(b Manila, May 15, 1909; d Manila, August 11, 1991). Filipino composer, conductor and pianist. In 1930 he graduated from the Conservatory of the University of the Philippines with teacher’s diplomas in piano and in theory and composition; he then studied at the Chicago Musical College (BMus 1932, MMus 1933) and the Neotarian College of Philosophy, Kansas City (PhD 1947). He taught at the University of the Philippines Conservatory (1930–34) and was director and professor at the Manila (1934–9, 1949–52) and Cosmopolitan College (1948–9) conservatories. During World War II he appeared as a pianist and conductor in the USA, Canada, Europe and Hawaii. He was a state cultural adviser (1958–60) and founder-president of the National Federation of Music. He lectured in humanities at the University of the City of Manila (1968–75), and after 1978 worked mainly in the USA, appearing as a composer-conductor at the Seattle Opera House....
Lucrecia R. Kasilag
Saadalla Agha Al-Kalaa
(b Aleppo, Syria, 1884; d Aleppo, Nov 26, 1952). Syrian musician and music researcher. He studied music and muwashsha ḥ singing in Aleppo and Istanbul. From 1912 to 1920 he lived in Turkey, where he taught music and wrote an unpublished book entitled The Real Theories in the Science of Musical Readings. On return to Aleppo he became leader of the Mawlawi Sufi group, playing the flute (nāy) during the ceremonies and teaching muwashsha ḥ singing.
In 1927 he was invited to teach at the Royal Institute of Music in Cairo; his pupils included the composers Riyād al-Sunbaṭī and Muḥammad ‘Abd al-Wahhāb. In Egypt he documented many old muwashsha ḥ and musical pieces. In 1931 he went to Tunisia to do joint research with the French musicologist Baron D'Erlanger, and while resident in Tunis taught muwashsha ḥ for six years. He made the first notations of Tunisian Andalusian ...
(b Shanghai, July 21, 1930; d Shanghai, July 12, 1989). Chinese musicologist . He studied composition and music theory at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music under Ding Shande, Deng Erjing and Sang Tong; after graduating he joined the faculty there in 1956. He became vice-chair of the Department of Chinese Composition, and director of the Chinese Music Research programme in the conservatory’s Music Research Institute. His 1983 book on Chinese instrumental music was one of the earliest and most comprehensive textbooks on the subject.
In 1964 Ye had become interested in the 10th-century
Alexander M. Cannon
(b Hà Nội, Việt Nam, Oct 5, 1921; d Hồ Chí Minh City, Jan 27, 2013). Vietnamese musician, composer, and educator. Born in Hà Nội’s Old Quarter, he joined the Việt Minh resistance to French occupation in the 1940s as a performer and composer of resistance songs. He used his experiences touring with a small ensemble as material for songs—including “Về Miền Trung” (“Return to the Central Region”) and “Bà Mẹ Gio Linh” (“The Mother of Gio Linh”)—to depict the hardship of the soldiers and residents he encountered. He broke with Việt Minh leadership in the early 1950s when they attempted to regiment artistic production. He declined an invitation to join the Communist Party and study composition in Moscow, and he eventually moved to Sài Gòn, where he composed some of his best-known works, including the song cycle Con đườ ng cái quan (The Mandarin Road) that depicts a north-to-south journey through Việt Nam, “Tình Hoài Hương” (“Feeling for One’s Homeland”), and “Ngậm Ngùi” (“Melancholy”), in which he set a poem by poet and Democratic Republic of Vietnam statesman Huy Cận to music. In ...
(b Warsaw, Jan 1, 1896; d Tel-Aviv, Dec 14, 1973). Israeli composer and teacher of Polish birth. He was brought up in his grandfather’s Hassidic home, where he absorbed Jewish folk and liturgical music and learnt to play the violin. A period in cosmopolitan Russia (1913–22) caused him to doubt the significance of his Jewishness, but back in Warsaw he regained his faith through Zionism. He taught music in Hebrew high schools and the Janusz Korczak orphanage, conducted the Hashomer Hatza’ir Choir, for which he arranged Jewish folksongs and composed, and founded the Hevrat Dorshei Musika Ivrit (Society for the Promotion of Hebrew Music) in 1928. In the previous year he had graduated from the State High School of Music, where he studied composition with Szymanowski, though the violin was his principal subject. He moved in 1929 to Palestine. In Tel-Aviv he worked as a teacher and choir director at the Lewinsky Teachers’ Seminary until ...
(b London, Sept 13, 1925; d Oxford, May 29, 2004). English writer on music and social historian. A self-taught pianist, he served in the RAF and Army from 1943 to 1947 and while carrying out duties in India lectured on musical appreciation across the country. He studied economic history at the London School of Economics (BSc Econ 1950), continued as research assistant (1950–52) and gained the PhD in 1958. From 1952 to 1961 he taught at Makerere College, Uganda. He joined the staff of the Queen’s University of Belfast in 1961, becoming reader in economic and social history in 1969, professor in 1974 and emeritus professor in 1986. He was visiting professor of music at Royal Holloway, University of London, 1995–7.
Ehrlich’s main area of study was the economic and social history of music in Britain since the 18th century and he was the first scholar to write extensively on this subject. His work, much of which considers the piano as a social and economic indicator, is based on painstaking archival and statistical research and is characterized by its clarity and wit. His monographs on the PRS and the Royal Philharmonic Society are official yet critical histories. In tracing the links between music, technology, business and society, he was outspoken about the negative effects of commercialism and cultural paternalism on professional music-making....
(b Vagharshapat, Feb 2, 1856; d Tbilisi, March 19, 1905). Armenian composer, teacher and choirmaster. He studied at the Gevork′ian Academy in Vagharshapat with Nikoghayos T′ashchian, who had published three volumes of his transcriptions of Armenian liturgical music. In 1879 Ekmalian entered the St Petersburg Conservatory to study with Rimsky-Korsakov, Iogansen and Solov′yov; he graduated in 1888 with the cantata Der Rose Pilgerfahrt (after M. Horn) of which only extracts survive. From 1890 until his death he lived in Tbilisi, teaching at the Nersessian College (1891–1902) and also directing the music college of the Russian Music Society (1893–4). In addition to teaching both conventional notation and the Armenian system devised by Hambartsum Lymonja (1768–1839) he organized an excellent chapel choir. He taught many singers who subsequently became well known; his composition pupils included Komitas and Tigranian. He spent much time collecting and arranging folksongs; his collection of liturgical music, which was completed in ...
(b Tbilisi, Feb 11, 1919). Georgian composer, pianist and teacher. At the Tbilisi Conservatory she studied the piano with A. Tulashvili and composition with A. Ryazanov and Andria Balanchivadze, graduating in 1940 and 1945 respectively. In 1947 and 1950 she was a postgraduate student at the Moscow Conservatory, studying with Goldenweiser (piano) and Litinsky and Shebalin (composition). In 1944 she began her career as a pianist and teacher; she has taught in Tbilisi at the First Music College, the Paliashvili Central Music School and, from 1953, at the conservatory, where she was appointed professor in 1973. On Eksanishvili’s initiative, the first Georgian experimental school-studio was set up in 1973; the teachers there have used the method she expounded in her textbook Aisi (published 1972) of developing creative abilities using Georgian folksong. Eksanishvili’s piano music, comprising original compositions, transcriptions of works by Georgian composers and music for children, is the most significant part of her output. In ...
(b mainland China, 1906; d 1985). Chinese composer and teacher resident in Taiwan. In the late 1930s he studied music and theory in Japan; after working as a music teacher in Guangxi and Fujian, he moved to Taiwan in 1946. There he helped to establish the music department at Taiwan Normal University, devoting his attentions more to musicology and teaching than to composition. In a period when concert performances were rare and only included music by foreign composers, Xiao introduced his students to the works of mainland Chinese composers such as Huang Zi, Chen Tianhe, Liu Xue′an, Lin Shengshi and Zhao Yuanren. This exposure encouraged his students, including such important Taiwanese composers as Hsu Tsang-houei and Ma Shuilong, to compose in the new Chinese art music style. Xiao himself wrote mainly vocal music in the prevailing ‘pentatonic Romantic’ style, combining Western tonal harmony with Chinese pentatonic melodies. Some of his songs, such as his famous ...
William R. Lee
(b Cesarea, Turkey, Nov 29, 1859; d Thetford, VT, May 22, 1947). American music educator and scholar. Born of American missionary parents, he was educated at Robert College in Constantinople and later studied and taught piano in Worcester, Massachusetts (1880–88). He became music supervisor in Boulder, Colorado and head of the Music Department at the University of Colorado (1888–1900). Later, as head of the Music Department at Teachers College, Columbia University (1900–24), Farnsworth organized one of the pioneering bachelor’s degrees in music education (1901). Among his several books were his Education through Music (New York 1909), which was influential in teacher education, The Why and How of Music Study (New York 1927), and Short Studies in Music Psychology (New York 1930). He served on the prestigious Educational Council of the Music Supervisors National Conference and was president of the Music Teachers National Association (...
(b Ichang, China, Dec 6, 1897; d Lund, Oct 19, 1961). Swedish composer, conductor and teacher. He spent his first ten years at his father’s missionary station in China and then studied the violin at the Malmö Conservatory (1913–15). Fernström played in the Helsingborg SO (1916–39), acting as manager from 1932. His violin studies were continued with Max Schlüter in Copenhagen (1917–21, 1923–4) and with Barmas in Berlin (1921–2); he studied composition with Peder Gram in Copenhagen (1923–30) and in 1930 at the Sondershausen Conservatory, where he also took lessons in conducting. He was conductor for Malmö radio (1939–41), and from 1948 until his death he was director of music in Lund and conductor of the Lund Orchestral Society. A stimulating teacher, he directed the Lund Conservatory and in 1951 founded the Nordic Youth Orchestra. In ...
William Y. Elias
(b New York, April 1, 1930; d Seattle, Jan 30, 2003). Israeli composer of American birth. She studied at the Eastman School, Rochester (BMus 1952), and at the Manhattan School, New York (MMus 1961), where her teachers included Wayne Barlow, Vittorio Giannini, Ralph Shapey, Stefan Wolpe and, for short courses, Vladimir Ussachevsky and Roman Haubenstock-Ramati. From 1962 to 1971 she directed the concert series ‘New Dimensions in Music’ in Seattle, and she also lectured there, at the new School of Music, on contemporary music. In 1971 she moved to Israel, where she continued her concert-giving activities at the Israel Broadcasting Authority and through her series ‘New Dimensions in Music’ and ‘Israeli Composers Plus One’. In these she programmed specially written music sometimes involving audience participation, a technique that influenced her own compositional style. Several of her works incorporate staging, acting and improvisation, such as her ‘mini comic monodrama’ ...
(b Satu-Mare, Sept 9, 1946). Israeli violinist of Romanian birth. She studied at the Rabin Academy in Tel-Aviv, and then in the USA as a protégée of Isaac Stern. She also worked with Josef Gingold at Indiana University (1966–7), and with Ivan Galamian at the Juilliard School (1967–9). She won the 1968 Paganini International Competition at Genoa, and the 1971 Queen Elisabeth of Belgium Competition at Brussels. Her prizewinning performance of the Sibelius concerto on the latter occasion was subsequently issued as a recording, and was praised for a maturity of approach and vibrant expression reminiscent of Ginette Neveu. Her New York recital début was in 1969, and her British début was at Windsor Castle in 1971. In 1986 she joined the faculty of Indiana University, where she gave the first performance of Donald Erb's Together Forever: Three Poems (1988) and recorded his violin concerto. She has toured widely, and is admired for intelligent and perceptive musicianship as well as spirited brilliance of technique....
(b Tbilisi, July 9, 1933). Georgian composer, pianist and teacher. He studied at the Tbilisi Conservatory and then at the Moscow Conservatory with Goldenweiser for piano and Khachaturian for composition. In 1962 he returned to the Tbilisi Conservatory to teach the piano, and in 1984 he was appointed rector of that institution as well as president of the Georgian Composers’ Union. Recognition as both pianist and composer came to him early, at a time when he belonged to a group of Georgian composers moving towards Stravinsky, Prokofiev and, most of all, Bartók. Gabunia's Igav-araki (‘Fable’, 1964) is one of the most successful syntheses of these Eastern European compositional models with a clear Georgian musical identity. The piece is a kind of madrigal comedy in the modern form of a concert satire. Many aspects of it were new to Georgian music – polyrhythm and polymetre, the sharp dissonance of polytonal chords, the variation of short motifs, the freshness and richness of timbre – and yet these features were organically connected to the modal and polyphonic particularities of west Georgian folk music. Bartók was the guiding spirit, as throughout Gabunia’s creative life. Another continuity lies in his adherence to chamber and chamber-orchestral music, allowing a deepening and emotional intensification of style which is realized with particular fullness in his Second Quartet, one of his best known works. For the piano he writes as a virtuoso, using modernist devices – clusters, mechanical rhythms, new modes of playing – alongside lyrical episodes that suggest a feeling for nature and an elegiac-pensive mood. His later compositions are simpler and more diatonic....
revised by Margaret Campbell
(b Tabriz, Jan 23, 1903; d New York, April 14, 1981). American violinist and teacher of Armenian parentage. After studying with Konstantin Mostras at the School of the Philharmonic Society in Moscow (1916–22), and with Lucien Capet in Paris (1922–3), he made his Paris début in 1924. He moved to the USA in 1937 and was appointed to the Curtis Institute in 1944 and the Juilliard School of Music in 1946. During the summer he taught at the Meadowmount School of Music which he founded in 1944. In 1965 he was made an honorary member of the RAM, London, and he held honorary doctorates from Oberlin College and the Curtis Institute. In 1966 he received the Master Teacher Award of the American String Teachers Association.
Galamian's success as a teacher was remarkable. For four decades his students were among the laureates of every major international competition; some became virtuosos (Perlman, Zukerman, Kyung-Wha Chung, Luca, Laredo, Michael Rabin), while others belong to leading string quartets, occupy teaching posts, or are orchestral leaders. Galamian's approach was analytical and rational, with minute attention to every technical detail. His method embodied the best traditions of the Russian and French schools (particularly of Capet's ...
(b Tokyo, Oct 10, 1938; d Tokyo, June 15, 1985). Japanese composer. He studied composition at the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, graduating in 1961. His early compositions display the influence of the atonal Expressionism of the Second Viennese School. He established his original style, an assimilation of Webern, Boulez, Cage, jazz and Japanese traditional music, with One Hour at Every One Breath (1960); this work won him a prize at the 1962 Rome International Competition. In 1967 he joined the faculty of the Tōhō Gakuen College of Music, becoming an assistant professor in 1984. The colourful sonorities of Constellation (1969), performed to acclaim at the 1969 Japanisch-Deutsches Festival für Neue Musik, became one of the characteristics of his later style. In 1980 he won an ISCM prize for The Logic of Distraction (1975). Though Hachimura was not a prolific composer, each of his 20 finely wrought compositions bears a deep personal significance....
(b Agjabedï, nr Shusha, Sept 17, 1885; d Baku, Nov 23, 1948). Azerbaijani composer, musicologist and teacher. He was the founder of modern art music in Azerbaijan and of a national school of composers. It was while he was at the teachers’ seminary in Gori (1899–1904) that his youthful interest in folk music developed into a professional one, for he sang in the choir as a baritone, played the violin, the cello and folk instruments and also began to compose. From 1905 he lived in Baku, where he worked as a teacher, engaged in compiling textbooks and dictionaries, translated Gogol into Azerbaijani and published newspaper articles on issues of the day, criticizing retrograde social attitudes. In 1907 he created the first opera of eastern Islam, Leyli i Mejnun, in which only the parts for chorus and European orchestral instruments were fixed. For the majority of cases he indicated only ...
William Y. Elias
[Hersh, Donald Lee ]
(b Cambridge, MA, April 22, 1936). Israeli musicologist of American birth. At Yale University he studied French literature (1953–7); he then studied musicology at the University of California, Berkeley (1957–62, MA 1959), where he took the doctorate under Kerman in 1963 with a dissertation on Verdelot and the early madrigal. In 1963 he settled in Israel, where he lectured at the Rubin Academy of Music, Jerusalem (1963–6), before being appointed to the musicology department of the Hebrew University (1966); he has also been a regular guest lecturer at the Bar-Ilan University (from 1970) and worked as corresponding reporter in Israel for Current Musicology of Columbia University (from 1968). He has received research grants from the Edmond de Rothschild Foundation for work on mannerism in Renaissance music (1964), from the Hebrew University for work on madrigali cromatici...
(b Tokyo, April 9, 1946). Japanese musicologist. After earning the MA from Keiō University (1973), he studied with Dadelsen at Tübingen University, taking the doctorate (1979) with a dissertation on J.S. Bach’s cantatas for funerals and other ceremonies. Returning to Tokyo, he lectured at Keiō and other universities, before being appointed to Meiji Gakuin University as associate professor (1989) and professor (1994). A specialist on Bach, he became an editorial member of the Neue Bach-Ausgabe in 1975. For his Bach studies he won the Kyoto Music Prize (1988), and the Tsuji Prize (1989). He has also been active as a choral conductor and a music critic.Bachs Kantaten zu Trauerfeiern und verschiedenen Bestimmungen (diss., U. of Tübingen, 1979) Bahha [Bach] (Tokyo, 1985) Gentenban no hanashi [An introduction to the Urtext edition] (Tokyo, 1986) Bahha kantāta kenkyū...
(b Puli, Sept 9, 1945). Taiwanese composer and music educator. He graduated from the National Taiwan University (1967–71) then studied composition with Lehmann at the Musikhochschule and Musikakademie in Zürich (1974–6); he continued his studies with Helmut Lachenmann at the Hochschule für Musik and Theater in Hanover (1976–8) and with Isang Yun at the Hochschule der Künste in Berlin (1978–80). Upon his return to Taiwan he became professor of music and composition at the National Institute of the Arts in Taipei and founded the Modern Music Centre there in 1984. This organization became the kernel of the Taiwan branch of the ISCM, which Pan co-founded with Wen Longxin and Zeng Xingkui in 1989.
While making use of the entire array of modernist and avant-garde techniques, Pan's music is often inspired by Chinese philosophical or mythical concepts. Hudiemeng (1979) and ...