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Article

Gaynor G. Jones and Michael Musgrave

(b Wetzlar, Jan 6, 1807; d Berlin, Nov 25, 1883). German editor of folksongs, teacher, choral director and composer. He received his first musical training from his father, Adam Wilhelm Erk, who was Kantor, cathedral organist and teacher at Wetzlar. In 1813 the family moved to Dreieichenhain in Hesse-Darmstadt where Erk took piano, organ and violin lessons. After his father’s death in 1820, he went to Offenbach, where he entered J.B. Spiess’s educational institute (at which he taught from 1824). His music teachers at Offenbach were the composer Johann Anton André, the violinist C. Reinwald and the organist J.C.H. Rinck. In 1826 he was offered a temporary appointment at the teachers’ seminary at Moers on the lower Rhine; he founded and directed many music festivals in this area (including the Remscheid, Ruhrort and Duisburg festivals), and also performed as a piano soloist and in ensembles. He accepted a teaching appointment at the Royal Seminary in Berlin in ...

Article

(b Burlada, Navarre, Oct 21, 1807; d Madrid, July 23, 1878). Spanish writer on music, editor, teacher and composer. He entered Pamplona Cathedral as a choirboy at the age of nine, and at 17 served as a violinist. He studied the piano, organ and violin with Julián Prieto and composition with Francisco Secanilla. In 1828 he became maestro de capilla at Burgo de Osma. In 1829 his appointment as maestro de capilla was frustrated at Seville Cathedral apparently by local intrigues, and at the royal chapel in Madrid by his youth. However, he was called to the post at Seville in 1832 and at the royal chapel in 1844. At Seville he took holy orders and soon met with ecclesiastical opposition to his secular operas. These three opere serie (all lost) were all written to Italian librettos and in the Italian style. Nevertheless, Eslava founded with Arrieta, Barbieri, Basili, Gaztambide, Salas and Saldoni La España Musical, a group whose aim was to foster Spanish opera. In ...

Article

Harry Eskew

(b Virginia, 1828; d nr Nashville, TN, Sept 1875). American composer, teacher and tune book compiler. He and his brother L.C. Everett (b Virginia, 1818; d Elmira, NY, April 1867) studied music in Boston. After a brief period as a teacher in Virginia he went to Leipzig to study for a further four years. On his return he and his brother developed the ‘Everett System’ for elementary class instruction in music. R.M. McIntosh became associated with them in the L.C. Everett Company, which was located first in Richmond, Virginia, and later in Pennsylvania; before the Civil War the firm employed more than 50 teachers of vocal music in the southern and middle Atlantic states. A.B. Everett was assisted by another brother, Benjamin Holden Everett, in the compilation of his most significant collection; unlike most contemporary southern tune books, The Sceptre (New York, 1871) was published in round- rather than shape-note notation. A.B. Everett’s most popular tunes include those of the hymns ...

Article

Richard Crawford

(b Stoughton, MA, July 15, 1754; d Simsbury, CT, May 1817). American composer, tunebook compiler, and singing master. He was an older brother of Edward French (1761–1845), a miller by trade, who was noted as a singer and also composed. Jacob was a member of a singing-school taught by William Billings at Stoughton in 1774. Between 1775 and 1781 he served in the Continental Army, and his military records describe him as a soldier, a Stoughton resident, and a “husbandman” (farmer). He presumably became a singing master after the Revolutionary War. He lived in Medway, Massachusetts, in 1789, and in July 1795 a legal document described him as a “Teacher of Musick” living in Uxbridge, Massachusetts. He is also known to have organized a singing-school in Providence (1795–6), and Genuchi reports (without documentation) that after the turn of the century he taught singing-schools in the wintertime (...

Article

Robert Pascall

(b Frauental, Styria, May 5, 1842; d Vöslau, nr Vienna, Oct 5, 1899). Austrian conductor, teacher, editor and composer, brother of Robert Fuchs. He studied theory with Simon Sechter in Vienna and was appointed Kapellmeister of the Bratislava Opera in 1864. He then worked as an opera conductor in Brno (where his only opera, Zingara, was first produced in 1872), Kassel, Cologne, Hamburg, Leipzig and finally, from 1880, at the Vienna Hofoper. In 1873 he married the singer Anthonie Exner in Kassel. Fuchs became a professor of composition at the Vienna Conservatory in 1888 and succeeded Hellmesberger as its director in 1893; the next year he received the title of assistant Hofkapellmeister for his work at the court opera. He played an important part in preparing the Schubert Gesamtausgabe, editing the dramatic works and some of the orchestral music. He also edited operas by Handel, Gluck and Mozart and wrote songs and piano pieces....

Article

Milton Sutter

revised by Carlida Steffan

(b Friuli, ?1770; d Venice, early 1830). Italian music lexicographer, teacher and composer. He studied music in Padua with Jacopo Agnola and then went to Venice, where he taught theory and composition. There, in 1801, he published his Dizionario della musica sacra e profana, the first music dictionary in Italian, which he described as modelled on the French works by Brossard and Rousseau, and Grammatica ragionata della musica, an introduction to the elements of music and musical instruments, which included an annotated bibliography of writers on the theory and practice of music from 1500 to the end of the 18th century. Second editions of both works, the Dizionario revised and much enlarged, appeared in 1820. A reprint of this edition of the Dizionario appeared in 1830 (called the third edition on its title-page). Although much of the material in both editions of the Dizionario is superficial and incorrect, a few of the entries are useful, providing information not easily found elsewhere. In ...

Article

Noal Cohen

[Grice, George General; Qusim, Basheer]

(b Pensacola, FL, Nov 28, 1925; d Pensacola, FL, March 14, 1983). American jazz saxophonist, flutist, composer, arranger, music publisher, and teacher. Known more as a composer and arranger than as an instrumentalist, he was nonetheless an alto saxophonist out of the Charlie Parker tradition with a lyrical bent and a recognizable style and sound. He studied clarinet initially and after serving in the US Navy (1944–6) attended the Boston Conservatory (to 1952). His first exposure came through an encounter with the saxophonist Stan Getz in Boston who recorded several of Gryce’s compositions. After moving to New York in 1953, Gryce was soon a part of the city’s vibrant milieu, recording with the drummer Max Roach and the pianist Tadd Dameron. Throughout his career, Gryce collaborated with a number of noted trumpet players including Clifford Brown, Art Farmer, Donald Byrd, and Richard Williams. With Byrd, he co-led the Jazz Lab, which made a number of highly regarded recordings in ...

Article

Andrew Thomson

(b Boulogne-sur-Mer, March 12, 1837; d Meudon, March 29, 1911). French organist, teacher, composer and editor. He was the son of Jean-Baptiste Guilmant, organist of St Nicolas, Boulogne, who was his first teacher; he also received harmony lessons from Gustav Carulli. Devoted to the organ from an early age, he set himself an unremitting regime of practice, composition and studying treatises. At 16 he had become organist of St Joseph, and two years later his first Messe solemnelle in F was performed at St Nicolas. Soon his musical activities broadened to include teaching solfège at the Ecole Communale de Musique, playing the viola in the Société Philharmonique, and establishing an Orphéon that won a number of prizes. In 1860 he went to Brussels to study with the organist J.N. Lemmens, purportedly the inheritor of the authentic tradition of J.S. Bach. Numerous opportunities to inaugurate new organs followed, above all those of Aristide Cavaillé-Coll in Paris at St Sulpice in ...

Article

Franz Krautwurst

[Hellerus Leucopetraeus]

(b Weissenfels, c1518; d Eisleben, c1590). German mathematician, astronomer, teacher, printer, composer and poet. He studied at the University of Wittenberg from 1536. In 1543, on Melanchthon's recommendation, he succeeded Wilhelm Breitengraser as Rektor of the St Egidien grammar school, Nuremberg. In 1546 he also became professor of mathematics at the St Egidien Gymnasium. He frequently staged school comedies. From 1551 he ran his own printing works. He was forced to leave Nuremberg in 1563 because of his controversial religious activities. He subsequently worked as astronomer to the electorate of Saxony in central Germany, mainly at Mansfeld and Eisleben. Three bicinia by him are known, a song in praise of music (in RISM 154916) and two settings of hymns by Luther (in 155120; one of the latter in K. Ameln, ed.: Luthers Kirchenlieder in Tonsätzen seiner Zeit, Kassel, 1934). Two pieces signed ‘J.H.’ in Caspar Othmayr’s ...

Article

Stephen A. Marini

(b Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, Oct 4, 1730; d Cashaway, SC, cAug 1771). American singing master, compiler, and composer. He was the compiler of The Cashaway Psalmody (1770), a South Carolina manuscript that is the earliest surviving collection of sacred music from the colonial South. Born into poverty and orphaned by the age of 10, Hills acquired enough education to become a schoolmaster in Newcastle before 1751. In that year he was arrested for stealing books, tried, and banished to South Carolina for a term of seven years. He settled in the province’s remote Pee Dee River country, where he worked as a secretary, accountant, and tutor for local indigo planters. Hills served in the Cherokee War of 1759 and was appointed clerk of St. David’s Anglican parish at Cheraw Hill ten years later.

Hills became a singing master during an extended visit to Newcastle in the mid-1760s. By ...

Article

Richard Crawford

revised by Nym Cooke

(Adams)

(b Boxford, MA, Oct 15, 1762; d East Concord, NH, Feb 7, 1820). American composer, tune book compiler and singing master. He was descended from two noteworthy New England families, the Holyokes and the Peabodys. He studied at Harvard College (BA, 1789; MA, 1792), during which time he contributed several secular songs to The Massachusetts Magazine, and published his first book of psalmody, Harmonia Americana (Boston, 1791). With Hans Gram and Oliver Holden he brought out The Massachusetts Compiler of Theoretical and Practical Elements of Sacred Vocal Music (Boston, 1795), a collection of mostly European music prefaced by the lengthiest exposition of music theory printed in America during the century. Holyoke was one of the most prolific American composers of his generation. He published almost 700 of his own pieces, mainly in his monumental book The Columbian Repository of Sacred Harmony (Exeter, NH, 1803) and in his collection designed for Baptist worshippers, ...

Article

Michael Kassler

[Karl Friedrich]

(b Nordhausen, Saxony, Feb 1762; d Windsor, Aug 3, 1830). English teacher, editor, organist and composer of German birth. According to memoirs by his son Charles Edward (MS Yomiuri Symphony Orchestra, Japan), Horn defied his father’s opposition to a career in music by taking lessons secretly from the Nordhausen organist Christoph Gottlieb Schröter and by leaving home in 1782 to become a musician in Paris. On his way, a stranger persuaded him to travel to London instead and after accompanying him there stole most of his money. When Horn confessed his plight to a German-speaking passer-by he was taken into a music shop, whose proprietor introduced him to the Saxon ambassador. Through this contact he was subsequently employed as a music master in the household of the 1st Marquess of Stafford. There he met Diana Dupont, a governess, whom he married on 28 September 1785; in consequence of her pregnancy, the couple moved to London where in ...

Article

Robert Orledge and Andrew Thomson

(b Paris, Mar 27, 1851; d Paris, Dec 2, 1931). French composer, teacher, conductor and editor of early music. His famed veneration for Beethoven and Franck has unfortunately obscured the individual character of his own compositions, particularly his fine orchestral pieces descriptive of southern France. As a teacher his influence was enormous and wideranging, with benefits for French music far outweighing the charges of dogmatism and political intolerance.

Andrew Thomson

D’Indy came from a military aristocratic family from the Ardèche region, a fact of the greatest importance in understanding his lifelong nationalist and right-wing political position. His mother died in childbirth, and he was brought up by his paternal grandmother, Thérèse (née de Chorier). Her strict regime, however, was mitigated by deep affection: she was not the tyrannical ogress of received opinion. D’Indy took lessons in piano from Louis Diémer and theory from Albert Lavignac; while showing definite promise, he showed more interest as a boy in military matters and the life of his hero Napoleon. At 18, having passed his ...

Article

L. Brett Scott

(Walter)

(b Port Colborne, ON, Oct 14, 1927; d Caledon East, ON, April 3, 1998). Canadian choral conductor, arranger, editor, and teacher. After graduating from the University of Toronto (BM 1950), he conducted the University of Toronto Symphony Orchestra and All-Varsity Mixed Chorus, was a choir member at St. Mary Magdelene Church under Healey Willan, and apprenticed with Sir Ernest MacMillan as assistant conductor of the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir. In 1964 he was appointed conductor of the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir, a position he held until 1997. He taught choral music at the University of Toronto from 1965 to 1968, and was Adjunct Professor from 1997 until his death in 1998. After his death, the University of Toronto’s Elmer Iseler Chair in Conducting was established in his honor.

Iseler’s work with his professional choirs established his reputation in Canada and internationally. In 1954 he helped found Canada’s first professional choir, the Toronto Festival Singers. He founded the Elmer Iseler Singers in ...

Article

Charles H. Kaufman

(b Oxford, bap. April 15, 1757; d Boston, MA, Nov 18, 1822). English-American composer, teacher and editor . He reportedly studied under Nares at the Chapel Royal, and while in London he taught privately, wrote a number of sacred and secular compositions and published a Treatise on Practical Thoroughbass (1785). St Andrews University granted him a doctorate in music (1791), which probably was an honorary award.

By 1797 he was in New Brunswick, New Jersey; there, while professor of music at a private academy, he presented concerts of popular and art music which received favourable attention throughout the state. He moved to New York in 1801 and remained there, teaching and giving concerts, until 1812 when he moved to Boston. Jackson played a prominent part in that city’s musical life as a teacher, composer, conductor, organist, music seller and consultant to the newly formed Handel and Haydn Society....

Article

Charles Conrad

(b Worthington, IN, May 28, 1875; d Worthington, IN, Feb 11, 1936). American composer, bandmaster, publisher, and teacher. He studied baritone horn as a child, and joined the Gentry Brothers Dog and Pony Show when he was 16, remaining there until 1902 when he joined the Ringling Brothers Band. In 1905 he joined the Otto‑Floto Circus, which became the Sells‑Floto Circus in 1906; in that year he assumed leadership of its band. In 1907 he joined the Ringling Brothers Circus, and from 1908–10 was bandmaster of the Barnum & Bailey Circus. In 1916 he became director of the Hagenbeck‑Wallace Circus Band, but two years later went to Oskaloosa, Iowa, to succeed C.L. Barnhouse, a friend and publisher, as director of the Iowa Brigade Band. He started his own music publishing business in 1920. In 1923 he returned to Worthington, directed the Murat Temple Band in nearby Indianapolis, and taught music in local schools. Jewell composed over 130 works, some of which were published under the pseudonym J.E. Wells. A number of his works are recorded in Robert Hoe’s ...

Article

Katherine K. Preston and Michael Meckna

(b Davenport, IA, March 15, 1924; d Seattle, March 5, 1977). American composer, music publisher and pianist . He studied composition with George McKay at the University of Washington (1938–42) and after military service joined the faculty there to teach piano and theory (1947–9). He was music director of the Eleanor King Dance Company (1947–50) and the pianist of the Seattle SO (1948–51); during these years he performed extensively throughout the Pacific Northwest in chamber ensembles and as a soloist.

In 1951 Johnson moved to New York, where he worked in the music publishing business as education director for Mercury Music (1951–4), head of the orchestral department at C.F. Peters (1954–8) and president of Dow Publishers (1957–62). After returning to Seattle, he served at the helm of the Cornish School of Music (1962–9) and in ...

Article

Kristina Yapova

(b Stara Zagora, June 30, 1873; d Sofia, March 19, 1932). Bulgarian composer, pedagogue, and publisher . Khadjigeorgiev finished the Bulgarian Catholic Secondary School in Odrin in 1890. In 1892 he entered the Prague Conservatory where he studied flute and composition. Here Khadjigeorgiev wrote his first works: Jubileen marsh [Anniversary March] for piano, devoted to the Bulgarian poet Ivan Vazov (1894), Konzertna polka [Concert-Polka] for two flutes and piano (1896), and Bulgarski tanz [Bulgarian Dance] no.1 for piano (1897). After his return to Bulgaria in 1897, Khadjigeorgiev engaged in cultural activities: he was a founder, together with Georgi Baidanov, of the Musical Society Kaval (1897), and initiator, publisher, and editor of the Musical Newspaper (1904). Khadjigeorgiev was a winner of the first prize in the competition for a composition in honour of Alexander II on the occasion of the opening of the Emperor’s monument in Sofia (...

Article

Mel R. Wilhoit

(b Duncannon, PA, Feb 27, 1838; d Germantown, PA, Sept 20, 1921). American compiler of Sunday-school and gospel hymnbooks, composer of hymns and teacher. He worked as a music teacher in the Philadelphia area, where he became associated with a number of Methodist churches.

His own musical style reflected the developing gospel hymn, which he helped to establish and popularize. In 1878 he joined forces with John R. Sweney, and the two men compiled about 50 songbooks and collections: ‘Sweney and Kirkpatrick’ became almost a trademark, and sales of their books ran into millions. They collaborated with the leading poets of gospel hymnody, and published nearly 1000 of Fanny Crosby’s hymns alone. Kirkpatrick’s collections – he produced about 50 further items after Sweney’s death – were used in revivals and camp meetings, such as the Methodist gatherings at Ocean Grove, New Jersey, and many of his more animated tunes, for example, that of ...

Article

[Jan Antonín, Ioannes Antonius]

(b Velvary, June 26, 1747; d Vienna, May 7, 1818). Bohemian composer, pianist, music teacher and publisher. He was baptized Jan Antonín, but began (not later than 1773) to use the name Leopold to differentiate himself from his older cousin of that name. He received his basic music education in Velvary and then studied music in Prague with his cousin, who probably gave him a thorough grounding in counterpoint and vocal writing, and with F.X. Dušek, whose piano and composition school prepared him mainly for writing symphonies and piano sonatas. After the success of his first ballets and pantomimes (performed in Prague, 1771–8), Kozeluch abandoned his law studies for a career as a musician. In 1778 he went to Vienna, where he quickly made a reputation as an excellent pianist, teacher and composer. By 1781 he was so well established there that he could refuse an offer to succeed Mozart as court organist to the Archbishop of Salzburg. By ...