(b Mantes-la-Jolie, 5/June 6, 1665; d Paris, July 6, 1734). French composer, harpsichordist, theorist and teacher. He probably learnt music in the maîtrise of the collegiate church of Notre Dame, Mantes, and in that of Evreux Cathedral. According to the Etat actuel de la Musique du Roi (1773) he then studied with Caldara in Rome. In 1692 Bernier was living in the rue Tiquetonne in Paris and was teaching the harpsichord. On 20 November 1693 he failed to win the post of maître de musique at Rouen Cathedral in competition with Jean-François Lalouette. He was appointed head of the maîtrise of Chartres Cathedral on 17 September 1694 and remained there until 18 March 1698, when he obtained a similar position at St Germain-l'Auxerrois, Paris. A Te Deum performed before the king at Fontainebleau on 24 October 1700 was very successful, and was sung again in several Parisian churches in ...
Christopher D.S. Field
(b early 17th century; d London, bur. May 14, 1681). English theorist, composer and teacher. He seems to have been a younger son of Sir Ralph Birchensha, who in 1598 was sent to Ireland as Comptroller of the Musters and Cheques. According to Anthony Wood ( GB-Ob Wood D 19 , f.19) he resided in Ireland with the Earl of Kildare until the rebellion of 1641 forced him to quit Dublin for London. In A Musicall Banquet (1651) he is listed among teachers of the viol active in London; but it was as a teacher of the rudiments of composition that he made his name. He boasted that by means of his rules ‘not only those, who skillfully can sing or play on some Instrument, may learn to compose but also those, who can neither sing nor play’ (letter to the Royal Society, 26 April 1664...
(b Žarošice, Hodonín district, May 24, 1905; d Brno, June 20, 1988). Czech composer, teacher and music theorist. He studied with Petrželka at the Brno Conservatory and with Helfert at the university, from which he received the PhD in 1933 for a dissertation on Smetana. He completed his education in Suk’s masterclasses at the Prague Conservatory (1933–5). His first appointment was with Czech Radio in Brno; he then taught theory and composition at the Brno Conservatory and was later its director for many years. At Brno University he completed the Habilitation (1961) and became professor of music theory in 1968. In his music he remained faithful to the late Romantic, nationalist Suk–Novák tradition. Contemporary musical developments hardly touched his style, which remained essentially homophonic. Though he wrote piano and chamber pieces, many of his works are vocal, and his songs and choruses achieve considerable expressiveness through harmonic subtlety....
revised by Axel Helmer
(b Stockholm, June 6, 1804; d Stockholm, March 17, 1861). Swedish music critic, historian and composer. He was a pupil of Per Frigel. He earned his living as a clerk in the Swedish Customs and was for many years music critic for the Post och inrikes tidningar. In 1849 he was elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, the library of which he helped to catalogue. In 1850 he translated Birch’s Darstellung der Bühnenkunst into Swedish. He lectured extensively on music history at the conservatory in 1852, and wrote articles for the Ny tidning för musik during the whole period of its existence (1853–7). The most important of these was ‘En blick på tonkonsten i Sverige’, a survey of Swedish music during the previous 50 years. Boman is considered one of the most reliable and important Swedish writers on music before Adolf Lindgren. (...
revised by Pierre Guillot
(b Rochecorbon, nr Vouvray, May 12, 1863; d Toulon, Nov 8, 1909). French music scholar, teacher and composer. He was taught composition by Franck and the piano by Marmontel and was maître de chapelle and organist at Nogent-sur-Marne from July 1887 until March 1890 when the minister of education commissioned him to assemble a collection of early Basque music (published in 1897 as the Archives de la tradition basque). In 1890 he went to Paris where, as maître de chapelle at St Gervais-St Protais, he organized (1892) the Semaines Saintes de St Gervais, a series of musical services at which the best-known works of French and Italian Renaissance composers were performed by Bordes’ singers, the Chanteurs de St Gervais. Indeed, he dedicated most of his short life (sometimes at the expense of his other creative work) to the revival of sacred and secular Renaissance polyphony, much of which had been completely neglected for centuries, and to encouraging young musicians to look to the past for inspiration....
(b New York, Aug 2, 1925). American musicologist and composer. The daughter of pianist Marie Bergersen and (Albert) Ramon Borroff, a tenor who sold carillons by trade, she was raised in a home of extraordinary musical and artistic talent. At the age of 16 she entered the American Conservatory of Music, Chicago (MusB 1946, MusM 1948), where she studied the piano with Louise Robyn and composition with Irwin Fischer. In 1958 she earned a PhD in music history from the University of Michigan. She was a visiting professor at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, in 1972–3 and in 1973 joined the faculty of SUNY-Binghamton, where she taught until her retirement in 1992. Noted for her work in early music, Borroff has also championed American music, women in music and liberal arts in the 20th-century. She is the author of more than 15 books, including the comprehensive ...
(b Arlington, VA, April 4, 1958). American musicologist and composer. He studied at the University of California, Santa Cruz (BA 1981), the New England Conservatory (MM 1986), and Cornell University (DMA 1991), and taught at the State University of New York, Binghamton (1992–2003) before joining the faculty of McGill University in 2003. His Interpreting Popular Music is a landmark study in its marshaling of analytical and social-historical perspectives to address a wide array of music, including rock, soul, and country. He has also written extensively on issues of genre and categorization and edited a collection of source readings on popular music. From 1998 to 2000 he served as president of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music, US chapter. A composition pupil of Karel Husa, Steven Stucky, and David Cope, he has had works performed at many new music festivals and through the Society of Composers, and has won grants from the NEH and Meet the Composer among others....
(b Lisbon, Oct 12, 1890; d Lisbon, Nov 27, 1955). Portuguese composer, teacher, musicologist and critic. He studied composition in Lisbon privately with Augusto Machado and Tomás Borba, then with Désiré Pâque and Luigi Mancinelli. He also studied the piano and the violin. He completed his studies in Berlin with Humperdinck and Pâque (1910) and in Paris with Grovlez (1911). After his marriage he lived on Madeira for two years, returning to Lisbon in 1914. He taught at the Lisbon Conservatory (1916–39), later becoming its assistant director (1919–24). There he worked with Mota in the major reforms which began in 1918. At the same time he established himself as a composer, musicologist, critic and lecturer and slowly rose to a position of fundamental importance in Portuguese musical life. As a teacher, he also played an important role in the preparation of a new generation of composers. In the 1930s, he began to have difficulties with the political authorities and in ...
(b Memphis, Jan 21, 1944). American composer, pianist, conductor and musicologist. He studied the piano with Roy McAllister at the University of Alabama (BM 1965), with Sophia Rosoff, and with Soulima Stravinsky at the University of Illinois (MM 1966), where he also studied composition with Ben Johnson (DMA, 1971) and had contact with Hamm, Hiller, Kessler and Brün. He served on the music faculty at Illinois (1968–74) before joining the staff at Wesleyan University. He was a member of the editorial committee of New World Records (1974–8), founding chairman of New England Sacred Harp Singing (1976) and has held visiting professorships at Middlebury College, Bucknell University and the University of Michigan. In 1980 he was Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Studies in American Music at Brooklyn College.
In 1968 Bruce founded the American Music Group (AMG), an ensemble innovative in its dedication to American music of all eras. AMG recorded the music of Anthony Philip Heinrich for Vanguard, toured widely in the United States and, under Bruce’s direction, gave the 20th-century première of Bristow’s ...
(b Ploieşti, Romania May 18, 1916; d Bucharest, Romania, July 23, 1998). Romanian conductor, composer, musicologist, and professor. He began his studies at the Bucharest Conservatory (orchestra conducting with Ionel Perlea 1933–40). He specialized in Salzburg (1941–2 with Klemens Krauss), and also graduated from the Philosophy Department of the Bucharest University (1933–6). He was conductor (1957–76) and director (1957–9) of the Romanian Opera in Bucharest, and conductor at the Alhambra Theatre, at the Company for Comic Opera, and at the Bucharest Philharmonic (1947–62). He was also conductor and director at the Romanian Opera in Cluj (1948–52), professor at the Department of Music History and Orchestral Conducting (1952–76) at the Bucharest Conservatory, the first conductor and director of the Cinematography Orchestra in Bucharest (1953–68), and director of music and advisor in the Ministry of Culture (...
Benito V. Rivera and Martin Ruhnke
(b Lüneburg, 1564; d Rostock, March 5, 1629). German theorist, composer and teacher. He was one of the leading German theorists of his time and one of the most influential, especially for his work on rhetorical figures in music.
Burmeister studied music at the Johannisschule, Lüneburg, under the Kantors Christoph Praetorius and Euricius Dedekind and the vice-Rektor Lucas Lossius, who particularly impressed him with his textbooks on rhetoric and dialectic. In 1586 he matriculated at Rostock University, where his academic teachers included, among other widely educated humanists, the mathematician and professor of medicine Henricus Brucaeus. He took his master’s degree in 1593. From Easter 1589 he was on the staff of the Rostock town school and was Kantor, first of the Nikolaikirche, then, from the autumn of that year, of the principal church, the Marienkirche; from 1593 until his death he was regular teacher (collega classicus)....
(b Skopje, Aug 8, 1952). Macedonian composer, pianist and scholar. He studied piano and composition at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Music, in Skopje before attending the Faculty of Music of Belgrade (MA in composition, 1976); he defended his doctoral dissertation on the aesthetics of music at UKIM Faculty of Philosophy in 1984. He has twice been a Fulbright Scholar in the USA (1985–6 and 1999–2000).
His catalogue includes symphonies, concertos, oratorios, operas, ballets, song cycles, and sonatas for different instruments. He defines his compositional approach as polystylistic: using mainly multi-movement orchestral forms in the manner of the European music tradition from the 17th century to the 20th and incorporating elements of folk, jazz, and rock. He is among Balkan pioneers in the use of electronic music instruments – live synthesizer performances (in the ballet Vozovi [Trains], 1984); music notation software (Third Piano Sonata, ...
revised by Clytus Gottwald
(b Gorsleben, nr Sachsenburg, Thuringia, Feb 21, 1556; d Leipzig, Nov 24, 1615). German music theorist, composer, teacher, chronologist and astronomer. He was one of the most influential German theorists of his time and prominent in the musical and intellectual life of Leipzig.
After attending schools at Frankenhausen and Magdeburg, Calvisius began his studies at the University of Helmstedt in 1579 and continued them from Easter 1580 at the University of Leipzig, where he had matriculated in 1576. In 1581 he became Kantor at the Paulinerkirche, Leipzig, only to move in November 1582, on the recommendation of the Leipzig theologian Nikolaus Selnecker, to Schulpforta as Kantor of the Fürstenschule. He spent 12 fruitful years there not only as an inspiring teacher but also in the study of history, chronology and music theory. In May 1594 he was recalled to Leipzig as Kantor of the Thomaskirche in succession to Valentin Otto. For a short period in about ...
Gerald R. Benjamin
(b Ahualulco, San Luis Potosí, Jan 28, 1875; d San Angél, Sept 9, 1965). Mexican composer, theorist, conductor, violinist, inventor and teacher. Born to an American family during a seemingly peaceful period of Mexico’s history, he received his early musical education at the National Conservatory in Mexico City, where he studied the violin with Pedro Manzano, composition with Melesio Morales and acoustics with Francisco Ortega y Fonseca. Between 1899 and 1905 he was in Europe, where he divided his time between the conservatories of Ghent and Leipzig; at Ghent he studied the violin with Albert Zimmer, and at Leipzig he was a pupil of Jadassohn (composition), Becker (violin) and Sitt (conducting), and led the Gewandhaus Orchestra under Nikisch. During these formative years he shaped his critical philosophy of the practical application and examination of all theoretical precepts. The results were revolutionary, and led him to a lifelong attempt at effecting greater accuracy among the discrepant postulates of physicists, mathematicians and music theorists, and at helping performers to apply, or at least understand, them (see his ...
(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )
(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.
In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...
(b Varna, Dec 14, 1875; d Sofia, Jan 23, 1941). Eminent Bulgarian composer, music theorist, conductor, and pedagogue who left an immense creative heritage in music as well as in musicology. After completing his secondary education he became a primary school teacher in his native town Varna (1894). Co-founder and conductor of the Musical Society Gusla (1899), he was at the same time conductor of the choir at the church Sveto Uspenie Bogorodichno [The Assumption]. During the years 1900–03 he studied composition in the class of Antonin Dvořák at the Prague Conservatory. In 1907 he won a first prize in the contest dedicated to the opening of the National Theatre in Sofia, with the Festive Overture Ivailo. From that year on he set up in Sofia as a secondary school teacher, as a teacher in the Private Music School, a director of the State School of Music (...
(b Yeysk, Krasnodar district, Jan 29, 1924; d Moscow, March 22, 1990). Russian composer, musicologist and teacher. In 1940 he enrolled at the Moscow Conservatory in Shebalin's class and in 1941 joined the volunteer corps, but was soon discharged on health grounds. In 1943 he returned to the conservatory, studying with Shostakovich (1946–8), and graduating from Shaporin’s class in 1953. In 1947 he began teaching at the Gnesin Academy of Music, and in 1952 at the Gnesin State Institute for Musical Education, from 1967 as senior lecturer. In 1979 he became a senior lecturer at the Moscow Conservatory.
Chugayev’s creative interests became apparent even during his years of study at the conservatory. For many years his idol was Shostakovich, whose traditions he developed in his own works. He also acknowledged J.S. Bach as a source of inspiration, in particular his polyphonic art; it was to this that Chugayev devoted his chief musicological studies. However, Chugayev did not try to recreate the style of Bach, even to the degree that Shostakovich did: the neo-Baroque remained alien to him. Far more important to Chugayev was the continuation of the Russian polyphonic tradition, brought to fruition above all in the creative work of Sergey Taneyev and the composers of his school. Chugayev's music relies on the classical principles of tonality and is characterized by its strong melodies, thematic richness and the well developed use of polyphonic devices. Like that of many Soviet composers of his generation, it is traditional in its approach to form and genre. His works were rarely performed, and this may possibly account for his small output. The Violin Concerto and the two chamber works with piano – the trio and quintet – are considered to be his finest works....
(b Diekirch, July 7, 1922; d Aix-en-Provence, Sept 29, 1989). Luxembourg composer, musicologist and teacher. He studied piano, harmony and composition at the Zürich Conservatory with Paul Müller and Rudolf Mittelsbach (1946–52), at the Cologne Musikhochschule with Hans Mersmann, Philippe Jarnach and Rudolf Petzold (1952–5) and in Paris with Max Deutsch and André Jolivet (1955–6). He graduated at the Luxembourg Ecole Normale in music education with his thesis Das Lied als Ausgangspunkt und Mittelpunkt der Musikerziehung in der Normalschule (1956). He was professor of musical education at the Institut Pédagogique (1964–85) and lecturer in music history, analysis and harmony at the Luxembourg Conservatoire (1954–87). He was elected a member of the Grand-Ducal Institute in 1962, and two years later he was invited by the government to prepare a syllabus for music teaching in primary schools.
Though not numerous, his works represent a turning-point in Luxembourg music history, and he taught most of the new generation of Luxembourg composers (Jeannot Heinen, Claude Lenners, Johny Fritz, Marcel Wengler and Henri Rodesch). His preference was for chamber music, and his essentially personal style cannot be assigned to any particular school. He worked mainly within a polyphonic, polytonal or polymodal idiom in which melody is the point of departure and which is characterized by whole-tone, tetratonic and pentatonic scales and chords....
Donna G. Cardamone
revised by James Haar
(b Monte San Giovanni Campano, nr Arpino, c1510; d after 1579). Italian composer, teacher, poet and theorist. He was active in Naples during the 1540s, though he seems never to have held a permanent post there. He was attached, perhaps informally, to the entourage of Giovanna d'Aragona: his madrigal volume of 1548 opens with dedicatory poems addressed to her and her sons Fabrizio and Marc'Antonio Colonna. He seems also to have had some connection with the short-lived Accademia dei Sereni (1546–8), composing a madrigal for a comedy staged there in 1548. At some point, perhaps in the 1550s, Cimello was in Rome in the service of Marc'Antonio Colonna. During that time he began a treatise on plainchant reform, and he had some dealings with Annibale Zoilo, to which he later alluded in a rambling letter to Cardinal Guglielmo Sirleto (in I-Rvat ). In the early 1570s he was in Benevento, teaching grammar and music at the local seminary and doing research on witchcraft in the area; he claimed to have written some collections of poetry (none are known to survive) including a poem called ...
revised by Giulia Anna Romana Veneziano
(b Florence, July 8, 1638; d Florence, Jan 16, 1703). Italian composer, teacher, music editor, theorist, organist and singer. He spent his entire life as a priest in Florence. On 1 August 1663 he was appointed chaplain at the cathedral, S Maria del Fiore, where he was also active as an organist and singer. He was particularly admired as a teacher, and it was this above all that determined the nature of his publications; the numerous reprints particularly of Il cantore addottrinato and Scolare addottrinato bear witness to the popularity of his methods. In these two manuals he sought to establish rules for the effective composition and performance of church music, contributing, according to his contemporaries, to the codification of the ‘true rule of ecclesiastical singing’. However, he is better remembered for his Corona di sacre canzoni and Colletta di laude spirituali, which have great importance for the final phase in the history of the ...