21-40 of 574 results  for:

  • Traditional, Folk and Indigenous Musics x
Clear all

Article

Bbare  

Article

Bebende  

Andrew C. McGraw

Suspended bronze gong of Bali. It is found in the gamelan gong gede, gamelan beleganjur, and gamelan gong kebyar ensembles. Examples range from 40 to 50 cm in diameter with a 25-cm-deep flange and a low, central boss 12 cm in diameter. The boss is surrounded by a slightly sunken ring, so that the top of the boss is about level with the face of the instrument. The depressed boss decreases decay time and produces a muted tone with an indistinct fundamental. The ...

Article

Margaret J. Kartomi

Hornpipe of the Gayo in the Takengon area of Central Aceh, Sumatra. Its rice-stalk pipe, about 3 mm wide and 20 cm long, has an idioglot single beating reed cut near the top and a horn-shaped bell made of wound strips of green pandan palm leaf attached to the lower end. As its pitch and tuning are not fixed, the four to six fingerholes are not uniformly placed. Circular breathing (...

Article

Bedok  

Patricia Matusky

[beduk]

Drum of West Malaysia and Sarawak. The usually cylindrical wooden body, sometimes longer than one metre, bears one head of either cow or water buffalo hide, depending on the size of the drum (buffalo hide is thicker and stronger and lasts longer). The head is attached with laces and struck with a pair of wooden sticks. The ...

Article

Beḍug  

Margaret J. Kartomi

Large double-headed barrel drum in the Central Javanese Gamelan. It is about 74 cm long and 40 cm wide and is suspended in a decorative wooden frame. The heads are tacked to the shell and one head is beaten with a heavy mallet. It emphasizes dramatic effects in some gamelan works, especially in the theatre and plays the role of the ...

Article

Beeba  

Catherine Ingram and Wu Zhicheng

Lute of the Kam (Dong) minority people of southwest China. Names vary with dialect and instrument size; examples from Sanlong region, Southeast Guizhou province, are beeba ning (‘small beeba’; c68 to 92 cm long, c11 to 20 cm wide at the soundbox) and beeba lao (‘large beeba’; more than 114 cm long, 25 cm wide at the soundbox). The name beeba might be a loanword of the Han Chinese pipa. The pegbox, neck, and thick oval- or heart-shaped soundbox bowl are carved from one piece of fir or other locally available wood. Five or more soundholes pierce the thin wooden soundtable. The instrument is sometimes painted and/or decorated. The Sanlong beeba has four strings (commonly banhu strings) attached to lateral wooden tuning pegs and hitched to the tail by looped wires. Nut and bridge are about 5 mm tall. The fingerboard is fretted with two or three inset lengths of wire. ...

Article

Belikan  

Gini Gorlinski

Lute of the Iban people of Sarawak, Malaysia, and the Maloh group of peoples in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. It was rare in the late 19th century and virtually unknown by the 21st. The resonator and integral, unfretted neck are carved from a single block of wood. The neck constitutes up to nearly two-thirds of the instrument’s total length of roughly 80 to 90 cm. The resonator is hollowed from the top and covered with a thin wood soundtable, perforated with several small soundholes. The end of the neck is often ornamented with the carved head—sometimes including the preserved beak—of a hornbill, a bird emblematic of Iban culture.

The belikan has two strings, made of rattan, that pass through small holes in the neck to two tuning pegs, which pierce the neck laterally. At the other end, the strings are affixed to two small pieces of wood that are inserted into a wooden block raised from the soundtable. The left hand fingered a melody against the neck of the instrument, while the fingers of the right hand plucked or strummed the strings....

Article

Bende  

Margaret J. Kartomi

[bende]

Small suspended bossed gong of Central and East Java, Bali, and Sumatra. It is made of heavy bronze, about 30 to 40 cm in diameter, and is beaten with a padded hammer on the boss, which is about 5 to 7 cm wide. Bende are used in the prajuritan theatre ensemble in the mountains south of Semarang, Java; usually four or more different pitches are played together with a derendeng (frame drum). Some bende are suspended so that they can resonate freely, while others are held by the rim in the left hand to produce a damped sound. The bende is used also in the kelenongan ensemble in Lampung, Sumatra, in the Balinese gamelan gong, and is traditionally used by Javanese military officers for signaling or giving commands to their troops. It is a very old instrument, being mentioned in two 14th-century Old Javanese poems.

See also Derendeng ; Gamelan .

J. Kunst...

Article

Beri  

Article

Andrew Alter

[bhauṅkar]

Trumpet of parts of Uttarakhand, North India. It is a straight tube of copper with integral mouthpiece and is usually found in pairs at ritual occasions associated with festivals and processions. Most are approximately 150 cm long and remain narrow for most of their length before slightly flaring at the distal end. Water is poured through the instrument before playing it. The instrument is not tuned to any specific pitch, and only two or three different pitches in the higher register are used. It is not used to play melodies or to accompany songs. The instrument is first sounded while the bell is pointing towards the ground and then it is swung rapidly upwards as if to throw the sound into the air.

J.K. Petshali: Uttarāñchal ke Lok Vādya [The Folk Instruments of Uttaranchal] (New Delhi, 2002) A. Alter: Dancing with Devtās: Drums, Power and Possession in the Music of Garhwal, North India...

Article

Bher  

Alastair Dick

Very large metal kettledrum of Sind, Pakistan. It is played standing, with two sticks, as part of the ceremonial band naubat found at the shrines of some Sindi saints (e.g. that of Shah Abdul Latif at Bhitshah). ‘Bher’ doubtless derives from the old Indian drum name bherī, but it is different from that so described in medieval Indian texts....

Article

Carol M. Babiracki

[bheir, bhẽṛe, turhi, turi]

Long straight trumpet, with integral mouthpiece, played by tribal and non-tribal musicians of Chotanagpur, India. It is made of copper or tin, in several sections, and can be from 95 to 148 cm long. For about four-fifths of its length the tube is thin-walled and narrow in bore, with bosses at regular intervals. At the end is a flared bell.

The player holds the trumpet just below the mouthpiece with the right hand, supporting the embouchure. The instrument is supported by a bamboo pole to keep it horizontal; with the left hand the player holds one end of the pole at a slant against the abdomen, and the distal end of the trumpet hangs suspended from the opposite end of the pole by a short length of rope. The bhẽr, also called turhi (turi in Orissa), is found most commonly as part of an ensemble including the ḍhāk (cylindrical drum), ...

Article

Bherī  

Alastair Dick

Indian drum name that occurs in Sanskrit texts from the epic to the medieval period. The term has often been translated as ‘kettledrum’, but there appears to be no evidence for this type of drum in India before the Middle Ages. The bherī is described in medieval sources as a double-headed drum, probably barrel-shaped, about 72 cm long and 48 cm in diameter at the heads. The body was made of copper, the heads stretched on creeper hoops laced by rope, with a central cross-lacing. The drum was beaten on the right head by a stick and on the left by the hand. It was described as a battle drum with a majestic sound. Drums of this type are found in ancient Indian sculpture, sometimes borne on a pole carried on the shoulders of two men.

See also Ḍhol.

C. Marcel-Dubois: Les instruments de musique de l’Inde ancienne (Paris, 1941)...

Article

Bhuang  

Carol M. Babiracki

[buang]

Single-string plucked stick zither of the Santāl people of Orissa, Bihar, and West Bengal, India. The body is a long bamboo tube with a flexible stick inserted in each of the two open ends. A hemp playing string is tied to the free ends of the sticks, arching them inwards; the string is held parallel to the tube and about 20 to 25 cm away from it. Alternatively, the playing string can be attached directly to one end of the tube and at the other end to a long stick peg affixed perpendicularly into the tube. In both versions a long bamboo basket resonator is attached to the underside of the tube at its centre, with the open end facing downwards. The basket is covered with decorative paper and streamers.

The player holds the tube in one hand and plucks the playing string with the other. The instrument adds rhythm and a drone of indefinite pitch to the instrumental ensembles accompanying Santali communal dances....

Article

Mireille Helffer

Cymbals of the Newari people of Nepal. In the Kathmandu valley the term designates a category of large-bossed cymbals made in three sizes. The largest is used mainly in the instrumental ensemble called dhime bājā.

S. Wiehler-Schneider and H. Wiehler: ‘A Classification of the Traditional Musical Instruments of the Nevars’, ...

Article

Geneviève Dournon

Idiochord tube zither of Madhya Pradesh (Bastar district), India. The instrument may be designated by several terms: the Maria people call it bhuyabaja in Halbi (the lingua franca of this region), or dumir in Koya (Gondi dialect), and Grigson (1938) mentioned it as pak dhol or veddur dhol, which literally means ‘bamboo drum’.

The bhuyabaja is made of a section of bamboo, cut between two nodes, about 50 cm long and 8 cm in diameter. The outer surface of the bamboo is excised in part and cut into thin strips to provide two or three strings, raised on small movable bridges, also of bamboo. The Maria treat the zither as a string drum, striking the strings with two sticks. It is made and used during certain seasons for agrarian rites, which explains why it is rare. The tube zither, probably of Malay-Indonesian origin, is found only among a few tribal populations in India. It is used mainly in Indonesia, in the highlands of Vietnam, and also in Madagascar ...

Article

Bidi  

Alan R. Thrasher

revised by June L.F. Lam

Nose flute of the aboriginal cultures of Taiwan, notably high mountain dwellers such as the Bunun, Thao, Tsou, Paiwan, and Rukai, and plains peoples such as the Ami and Puyuma. The Chinese name, bidi (‘nose flute’), is a generic term for all flutes of this type; local terms include dibolo (Ami) and burari (Rukai). Structures differ regionally but are all basically end-blown bamboo duct flutes, with either a single or double pipes, the latter slightly more common. They are bound together with rattan, separated by a wooden support, or held together by hand. A plug inserted into the upper end (in some flutes a node may be partly pierced) forms a duct that directs the air against a sharp edge located at a small window in the back. Some players use a finger to block one nostril to increase the air pressure. While some flutes have three fingerholes, most double flutes have four in each pipe. Dimensions and tunings vary according to the individual taste of the craftsman and irregularities in bore configuration. An Ami four-holed double flute kept at the Academia Sinica in Taipei is 23 cm long, with a distance between each fingerhole of 2.3 cm, yielding a scale of ...

Article

Trân Quang Hai

revised by Nguyen Thuyet Phong

Set of Vietnamese bells formerly played in the imperial court. It consists of 12 bronze bells, identical in shape and size but of different thicknesses, hung in a frame and struck with a horn hammer. They produce a chromatic scale but are used for pentatonic music. The biên chung is used only for Confucian temple music, now performed only in China, Taiwan (...

Article

Trân Quang Hai

revised by Nguyen Thuyet Phong

Vietnamese lithophone. It consists of 12 L-shaped slabs of stone arranged in two rows chromatically from the lower right to the left, then from the upper left to the right (as one faces the instrument). This set was used only in court and in Confucian temple music similar to that in Taiwan (...

Article

Alastair Dick

Hybrid fretted stick zither used in north Indian or Hindustani classical music in the 19th and early 20th centuries; it is now rarely played. It is similar in construction to the Hindustani , with a long wooden neck or stick, bilateral tuning pegs, and two large gourd resonators attached below; its neck, however, is constructed like that of the sitar—a long hollow stick, semicircular in cross section, covered with a thin fingerboard. The ...