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M.K. Duggan

(fl 1468–c1504). German printer. With his brother Michael he began printing at Strasbourg, where in 1471 he became a citizen and member of the printers’ guild. When he moved to Würzburg in 1479 he was awarded a monopoly on liturgical books by Bishop Rudolph of Scherenberg (1446–99), renewed by Bishop Lorenz von Beba (1495–1519). His printed music books for the Würzburg diocese include at least eight missals, a giant three-volume gradual and antiphonal, an agenda and a vigil, besides a missal (1482) for the Mainz diocese. Printed in large folio books, black notes on red staves, his two gothic plainchant types reveal masterful design from the first of 1481 to the improved and more elaborate fount of the Graduale of 1496–9.

After working with Georg, Michael Reyser established a branch in 1483/4 at Eichstätt, where he used a new gothic plainchant type for the ...

Article

(b ?Eindhoven, ?1475–1500; d London, 1531). Dutch printer. He worked in Antwerp from 1523 to 1531, becoming a member of the Guild of St Luke in 1524. Of the 40 books known to have been printed by him, the majority were for the English market, including an important series of liturgical books ‘ad usum ecclesie Sarum’ – a series which helped to establish Antwerp as a rival to Paris for liturgical music printing. This series includes Manuale (1523), Processionale (1523), Hymnorum cum notis opusculum (1524), Psalterium cum hymnis (1524), Breviarium (1525), Missale (1527) and Horae Beatae Mariae Virginis (1530). All his liturgical music was printed by double impression, with black notes on red staves. He also printed missals for the dioceses of Tournai and Utrecht. Ruremund had two sizes of type with Roman neumes, which may both have originated from Paris, and one with Gothic neumes (used for the Utrecht Missal of ...

Article

Thomas W. Bridges and Jane A. Bernstein

Italian family of booksellers, music printers and composers.

Thomas W. Bridges

(b Monza; d Venice, Dec 24, 1498). Printer, publisher and bookseller. He came to Venice sometime before 1479, when his first imprint appeared; as a member of a patrician family, he styled himself ‘nobilis vir’. Philosophy, medicine, law and classical literature were prominent among his publications, and he was an important publisher of liturgical incunabula containing printed notes and staves. Scotto's 1481 edition of the Roman Missal has spaces for music and, in some copies, printed staves on which music has been added by hand. Three books printed by Scotto in 1482 (two Roman Missals and a Dominican Missal) include black musical notation and red four-line staves, printed in two impressions, essentially the same method as that used by Petrucci. At least ten other printers occasionally worked for Scotto, and on his commission Johann Hamman printed, in the smaller octavo format, Roman Missals (...

Article

M.K. Duggan

(b Eger; d Bamberg, before June 13, 1491). German printer. In 1469 he was in Nuremberg, working partly with Knefl and Andreas Frisner. In 1480 he moved to Bamberg at the request of Abbot Ulrich III of Michaelsberg Abbey and set up a printing press there to print the Missale benedictinum (1481). As an itinerant printer (the first of Freising, Regensburg and Dillingen), he accepted commissions to print the liturgical books of various south German dioceses and monasteries. In 1487 he began to use a strong, well-cut gothic chant type to print at least eight missals with music. After his death, his son Lorenz inherited the press and, with the music printer Johann Pfeyl, issued three more liturgical books with music in 1491 and 1492. Pfeyl took over the press in 1495 and continued printing music with his own types.

K. Meyer-Baer: Liturgical Music Incunabula: a Descriptive Catalogue...

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Article

Marie Louise Göllner

(b ?Sulzbach, Upper Palatine; d Nuremberg, 1520). German printer. Although Stuchs himself gave Sulzbach as his place of birth in his publications, he may have been the son of the Nuremberg organ builder Friedrich Stuchs. He became a citizen of Nuremberg in 1484 and began printing in the same year. His last publication is dated 1517; after this he was active only as a bookseller, leaving the printing business in the hands of his son, Johann (d ?Nuremberg, after 1546), under whose name publications had been issued as early as 1509.

The elder Stuchs, whose known publications number 132, was famous above all as a printer of liturgical books, particularly missals. He served a large circle of clients from all parts of Europe, including, for example, the bishoprics of Regensburg, Salzburg, Prague, Kraków, Magdeburg and Linköping. In 1491 he introduced musical notes into his liturgical books, using the double-impression technique. Stuchs was known for the superior quality of his type forms, which he frequently sold to other printers, and for the woodcuts, often by prominent artists, with which he decorated his volumes. The younger Stuchs devoted himself in later years to the cause of the Reformation, printing many of the writings of Luther and his followers. His sole contribution to music consists of a reprint of Johannes Cochlaeus's treatise ...

Article

(b Liebenthal [now Lubomierz], nr Jelenia Góra; d Kraków, between 21 March and June 15, 1547). Polish printer. He established his printing house in Kraków in 1530. Among his music publications are secular and religious partsongs, liturgical books, and music treatises by Jerzy Liban (De accentuum ecclesiasticorum exquisita ratione, c1539) and Jan Spanenberg (Questiones musicae in usum Scholae Northusianae, 1544) which contain numerous musical examples, including some complete compositions. He used exclusively woodblock printing.

His relative Marek Szarfenberg (b Liebenthal; d Kraków, 1545) was a Kraków bookseller who first started printing in about 1543. He mainly published liturgical books with Gothic notation, using movable type in a double-impression technique, as well as woodblock printing.

Marek's grandson Mateusz Siebeneicher [Siebeneich, Sybeneycher, Zybenaicher] (b Liebenthal; d Kraków, 1582) married the widow of Maciej's son Hieronim and thus became the owner of the Szarfenberg printing house in ...

Article

M.K. Duggan

[Theodorus Herbipolensis, Theodorus Francus, Theodorus Franconian, Theodor Franck]

(fl 1480–95). German printer, active in Venice . He is called Theodorus Francus, or Franconian, in the single book he printed, a Grammatica by Franciscus Niger (published by Johann Santritter in 1480). Book 8 contains sections on metre, rhythm and harmony, the last illustrated with six pages of the first printed mensural music. The ...

Article

M.K. Duggan

(b Asola, March 4, 1451; fl 1479–1529). Italian printer and publisher. Active in Venice, he was primarily a publisher rather than a printer after 1495, when he formed a full partnership with his son-in-law Aldo Manuzio. He published two missals with music in 1496 and 1497, using roman chant type. After Manuzio’s death in ...

Article

Stanley Boorman

[ Toulouze ]

( fl Paris, 1496–1505). French printer . He was presumably from Toulouse, and may have been the first to print mensural music using movable type; his L’art et instruction de bien dancer uses type and is earlier than Petrucci, though in many respects rather crude. His edition of Guerson’s Utilissime musices regule, which may predate L’art, uses the same music type. Michel was not the earliest music printer in Paris, though his predecessors had printed only liturgical volumes. He was living there in 1496, close to Guillaume Guerson, who also printed and sold music. They seem to have collaborated, for Michel also used some of Guerson’s type. He is mentioned in Guerson’s will of 1503, and was last referred to in 1505.

None of Michel’s four musical books is dated, although 1488 has been added by hand to L’art. This is certainly too early: it was probably printed about 1496...

Article

M.K. Duggan

(fl c1473–1513). Type cutter, active in Italy. On 26 September 1513 he submitted a petition to the Venetian senate requesting a 15-year privilege to print mensural music. In the petition he expressed concern that others would ‘harvest the fruits of his labour’ after he had ‘discovered the way to print mensural music [canto figurato]’ in the city where he had been a cutter of letters for 40 years. The previous privilege holder, Petrucci, was by then living in Fossombrone in the papal states. The senate awarded Ungaro an exclusive privilege, but he is not known to have exercised it. Apparently he had cut Petrucci’s music type; Petrucci had been awarded a privilege for printing music in Venice in 1498. Because of his long tenure in Venice, Ungaro may well have been responsible for the first mensural music type used in Venice in 1480 and for several of the 24 plainchant types used there between ...

Article

Teresa Chylińska

(b Bavaria; d Kraków, 1536). Polish printer of German birth active in Kraków. From 1510 to 1516 he worked with other printers, including Jan Haller, but later he established his own printing house. He was the first in Poland to publish music in mensural notation (printed from woodblock), in his editions of musical theorists. His total output was over 240 titles. When he died his widow continued the business until her death in ...

Article

M.K. Duggan

(b Regensburg; fl 1470–88). German printer, active in Italy and Switzerland . After an unsuccessful attempt to set up a printing shop in Milan in 1470 he moved to Venice and issued several books. He returned to Milan to print between 1474 and 1478, and then went to Basle to work with Bernhard Richel from ...

Article

Stanley Boorman

(fl 1494–1531). Italian printer . He printed a number of volumes in partnership with his brother Matteo, who may have done no more than provide financial support. The most significant music printing that can certainly be assigned to them comprises the treatises of Aaron and Spataro, printed in Venice between 1523 and 1531. By then Bernardino, based in Venice, had also printed in Rome (1507–10) and in Rimini (1521). The printing of Degli Silvestri’s Della origine delli volgari proverbi (1526) is thought to have led directly to the establishment of Venetian censorship. The most important volume associated with Bernardino Vitali is Girolamo Cavazzoni’s Intavolatura (1543), marked with a printer’s device but no name. This has also been ascribed to Bernardus Vercellensis and even to Bernardinus de Vianis. It is now thought likely that it was printed by Vitali, which would make it his last printed work....

Article

M.K. Duggan

(b Strasbourg; fl 1472–99). Alsatian printer, active at Basle . He established his printing shop in 1472, working with the first printer at Basle, Berthold Ruppel, and with Bernhard Richel. His name appears with Jacob von Kilchen’s (‘impensis spectatissimorum virorum MW et JK’) on a spectacular series of printed music books of 1488: a gradual, two antiphonals, missals, and agendas. Another gradual of about 1486 has been attributed to him and a Missale sarumburiense was shipped to England in 1489 at the expense of Wenssler, Kilchen and Hans Wiler. In 1490 financial disaster forced Wenssler to sell his shop; he fled Basle and spent the next decade printing for others in Speyer and Basle and on his own in Cluny, Macon and Lyons. He was allowed to return in 1499. Several missals, vigils and psalters with printed music are attributed to him, but ownership of his types after 1490...

Article

Miriam Miller

(b c1455; d London, 1534). English printer, of French origin . He was Caxton’s assistant at Westminster, London, about 1480, and in 1495 he published an edition of Ranluf Higden’s Polycronicon, the first book published in England to include musical notes. Wynkyn’s reputation as an influential music printer rested for many years on the theory that he printed the ...

Article

M.K. Duggan

(b Parma, c1450; d Milan, 1510). Italian printer . He was the first printer in Milan, from 1471. His Missale romanum of 1474, the first dated printed missal, and its successor, the first Missale ambrosianum (1475), contain no printed music; scribes filled in the notation, in the latter book with a two-line red and yellow staff. Zarotto later printed the music of Ambrosian plainchant in the missal (...