695). His fascination with oratorios is manifested by his protectorship of two organizations that produced them, the Collegio Clementino (1689–1730) and the Arciconfraternita del SS Crocifisso (1694–1724). His maestri di musica were Alessandro Melani (c 1676–c 1681), Lulier (1681–90) and Cesarini (1690–1730). From 1684 to 1690 his most highly paid instrumentalist was Corelli, who (like Lulier) chose not to follow him to Bologna, where he was papal legate from ...

Article

(b Rosmead, Co. Westmeath, Ireland, Jan 14, 1834; d London, May 2, 1897). British civil administrator, music patron and composer. He had a distinguished career in the Colonial Office during which his posts included Governor of Prince Edward Island (1866), Governor of Western Australia (1874–7, 1880–83, 1890–95) and Governor of South Australia (1883–9). In his 20 years of vice-regal representation he acquired a popular reputation among musical and literary circles. He was patron of numerous societies including the Perth Musical Union (1882), Adelaide Quartet Club until 1886, and the Melbourne Metropolitan Liedertafel in 1883, besides lending his active support to numerous composers including Heuzenroeder, Julius Herz and Marshall-Hall, whose appointment to the Ormond Chair of Music at Melbourne University (1870) was largely due to Robinson’s influence with Sir Charles Hallé and the London selection committee.

Unlike that of his predecessors, Robinson’s influence on public concert-giving and musical taste in Australia stemmed from a personal commitment to music rather than social prestige. Having written partsongs and pieces for military band in London under the pseudonym ‘Owen Hope’, he composed several successful songs in Australia including ...

Article

(b Florence, Jan 8, 1788; d Baden, nr Vienna, July 24, 1831). Austrian patron of music and composer. The youngest of the 16 children born to Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany (later Emperor Leopold II), and Princess Maria Ludovica of Spain, he was brought to Vienna in 1792 when his eldest brother, Archduke Franz, became Emperor. His thorough education included instruction in music from the Court Composer, Anton Teyber (1756–1822). Because of his delicate health, Rudolph entered the Church and in 1819 was made Cardinal and Archbishop of Olmütz (Olomouc). It was for Rudolph’s installation ceremonies in 1820 that Beethoven planned his Missa solemnis. As a child, Rudolph showed an exceptional talent for music, and at 15 was performing as a pianist. According to Thayer, he met Beethoven in the winter of 1803–4 and began piano and theory lessons with him, followed shortly by lessons in composition; their relationship was one marked by mutual affection and esteem. Beethoven dedicated 11 of his greatest compositions to Rudolph, among them the fourth and fifth piano concertos, the piano sonata ‘Les Adieux’, the ‘Archduke’ trio, the ‘Hammerklavier’ sonata and the ...

Article

Jack Sage

[Alfonso X]

(b Toledo, Nov 23, 1221; d Seville, April 4, 1284). Spanish monarch, patron, poet and composer. The son of Ferdinand the Saint, he became King of Castile and León in 1252. ‘El Sabio’ may be taken as both ‘the Wise’ and ‘the Learned’, for Alfonso’s works show his conviction that learning begets wisdom. He was a remarkable patron of the arts, sciences and culture; he recognized the importance of Spain’s Islamic as well as its Roman and Visigothic heritage, and his court became celebrated as a meeting-place for Christian, Islamic and Jewish scholars and artists. He has long stood accused of sacrificing his family relations and political stability to impractical schemes for liberal reform but, though out of favour with those close to him in his latter years, he fostered notable social, educational and judiciary reforms, encouraged the use of the vernacular in learning and art, and made Spain respected in Europe. In ...

Article

Emile H. Serposs

revised by Anya Laurence

[Jeanette]

(b Delhi, NY, Jan 29, 1850; d Bronxville, NY, Jan 2, 1946). American philanthropist, patron of music, and amateur composer. Her father, Henry Meyers, a Danish immigrant violinist, sent her to the Paris Conservatoire to study; there she was impressed by the French system of music education, which provided conservatory training for talented musicians at government expense. Upon her return she devoted herself to establishing a comparable program in the United States. Her husband, the wealthy grocery merchant Francis Beatty Thurber, gave financial support to her program. In 1885 she obtained a state charter establishing the National Conservatory of Music in New York City; the same year she organized as its adjunct the American Opera Company, which gave its first season in 1886.

Through Thurber’s efforts the conservatory was incorporated by a special act of Congress in 1891 and empowered to grant diplomas and confer honorary degrees. Her policy of providing financial aid to talented students regardless of race or color enabled many African Americans and Native Americans to receive professional training, most notably the black composer and singer Harry T. Burleigh. She sent the pianist Adele Margolies to Czechoslovakia to persuade Antonín Dvořák to come to the USA to become director of the conservatory from ...

Article

April Fitzlyon

(b Oryol, Nov 9, 1818; d Bougival, nr Paris, Sept 3, 1883). Russian novelist and dramatist. A liberal who sympathized with the culture of western Europe, he is usually considered to have been a realist, though his later works contain elements of fantasy. He was the first Russian novelist to become widely known in the West.

In 1843 Turgenev met the Spanish mezzo-soprano Pauline Viardot in St Petersburg, and formed a lifelong attachment to her and to her husband. From then on he spent much of his life outside Russia living with, or near, the Viardots, principally in France and Baden-Baden. Always passionately fond of music, he became very well informed about it through Pauline Viardot. He was personally acquainted with almost all the well-known musicians of his day, both in Russia and in the West. He contributed occasional articles on opera to Russian periodicals, and wrote librettos in French for operettas set to music by Pauline Viardot and performed by her pupils. One of these, ...

Article

(b Munich, July 18, 1724; d Dresden, April 23, 1780). German princess, composer, singer and patron. The eldest daughter of the Elector Karl Albert of Bavaria (later Emperor Karl VII) and of Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria, she received her first musical training in Munich from Giovanni Ferrandini and Giovanni Porta. After her marriage in 1747 to Friedrich Christian, later Elector of Saxony, she continued her studies in Dresden with Nicola Porpora and J.A. Hasse. With the Seven Years War and the death of the elector in 1763 the cultural life at the Dresden court declined. Her lively exchange of letters with Frederick the Great of Prussia from 1763 to 1779 bears witness to her increasing sense of personal and artistic isolation; the musical ideals she had grown up with as a pupil and devotee of Hasse and a correspondent of Pietro Metastasio lost their validity, and new music, in particular the new Neapolitan operatic style, found no favour with her....

Article

Geoffrey Norris

[Viyel′gorsky, Mikhail Yur′yevich]

(b St Petersburg, 31 Oct/Nov 11, 1788; d Moscow, 28 Sept/Oct 10, 1856). Russian composer and patron. Son of a Polish diplomat at the Russian court, and brother of Mateusz Wielhorski, he received a broad musical education from several famous teachers, notably Martin y Soler. He played the violin and piano, and when only 13 composed his first pieces, a set of songs with orchestral accompaniment. Later he wrote a number of sentimental ballads, including Otchego (‘Why?’) to Lermontov’s poem, and settings of Pushkin, Myatlyov and Prince Pyotr Vyazemsky. In 1804 he travelled with his family to Riga, where he studied counterpoint with a local organist and played in quartets with his father and two of his brothers, Iosif and Aleksandr. He then moved to Paris (1808), took lessons from Cherubini and met Beethoven in Vienna. When he returned to Russia (...