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Article

Igor′ Bėlza

(b Poltava, 17/May 29, 1894; d Moscow, Aug 15, 1967). Soviet music historian, theorist, pianist and instrument maker . In 1912 he went to Moscow University to read physics and mathematics, but he changed to law and graduated in 1917. At the same time he studied at the Moscow People’s Conservatory under Boleslav Yavorsky (composition) and Yevgeny Bogoslovsky and Aleksandr Goedicke (piano). Between 1912 and 1916 he appeared as a concert pianist and performed his own sonatas (all five of which have remained in manuscript) and other works, stylistically influenced by the Taneyev school. In 1915 he started teaching at the conservatory. He edited the literary journal Gyulistan, and from 1923 to 1933 held a number of posts in different publishing houses; from 1937 to 1941 he was editor of the publishing house of the USSR Academy of Architecture. For several years he played an active part in the Union of Soviet Composers; he was chairman of the Moscow branch (...

Article

Jean Mongrédien

revised by Katharine Ellis

( b Paris, Oct 4, 1772; d Laon, May 26, 1832). French music historian, composer, singer and double bass player . He sang in the parish church choir of St Jacques-de-la-Boucherie in Paris, taking music lessons from the choirmaster, the Abbé d’Haudimont. He sang in the chorus of the Opéra from 1792 until 1799, then played the double bass in the Opéra orchestra until 1816. He was appointed professor of harmony at the Conservatoire in 1813, having worked as Catel’s assistant from 1811. In 1815 he was entrusted with the administration of the Conservatoire, serving as inspector general from 1816 to 1822 and succeeding the Abbé Roze as librarian in 1819. He also played the double bass in the orchestra of the Tuileries chapel from its reopening in 1802. He retired in 1822 to the département of Aisne, where he continued private studies until his death.

Perne is best known for his writings on the history of music. He took an early interest in both Greek and medieval music and, as a tireless researcher, brought together an impressive number of documents. In an age in which composers and theorists alike tackled their problems uncritically and were indiscriminate in repeating or commenting on the opinions of others, Perne insisted on going back to the ancient and medieval texts and studying them in their original languages. He lacked the time – and perhaps the talent – needed to put them into proper form and to construct informed theories from them. He took a particular interest in the problems of the notation of Greek music and read a paper on this subject at the Institut de France in ...

Article

[Smyth]

(b North Cheam, Surrey, Jan 5, 1823; d London, July 2, 1895). English music historian, composer, teacher and pianist. Baptized at Morden church in the name of Rackstraw, he used an older form of his surname from 1846. His first teacher was the blind organist John Purkis and he received tuition in composition and piano from William Sterndale Bennett. His earliest work to be performed in public was the song Soon shall chilling fear assail thee, sung by Joseph Staudigl at Franz Cramer's farewell concert in London on 27 June 1844. From 20 May 1845 to 24 June 1846 he studied at the Leipzig Conservatory with Mendelssohn (composition and piano), Moritz Hauptmann (theory) and Louis Plaidy (piano).

On his return to London Rockstro gave lessons in piano and singing, and was the regular accompanist at the Wednesday Concerts. In the early 1860s he moved to Torquay and in ...

Article

Christina Bashford

(Kensington)

(b London, March 3, 1814; d London, June 23, 1901). English pianist, composer and scholar. His ancestors were of German-Dutch origin. After piano lessons from his mother and S.F. Rimbault, he studied at the RAM, 1824–6, and subsequently with Charles Neate, who became a lifelong friend. In 1828–9 he received lessons from Henri Herz in Paris. He gave annual concerts in London, 1833–7, performed in the Concerti da Camera (the first West End chamber music concerts) in 1835 and held Classical Chamber Concerts at his own home in 1844. He was also active as a composer: in 1830 he was commissioned to write an ode for the Shakespeare commemoration in Stratford-upon-Avon (the work was also performed in London), and in the late 1830s his first sets of songs were published. In 1838 and 1840 Salaman performed in Salzburg, Vienna, Munich and other European cities, and from 1846 to 1848...

Article

K.M. Knittel

(b Meedl, Moravia, June 13, 1795; d Bockenheim, nr Frankfurt, Jan 16, 1864). Moravian violinist, conductor, writer and biographer of Beethoven. The eldest of 12 children, he studied the violin with his father before becoming a choirboy at St Mauritz in Olmütz. Although music was his main interest, he moved to Vienna in 1813 to study law. He claimed that he first met Beethoven in March 1814, when Schuppanzigh asked him to deliver a note to the composer, and that later that year, his brief arrest for involvement in student protests aroused the interest of Beethoven, who then sought a closer acquaintance with him.

Despite his attempts to show otherwise, including forgeries in the conversation books, Schindler was not in close contact with Beethoven until 1820, and there are only scattered (authentic) earlier references to him in the conversation books. With the departure that year of Franz Oliva, Schindler became Beethoven's unpaid private secretary. By late ...

Article

Michael Tilmouth

(Francis)

(b Eton, July 17, 1875; d Edinburgh, July 10, 1940). English music scholar, composer and pianist. Son of an Eton master, the Rev. Duncan Crooks Tovey, he was educated, both musically and generally, by Sophie Weisse, who trained him for the career of a pianist. (Later he had advice and help from Deppe, but was never his pupil.) As a schoolboy Tovey already had a vast knowledge of the classical repertory and he had begun to compose at the age of eight. He received instruction in counterpoint from Walter Parratt and subsequently studied with James Higgs and Parry. In June 1894 he was elected Lewis Nettleship scholar at Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated in classical honours in 1898, more than satisfying the examiners in philosophy and ethics but making no impression at all in ancient history.

In 1894 began his association on the concert platform with Joachim, with whose quartet he appeared as pianist until ...

Article

Rodney H. Mill

(b Tallmadge, OH, Dec 17, 1870; d Adelphi, MD, Jan 19, 1961). American organist, pianist, teacher and musicologist. He studied music at Oberlin College and Conservatory (BA 1896, MusB 1904, MA 1924) and the piano with Leschetizky in Vienna (1896–8) and Josef Lhévinne in Berlin (1913–14). He taught the piano at Oberlin Conservatory (1894–1936) and served as organist at the Calvary Presbyterian Church, Oberlin (1903–18). His interest in contemporary American art song led to his major and probably most enduring work, the revision and expansion of O.G.T. Sonneck's Bibliography of Early Secular American Music, first published in 1905 and still central to American scholarship. His biographies of A.P. Heinrich and W.H. Fry have not been superseded. In 1945 Oberlin College awarded him an honorary doctorate in music.

‘The Songs of Charles T. Griffes’, MQ, 9 (1923), 314–28‘Some Recent Representative American Song-Composers’, ...

Article

Francisco J. Albo

(b Leipzig, Feb 23, 1848; d New York, Jan 15, 1918). American pianist, teacher, and composer of German origin. From 1862 he trained at the Conservatory of Leipzig, where he studied with Moscheles, Reinecke, and Hauptmann (Helbig Prize in composition in 1864). Upon graduating in 1866, he toured Germany for two years before moving to the USA and settling permanently in New York. In December 1868 he made a successful début at one of Theodore Thomas’ Classical Soirées. Lacking the ambition to become a virtuoso, or simply because of disinterest in certain repertoires, he failed to secure a prominent position among other pianists who had also settled in New York at that time. He nonetheless retained prestige as a scholarly pianist. For the next four decades he appeared often as accompanist and in chamber music concerts, often collaborating with Thomas and with Leopold Damrosch. Those concerts gave momentum to a form that was still rather unappreciated by general audiences. A sought after teacher, he instructed Frank and Walter Damrosch. In ...

Article

Francisco J. Albo

(b Alzey, Rheinhessen, Germany, Dec 14, 1834; d Deal Beach, NJ, July 30, 1907). American pianist, teacher, conductor, and composer of German origin. He studied with Aloys Schmitt in Frankfurt, making his début there in 1848. Later he studied with Vincenz Lachner and toured Bavaria. After a two-year stay in London, he moved to the United States in 1854, settling in Philadelphia. A scholarly performer, for the next twenty years he gave annual series of chamber music concerts and piano recitals, introducing many classical works to American audiences. He gave recitals devoted entirely to the piano music of Chopin and Schumann, a rare feat at the time. In 1866–7 he performed the complete piano sonatas of Beethoven in a series of matinées in New York. In 1873 he moved to Chicago, where he gave momentum to the musical life of the city and founded the Beethoven Society choir. His goal being education through the works of the masters, he gave several “historical” recitals with programs designed chronologically, from Couperin to Brahms. Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler was one of his pupils....

Article

Lev Ginzburg

revised by Lyudmila Korabel′nikova

(Markovich )

(b Kiev, 8/Nov 21, 1905; d Moscow, Sept 20, 1976). Russian musicologist, violinist and teacher . Son of the cellist Mark Il′ich Yampol′sky (1879–1951), he studied at the Moscow Conservatory and in 1930 graduated from the violin class of his uncle, Abram Il′ich Yampol′sky. He took the kandidat degree in 1940 with a dissertation on violin fingering. He taught the violin at the Music Academy (1931–58), the Central Secondary Music School (1931–46), and at the Moscow Conservatory (1934–49), where from 1939 he also lectured on the history and theory of the violin. He was appointed a senior lecturer at the conservatory in 1940. He held several important editorial posts and in 1953 became a music critic for the Soviet Information Bureau. Yampol′sky contributed more than 1000 articles to Russian and foreign journals. He was known particularly for his book on the history of violin playing in Russia, ...

Article

Tat′yana S. Kyuregyan

(b Kharkov, 10/June 22, 1877; d Saratov, Nov 26, 1942). Russian musicologist, music educator and pianist of Polish descent . He graduated from the Kiev College of Music, having specialized in the piano with Pukhal′sky (1894–8); he also studied mathematics at Kiev University, 1897–8. He then attended the Moscow Conservatory (1898–1903), studying the piano (with N.Ya. Shishkin) and composition (with Ippolitov-Ivanov and Taneyev) and attending Smolensky's course in the history of Russian church music. From 1921 to 1931 he was a member of the State Academy of Artistic Studies (later the State Academy of Arts), and in 1941 he was awarded an honorary doctorate.

Yavorsky's career embraced an extremely wide variety of activities. From 1903 onwards he took an active role in the Music-Ethnography Commission, which promoted the collection, study and teaching of folksong. He took a special interest in music education: he was a founder of the Moscow (...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 21, 1904; d Cologne, Nov 16, 1978). German harpist and musicologist . He was the son of Rudolf Ewald Zingel (1876–1944), an organist, choral conductor and composer in Greifswald. From 1923 to 1927 he studied at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Berlin with harp (under Max Saal) as his main subject. He then studied musicology under Max Schneider, with German literature and aesthetics as secondary subjects, at the universities of Berlin, Breslau (1927–8) and Halle (1928–30). He took the doctorate in Halle in 1930 with a dissertation on harp playing from the 16th century to the 18th. Harpist in the Städtische Orchester of Lübeck from 1932, he joined the Städtische Orchester of Halle in 1934 and the Gürzenich Orchestra in Cologne in 1938, where he remained until his retirement in 1969; he also played in the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra (...