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Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Warsaw, Aug 18, 1856; d Lemberg, Oct 30, 1912). Polish composer, choral director, teacher and critic. After graduating in piano and music theory from the music school of the Muza music society in Kraków (after 1867), he subsequently studied composition with F. Krenn at the Vienna Conservatory, and with Rheinberger and M. Sachs in Munich. From 1879 to 1881 he lived in Kraków, where he began his career as composer and critic. In 1882 he was conductor of the Andante Choir in Leipzig and associate répétiteur for the opera chorus in Weimar; here his songs came to the attention of Liszt. In 1883 he went to Italy to deepen his knowledge of the art of singing, and consulted various teachers including F. Lamperti. From the autumn of 1884 he was conductor of the Music Society in Lemberg, and at the end of 1888 he went to Dresden and Leipzig, where he became musical advisor to the publisher of his songs, Leuckart. From ...


Marco Beghelli

(b Perticara, Rimini, Oct 12, 1845; d Rimini, Dec 8, 1919). Italian critic, teacher and composer. He studied with Croff and Mazzucato at the Milan Conservatory, 1862–7, joining Garibaldi during the 1866 war against Austria, along with his fellow-students Marco Praga, Faccio and Boito. In Carnival 1865 his Cesare al Rubicone, a gran scena ed aria for baritone, chorus and orchestra, was successfully performed in Rimini, and on graduating he won the composition prize for his secular oratorio Espiazione (1867) to his own text after Moore’s Lalla Rookh. He then conducted the band in Amelia, Umbria, and was director of the music school in Finale Emilia, 1871–3 (several early works are extant in I-FEM , including a quartet, three symphonies, sacred music and the oratorio Cristo al Golgota, 1871).

Galli returned to Milan as music critic of Il secolo, published by Sonzogno. He took charge of Sonzogno’s music publishing, arranging vocal scores, translating French librettos and replacing spoken dialogue with recitative. He was responsible for a series of cheap editions and sat on the jury of Sonzogno’s opera competitions (which led to ...


Lesley A. Wright

(b Vaugirard, Paris, France, Feb 27, 1822; d Paris, France, April 1, 1878). French composer, teacher, and critic. At the Paris Conservatoire he studied the violin with Habeneck and composition with Halévy, winning the Second Prix de Rome in 1842. He played first violin at the Opéra (1838) and the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire (1847), and became assistant conductor at the Opéra-National (1847–8). His association with opera continued at the Théâtre Italien, where from about 1849 to 1852, and again from 1863 to 1864, he was chef des choeurs. The Opéra-National, and later the Théâtre Lyrique, presented most of Gautier’s early operas. His most popular work there, the opéra comique Flore et Zéphire (1852), had 126 performances as a curtain-raiser. Though some critics found the harmony complicated and the orchestration too rich, Berlioz praised the score’s freshness and skilful orchestration, and the elegant and lively style of the melodies. Gautier’s greatest success came with another light one-act opera, ...


(b Göteborg, Dec 22, 1846; d Stockholm, March 11, 1925). Swedish conductor, composer, teacher and critic. Between 1866 and 1871 he studied in Leipzig with Reinecke, in Munich with Rheinberger and in Dresden with Rietz. He then returned to Göteborg, where he became conductor of the music society (1872–8); he later taught singing in Berlin (1879–83). Back in Sweden he was conductor of the Philharmonic Society in Stockholm (1885–95) and of the Royal Opera (1892–7), as well as founder and conductor of the South Swedish Philharmonic Society (1902–7). From 1909 to 1919 he taught composition at the Stockholm Conservatory.

Hallén’s compositions show an accomplished handling of formal elements and contain stylistic reminiscences of Swedish folk music and the works of other Swedish composers like Söderman. The salient feature of his style, however, and the one which strongly affected contemporary reaction, is its close, almost derivative relationship to German music. Wagner’s works and aesthetic ideas had a particularly strong and lasting influence on Hallén; his operas, although conceived with considerable dramatic skill, are largely dependent on Wagnerian models. As an enterprising and versatile conductor, he gave sympathetic performances of the Wagner operas and brought about performances of many choral masterpieces then almost unknown in Sweden, including the first Swedish performance of Bach's ...


Stefan Fricke

(b Teterow, June 8, 1932). German music journalist and composer. He studied privately comparative linguistics (with Roman Jacobson), philosophy and sociology (with Adorno, Max Horkheimer and Siegfried Kracauer), Marxist methodology, history, economics and urban planning. After working in several European countries and the USA he settled in 1957 in Cologne, where he met Gottfried Michael Koenig and Heinz-Klaus Metzger at the WDR electronic studios. Between 1957 and 1970 he attended the Darmstadt summer courses, where he also lectured. During the 1960s and 70s he wrote as a critic and a journalist on 20th-century music, focussing particularly on sociological issues. He was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Bremen in 1974 and was visiting lecturer at the University of Illinois, 1976–8. He moved to New York in 1978 and returned to Cologne in 1988.

Helms’s writings reflect his commitment to the ideas of the Frankfurt School and concentrate on the sociological context within which musical events take place. His compositions have been described as ‘Sprachmusik’, or the attempt to cross the boundary between literary and musical ideas. He draws on different aspects of language – morphemes, phonemes, grammar, phonetics – to create new word units by using quasi-serial techniques (...


Ilkka Oramo

(b Säkylä, Oct 26, 1822; d nr Uusikaupunki, March 3, 1868). Finnish composer, writer and critic. He studied classical philology and literature at the Imperial Alexander University of Helsinki, took his Master of Arts in 1843, worked as a teacher in Turku from 1847, lectured on music history and wrote novels, short stories and plays as well as reviews on music for several newspapers in Turku and Helsinki. As a composer he was self-taught, but nevertheless wrote the first symphony ever composed in Finland (1847). Its third movement (‘Scherzo finnico’) is in 5/4 metre, characteristic of Finnish rune singing, although it otherwise lacks the distinctive features of rune melodies. His opera Junkerns förmyndare (The Guardian of a Junker, N.H. Pinello, 1853) was based on a subject from 16th-century Finnish history, and he also wrote about 100 choruses and songs to Finnish poetry (J.L. Runeberg, Z. Topelius and others) as well as some German songs (Schiller, Heine). As one of the first representatives of Finnish national Romanticism and Biedermeier in music and as a pioneer of music criticism he has a place in Finnish music history....


James Deaville

(Heinrich )

(b Brunswick, Sept 5, 1820; d Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], Feb 16, 1886). German pianist, composer, critic and teacher. He quickly developed as a pianist and was sent to Vienna, where he studied the piano with C.M. von Bocklet and theory with Sechter and Seyfried. After a further two years in Brunswick, he settled in 1845 in Königsberg, where he initially worked in the theatre and conducted the Singverein. From 1847 Köhler devoted himself exclusively to piano pedagogy and to writing about music. He was music critic for the Hartungsche Zeitung for almost 40 years (1849–86), and contributed to Signale from 1844 until his death. His correspondence articles from Königsberg for Brendel's Neue Zeitschrift für Musik brought him to the attention of Liszt and Wagner in 1852, but it was his first book, Die Melodie der Sprache (1853), that established him as one of the leading New German writers, a reputation substantiated by his many journal articles, newspaper reviews and books of the 1850s and 60s. He also proposed the idea behind the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein, which he, Liszt and Brendel (among others) developed at the ...


Miroslav K. Černý


(b Prague, May 2, 1817; d Prague, July 22, 1868). Czech choirmaster, teacher, composer and critic. He was the son of the distinguished Prague choirmaster František Xaver Kolešovský (b Prague, 1781; d Prague, 12 June 1839), a pupil of J.A. Kozeluch. He studied the violin at the Prague Conservatory, theory, organ and singing at the Prague Organ School, and theory and composition with Tomášek and others. He was a member of the Estates Theatre Orchestra in Prague from 1835 until 1839, when he succeeded his father as choirmaster of St Štěpána; here, and later at St Ignác he continued his father's practice of presenting music by earlier Czech masters, especially F.X. Brixi. In the 1850s he was director of the Žofín Academy, an important Prague music institution with choir and school, but gave up the post to found his own school of singing and theory, where his pupils included Fibich. He also taught from ...


George Leotsakos

(b Corfu, Dec 24, 1875; d Athens, Oct 31, 1945). Greek composer and critic. Introduced to the piano by his mother and to theory and harmony by his father, he enrolled in the faculty of law at Athens University before studying at the S Pietro a Majella Conservatory, Naples (1895–1901). On his return to Greece, long before Kalomiris’s 1908 manifesto of the national school, Lambelet published his essay ‘National Music’, in which he called for composers to draw inspiration from their folk traditions; this nationalist stance was also adopted by his periodical Kritiki, first issued in 1903. For a year he was director of the Piraeus League Conservatory. He also taught music at the Varvakeion Lyceum, Athens, and was editor of the monthly periodical Mousika chronika (1928–9).

Much of Lambelet’s music is lost, but what has survived displays flawless technique and harmonic taste, qualities especially evident in his sensitive approach to the harmonization of Greek folksongs in the collection ...


Alan Walker

(b Rudersdorf, nr Berlin, Jan 30, 1844; d Jena, April 27, 1918). German critic, pianist and composer. Although he was best known as the owner and editor of the influential Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung (1882–1907), Lessmann had earlier studied the piano with Bülow and composition with Friedrich Kiel in Berlin. In 1866 he became a piano teacher at the Stern Conservatory and the following year joined the faculty of the Klavier-Schule Tausig, a position he held until Tausig's death in 1871. From 1872 he was head of the music department of the Kaiserin Augusta Stiftung, in Potsdam, and he also taught at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory. The relationship with Bülow and Tausig was important in bringing him into personal contact with both Liszt and Wagner, and he became a staunch supporter of the New German School.

Lessmann was widely respected as a critic. His prose was judicious and tempered, and it was informed by many years of practical music-making. Generally speaking he championed the new and unusual in music. This made him the polar opposite of his older contemporary Eduard Hanslick, who was seen as representing the more conservative musicians of the time. Lessmann was a regular visitor to Bayreuth and gave generous coverage to the festivals of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein, of which Liszt was the lifetime president. Liszt thought well of him as a composer and transcribed his three ‘Tannhäuser’ songs for solo piano. He also wrote a monograph on Liszt (...


Allan Thomas

( b 1796; d 1866). Scottish dancing-master . He was the most prominent member of a family of dance teachers in Scotland in the early 19th century, whose descendants numbered more than 20 teachers over five generations and who were active in Scotland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand for some 200 years. With his brothers John, Robert and James, Lowe was influential in establishing Scottish dance in a modern ballroom form. The brothers taught in different parts of Scotland and together wrote Lowes’ Ball-Conductor and Assembly Guide (Edinburgh, c1830), one of the most extensive 19th-century dance manuals. Joseph Lowe also published many arrangements of Scottish dance-tunes for the piano. From 1851 to 1860 he was dance tutor to the family of Queen Victoria, and his journal of these years gives an insight into his teaching at Windsor and Balmoral. His workbook, which contains step descriptions of dances and some entries by his son Joseph Eager Lowe, who taught in New Zealand and Australia, is in the National Library of New Zealand....


Mosco Carner

revised by Sigrid Wiesmann

(b Graz, May 11, 1882; d Graz, Sept 3, 1964). Austrian composer, teacher and critic. He first studied music with members of his family. After attending courses at Graz University in philosophy, art history and German studies, he took the doctorate in 1909. For a time there was a complete break between the young Marx and his family, who wanted him to read law. He began composing in earnest at the age of 26 and within four years (1908–12) wrote around 120 songs. His name became known in Vienna, where in 1914 he was offered the post of professor of theory at the music academy. In 1922 he succeeded Löwe as director of the academy, and he was rector (1924–7) when the institution was reorganized as a Hochschule für Musik. He then acted as adviser to the Turkish government in laying the foundations of a conservatory in Ankara (...


Jan ten Bokum

( b Rotterdam, Dec 14, 1849; d Amsterdam, March 11, 1929). Dutch teacher, critic and composer . He was an organ pupil of J.A. Klerk and Samuel de Lange (i) and a composition pupil of Bargiel and Willem Nicolaï. In 1871 he was a piano teacher in Middelburg and in 1873 he was an organist in Groningen, where he continued his studies with J. Worp. From 1875 to 1888 he was director of the music school in Gouda, leaving his post to make the acquaintance of Franck and d'Indy in Paris. After returning to the Netherlands in 1890, he settled in Amsterdam, working as a newspaper critic until 1906. In 1894 he edited the Weekblad voor muziek and from 1902 until 1916 the journal Caecilia; he also promoted modern French music. In 1906 he was appointed to the board of the Vereeniging voor Noord Nederlands Muziekgeschiedenis, and in 1913 he became professor of music history at the Amsterdam Conservatory, a post he held until his death. He wrote a study of early Christian church music, ...


Aleksandar Vasić

(b Belgrade, Oct 27, 1884; d Belgrade, June 16, 1946). Serbian composer, musicologist, and music critic. Milojević studied various subjects at the University of Belgrade from 1904 to 1906 including German studies, comparative literature, Serbian language and literature, and philosophy. He concurrently attended Serbian Music School where he studied music theory subjects and composition with Stevan Mokranjac and piano with Cvetko Manojlović. For the next five semesters (1907–10), Milojević continued his studies at the Munich University Philosophy Faculty, where he studied musicology (with A. Sandberger and T. Kroyer), literature, and philosophy. At the same time, he attended Munich Music Academy, studying composition (with F. Klose), piano (R. Meier-Gschray), and conducting with score reading (F. Mottl). He graduated from Munich Music Academy in 1910. In the period between the two World Wars he developed an extraordinarily rich music career as a composer, musicologist, music critic, folklorist, music pedagogue, conductor, and organizer of music affairs. In ...


Rogier Starreveld

revised by Katja Brooijmans

(b Haarlem, May 28, 1896; d Heerlen, May 22, 1977). Dutch composer, organist, critic and teacher. He studied organ with Jos Verheyen in Amsterdam and Louis Robert in Haarlem. He continued his studies with Jean Baptiste de Pauw (piano and organ) and Sem Dresden (composition) at the Amsterdam Conservatory. He received a state grant for study in Paris at the Schola Contorum with Vincent d’Indy and Louis Aubert. He then taught composition and analysis at the Rotterdam Conservatory and the Amsterdam Conservatory (1927–32). Prolifically active as a critic, he was appointed music editor (in 1933) for the De Tijd-Maasbode group and was since 1946 a regular contributor to the new music journal Mens en melodie.

Characteristic of Monnikendam’s working method is his constancy towards a basic idea. This could be a melodic principle such as the Gregorian chant melody in the Sinfonia sacra (1947...


Iosif Genrikhovich Rayskin

(b the fortress of Novo-Georgiyevsk [now Modlin], Poland, 8/April 20, 1881; d Moscow, Aug 8, 1950). Russian composer, critic and teacher. He received his first piano lessons as a child at home, but following in the family tradition (his father was a military engineer and subsequently a professor of the Military and Engineering Academy in St Petersburg) he studied at the cadet corps at Nizhniy-Novgorod (1893–5) and St Petersburg (1895–9), and then finally at the St Petersburg Military and Engineering College (1899–1902). During these years he sang in the choir of the cadet corps, took lessons on the piano and the violin, and played in an amateur orchestra. His first attempts at composition were made at the age of 15 and consist of a group of piano preludes (all written over the period 1896–8). After completing his military studies, he began his service in a Moscow sappers' battalion. On the recommendation of Taneyev he took lessons in harmony from Glier (January–May 1903), and after his transfer to St Petersburg in the autumn of ...


Teresa Chylińska

(b Saposzyn, nr Lemberg [now L'viv], Nov 4, 1859; d Lwów [now L'viv], Aug 15, 1936). Polish composer, teacher and critic. He studied with Mikuli in Lemberg, with Krenn in Vienna (1882–5), with Paderewski (1885) and with Jadassohn in Leipzig. In 1886–7 he managed the Lemberg Opera, and from 1887 until 1914 he was professor of history, harmony, counterpoint and the piano at the conservatory; he contributed music criticism to periodicals in the city from 1885. During World War I he stayed in Vienna where he organized a music school for Polish refugees. In 1918 he returned to Lemberg as manager of the opera and editor of the Gazeta muzyczna. He was appointed professor at the Warsaw Conservatory in 1919. In 1924 he was founder-chairman of the Polish Society of Music Writers and Critics, and he was first chairman of the Section of Modern Polish Composers founded in ...


Viorel Cosma

revised by Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Bucharest, Romania, Oct 1, 1890; d Bucharest, Jan 19, 1951). Romanian composer, conductor, music critic, teacher, and violinist. Along with Alfred Alessandrescu and Ion Nonna Otescu, Nottara was among the first disciples of the renowned composition professor Alfonso Castaldi from the Bucharest Conservatory. First under the influence of French impressionism, then of Italian verismo, Nottara’s work then gradually integrated with the tendency of forming a Romanian national style in the first half of the 20th century.

He studied at the Bucharest Conservatory (1900–07) with D.G. Kiriac (music theory and solfège), Alfonso Castaldi (composition), and Robert Klenck (violin); he continued his studies under George Enescu and Berthelier (violin) in Paris (1907–9), and under Klinger (violin) and Schatzenholz (composition) at the Königliche Akademie der Künste, Berlin, (1909–13). His career as a violinist included orchestral playing in the Bucharest PO (1905–7, 1918–20), leading a string quartet (...




Albert Mell

(b Breslau, Oct 3, 1807; d Florence, Nov 18, 1887). German singing teacher, violinist, composer and critic. He studied singing with the Kantors Strauch and Förster, and learnt the violin with Joseph Mayseder. His initial career was as a violinist. About 1834 he settled in Paris, as a performer, critic and composer, and editor of and contributor to the new Gazette et revue musicale; he was also a correspondent for the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. He was a prolific composer for the violin and of solo songs. After 1840 Panofka’s interest turned towards the art and techniques of the great singers he heard in Paris. He studied the methods of Marco Bordogni, and went to London in 1847 and directed the chorus of the Royal Italian Opera under Lumley. He met Jenny Lind there and studied her vocal techniques, as well as those of Lablache, Fraschini and Staudigl. In London he was esteemed more as a singing teacher than as a violinist. His first didactic work, the ...