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Article

Denzil Wraight

(fl Florence, Italy, 1626–41). Italian harpsichord and virginal maker. Son of Vincenzo, who was also an instrument maker, he came from Prato to Florence, where he worked in the via dei Servi. Two single-manual harpsichords and eight virginals are connected with his name, but the attribution of two of the virginals has not been confirmed. The 1627 harpsichord (GB.E.u) was crudely rebuilt by Franciolini with three manuals; the original compass was C/E–c″′ with F ♭, G ♭, d ♭, a ♭, d ♭′, a ♭′ as split sharps, and two unidentified naturals below C/E. The 1631 harpsichord (US.NH.y) was more conventional with a C/F–f″″ compass and two 8′ registers. Of the virginals, most were made in rectangular form, and have the common compass of C/E–f″′, but four were also provided with additional split sharps, similar to the 1627 harpsichord. Bolcioni is thus one of the significant sources for this type of keyboard in the early 17th century....

Article

(d 1641). Italian harpsichord maker. He originated in Cortona but spent all of his working life in Rome. He was employed at various times by three nephews of Pope Urban VIII to maintain and supply harpsichords, and also to work on chamber organs. His successor in these establishments was Girolamo Zenti. Five surviving harpsichords (only two of which are signed) can reliably be attributed to Boni. Of the two virginals bearing his name (both in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC), only the 1602 instrument might be his work, the 1617 virginals having been made by Bolcioni (see Wraight, 1997). His instruments are chiefly of interest as examples of the Italian practice of using split sharps to provide enharmonically equivalent notes (see Enharmonic keyboard, esp.). One harpsichord of about 1619 (private collection) also has divided natural keys in the bass octave, being the earliest example of this....

Article

Nigel Fortune

revised by Arnaldo Morelli

(b Pergola, c1591; d Rome, Oct 20, 1641). Italian composer, organist, organ builder and engraver. He probably spent his whole life in Rome and may have been related to the Roman painters Jacopo, Domenico and Matteo Borboni (the last of whom was also an engraver). He may have studied music with Ottavio Catalani and probably harpsichord and organ with Frescobaldi until 1614. He was organist of S Maria della Consolazione from 1623 to 1629, and of S Giovanni in Laterano from 1638 to 1641. In the intervening years he was possibly maestro di capella of the Seminario Romano. He also looked after the organs at S Maria della Consolazione (1623–41), S Giovanni in Laterano (1628–41), S Apollinare and S Maria Maggiore (both 1633–41). Doni called him an ‘excellent organist’ and praised a regal that he had made. Following Simone Verovio, whose pupil he may have been, he espoused the method of printing from engraved copper plates for a series of music books published between ...

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Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(b Quakenbrück, 1629; d Amsterdam, Jan 28, 1681). Netherlands violin maker of German birth. One of the best-known violin makers of the 17th-century Dutch school, he worked in Amsterdam from at least 1653, when he married there, until his death. He was related by marriage to Gerrit Menslage (b Essen, c1606; d Amsterdam, 1661), an instrument maker who, like Boumeester, lived near the Oude Kerk. His son Harmanus Boumeester (1656–78) was also a luthier, but perhaps due to his early death the workshop was taken over first by Jan Boumeester’s widow, then by their daughter, Margareta, and in 1704 by a former assistant, Jan Vos (d 1721). Others who might have worked in the well-established shop include Cornelis Kamp (c1657–c1706), Gijsbert Verbeeck (1642–1717), and Dirck ten Bos (c1660–c1704). A Johannes Boumeester of Quackenbrück, certainly a relation, was also an instrument maker....

Article

Theodor Wohnhaas

(b Kitzingen, Germany, Aug 1, 1695; d Stadtamhof, Germany, Nov 21, 1757). German organ builder. He was a son of Johann Adam Brandenstein (b Himmelstadt, Germany, Oct 21, 1657; d Kitzingen, Germany, Aug 9, 1726) and worked as a journeyman in Franconia. He married the widow of the organ builder Philipp Franz Schleich (c1686 – 15 Nov 1723) and took over his workshop at Stadtamhof, near Regensburg. From 1725 he built a considerable number of organs in the old Bavarian region, including those in Rohr (1725), Metten (1726), Weltenburg (1728), Regensburg Upper Minster (1744), and Frauenzell (1752). Most of his organs are very imposing; his greatest stood in the monastery church of the former Cistercian abbey in Waldsassen (1738). Brandenstein’s status as an organ builder was equivalent to that of König in Ingolstadt and Egedacher in Passau. His pupils included Ferdinand Stiefel (...

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Maurice Byrne

revised by David Lasocki

(b Bourg en Bresse, France, May 27, 1663; d Tournai, Belgium, April 21, 1731). French wind instrument maker. He was baptized Pierre Jaillard but later took the name Bressan (‘from Bresse’). His father (a waggoner) died when he was four. In 1678 he was apprenticed for two years to Jean Boysser, a wood turner in Bourg. He probably trained in instrument making and in performance with one of the Hotteterres, in Paris. His treble recorders are similar to those of his contemporary Jean-Jacques Rippert, and the hollow foot of his basset recorders is similar to those of Rippert and the Hotteterres. Bressan came to England in 1688, and is first mentioned, as ‘Brazong’ or ‘Bresong’, in English archives in 1691 as one of the ‘hautboys’ who accompanied William III to Holland. James Talbot’s manuscript (Christ Church Library Music MS 1187, c1695) gives measurements for five instruments by Bressan—tenor and basset recorder, flute, oboe, and tenor oboe—showing that his reputation had already been established....

Article

Laurence Libin

Family of harpsichord makers in Antwerp.

fl. mid-17th century; a cabinet maker, he joined the Guild of St Luke in 1613 as a pupil of Melsen Ykens.

a cabinet maker as late as 1649, joined the Guild in 1655–6, at the same time as the harpsichord builder Gommaar van Everbroeck. Joris (i) and (ii) might have learned harpsichord making as employees of the Ruckers workshop.

joined the Guild in 1658–9.

joined the Guild in 1717.

Several extant harpsichords and virginals of various sizes, not dissimilar to contemporary ones of the Ruckers family and dated between 1675 and 1686, are ascribed to members of the family; Joris (iii) is credited with one harpsichord and two octave virginals. The name Joris is Latinized as ‘Georgius’ in their inscriptions. The Britsens are said also to have made lutes although this might be a confusion with lute registers....

Article

Maurice Byrne

(b Pavenham, Beds., 1650; d Brasted, Kent, bur. April 12, 1712). English trumpeter and brass instrument maker. He was apprenticed to the widow of a member of the Haberdashers Company of London in 1664, presumably through a family connection. At the age of 16 he was appointed Trumpeter in Extraordinary to Charles II. He married at the age of 21 on taking his freedom of the Haberdashers and moving to Hatchett Alley on Tower Hill. In 1678 he was appointed Trumpeter in Ordinary and also became a trumpeter in the second Troop of Horse Guards. He moved to The Horne and Trumpet in Salisbury Street and advertised trumpets of silver and brass for sale. The surviving plate books of the Royal Jewel House show that Bull was also responsible for instrument repairs from at least 1685 until 1700. Bull moved from Salisbury Street to the Haymarket in 1682...

Article

Allison A. Alcorn

(fl Nuremberg, Germany, mid-17th century). German luthier. Son-in-law of the instrument maker Fritz Lang (d 1622), Busch produced bowed string instruments, including violin-family members, violones in G and D, and viols of flamboyant shape with complex multi-curved outlines, floral inlays, and flame-shaped soundholes. Several viols display the inlaid sexfoil arabesque motif more typical of Gasparo da Salò and the Brescian school. Elements of Busch’s viols recall older construction methods, such as the one-piece neck and upper block....

Article

Charles Beare

(fl c1670–80). Italian violin maker. He worked towards the end of the 17th century, probably in Cremona. In style he combined something of the Amati tradition with a certain individual squareness of outline, and slightly hooked corners foreshadowing P.G. Rogeri of Brescia. Several of Bussetto's instruments can be ranked with those of the greatest makers; others, however, are less inspired and are both tonally and visually weak. His work is very rare, and has often been attributed to better-known Cremonese makers. (...

Article

[Joan, Joannes, Johannes]

(b Jegenye [now Leghea, nr Cluj-Napoca], March 8, 1629; d Szárhegy [now Lǎzarea, nr Gheorgheni], April 25, 1687). Transylvanian compiler of music anthologies, organist, organ builder, teacher and administrator. He studied music at the Jesuit school at Mănăştur, near Cluj-Napoca, which he left in 1641. In 1648 he was converted to Catholicism from the Orthodox faith into which he was born, and he entered the Franciscan school of the monastery at Csíksomlyó (now Şumuleu, near Miercurea-Ciuc), where on 17 November 1650 he was appointed organist and teacher. He continued his philosophical and theological studies at the Franciscan college at Trnava, near Bratislava, and he was ordained priest there on 5 September 1655. He then took up several appointments at Csíksomlyó. He had studied the organ from an early age, and worked as an organ builder and restorer in Transylvania and Moldavia. He was abbot of the monasteries at Mikháza (now Călugăreni) from ...

Article

Charles Beare

revised by Philip J. Kass

[Gioffredo]

(b Saluzzo, 1644; d Saluzzo, Aug 6, 1717). Italian violin maker. He worked in Saluzzo from the last decades of the 17th century until his death, and also briefly in Mondovì in 1697. Later that same year he was working in Turin, but by 1703 had returned to Saluzzo where he remained for the rest of his career. Born into a family of the minor nobility, his antecedents as a violin maker are unknown; the theory that he studied under Enrico Cattenar in Turin is doubtful, and that he served an apprenticeship with the unknown maker Giuseppe Torano in Turin is both unlikely and unprovable. His work is obviously very much influenced by the Amati family. Cappa's original labels are extremely rare, those surviving today being in manuscript, and it appears that the practice of labelling his best violins with the name Amati was already taking place as early as the 18th century. His work is frequently rough in detail, with a distinctive character that should not be mistaken. He made a large number of good violins and several very successful cellos. While he is often credited with having had two pupils, Spirito Sorsana and Francesco Celoniatti, the style, finish, varnish, and construction methods used by these two strongly suggest otherwise. Cappa used a soft brown varnish, sometimes quite red, of classical quality, which unfortunately fails to appear in the work of his successors in Piedmont....

Article

Hans Klotz

revised by Kurt Lueders

[Crépin]

(b Laon, c1560; d before 1640). French organ builder. He was resident in Lille (at that time Flemish) by 1589, and may have been related to Erasmus Carlier (known to have been an organist in Lille in 1552). The style of Crespin Carlier’s organs suggests the influence of the school of Van Halen and Isoore in Saint Omer (then in the southern Netherlands). Until 1600 he worked exclusively in the southern Netherlands (Dunkirk, Saint Omer, Kortrijk, Ghent, Namur and Hesdin). In 1600 Titelouze invited him to Rouen to alter the cathedral organ there which had been built in 1491–3 and 1515–18. Carlier subsequently worked on other Rouen churches (St Sauveur, St Michel, St Jean, St Laurent, St André, St Ouen and St Nicaise) and produced important instruments for the cathedrals of Poitiers, Tours, Chartres, Soissons and Laon. After 1600 he worked only rarely in the southern Netherlands (Antwerp Cathedral, ...

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Miriam Miller

(fl 1672–95). English bookseller, music publisher and instrument seller. His shop at the Middle Temple Gate, London, was very near that of John Playford the elder, and they published several volumes in partnership between 1681 and 1684. One of these was Henry Purcell’s Sonnata’s of III Parts (1683), printed from plates engraved by Thomas Cross the younger. In spite of clear evidence of friendship as well as partnership between the Carr and Playford families, Carr began to publish independently in 1687. One volume, Vinculum societatis, printed that year, represents a typographical revolution, being printed from an entirely new fount of type. This fount had round note heads, and was designed to allow the printing of quavers, semiquavers etc. in groups as well as separately. It was not possible to achieve this effect with the older diamond-headed founts used by the Playford printers, and it is noticeable that although Carr continued to publish music for the next seven years, he never did so with Henry Playford, even though Carr had many business partners. One of these partners, Sam Scott, took over the Carr business in ...

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Philip J. Kass

(b Chissigné, Franconia, c1620; d Turin, July 29, 1701). Italian violin maker. Cattenar appears to have been the most important violin maker in Turin during the 17th century. While many writers record him as having been a pupil of Chiaffredo Cappa, he was actually considerably older. Cattenar first appeared in Turin as a maker of lutes and other stringed instruments in 1650, when he first acquired his workshop and shortly thereafter married the widow of the Tyrolean lute maker Johann Angerer (c1620–1650). In early documents his name is often given as Casner; only from the 1670s onwards is he consistently referred to as Cattenar. He maintained an active and successful workshop in Turin until the end of the century and was well connected to the Court; his eldest son was a prominent physician, and another son, Francesco Giuseppe (b Turin, c1664; d...

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Philip J. Kass

(b Turin, Italy, April 13, 1675; d Turin, Italy, Feb 17, 1751). Italian violin maker. He was the most important maker in Turin during the first half of the 18th century. He first came to lutherie after the 1710s; at the time of the Siege of Turin he was working as an armourer. His training remains unknown, but his style most closely resembles that of Henricus Cattenar and Spirito Sorsana, and nothing in his work suggests any contact with Chiaffredo Cappa, as has been claimed. Most of his instruments were made during the 1720s and 1730s, although he remained active as a maker and repairer well into the 1740s. He retired in 1746, and few of his violin-making materials remained in his estate at the time of his death.

Celoniato set his violins’ ribs into a channel cut into the back, as did contemporary Turin makers and French and Flemish makers of the same period. His model is a rather slender and stiffer adaptation of the Brothers Amati small pattern, with low arching and f-holes set at an angle. His pegboxes are distinctively very narrow. His varnish is invariably a medium golden yellow, firm and fairly transparent....

Article

Pierre Hardouin

French family of organ builders.

(b Reims, c1645; d Paris, July 21, 1719). He was introduced to organ building by his brother-in-law Etienne Enocq, who in 1654 married Jacquette Clicquot at Reims after he had rebuilt the organ of the cathedral (1647). Robert was called to Paris by Enocq to work on the organ of the chapel at Versailles, and was appointed ‘facteur d’orgues du Roy’, a post held by successive members of the family. After the death of Enocq (1682) and of his protector Colbert (1683), he worked mainly in the provinces where he built or rebuilt several large organs (St Jean-des-Vignes, Soissons, 1680–82; Rouen Cathedral, 1689–92 – there he was particularly praised by Jacques Boyvin). As partner of Alexandre Thierry, who was also the godfather of his son (3) Louis-Alexandre, Clicquot built the huge organ of the collegiate church at Saint Quentin. After Thierry’s death (...

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(fl Paris, c1666–93). French string instrument maker. He was probably the son of Nicolas Collichon, who made lutes in the mid-17th century and had a shop on the pont St-Michel. In 1661 Nicolas, who held the title Marchand de luths et instruments de musique ordinaire du Roi, lived in the rue de la Harpe, where Michel Collichon had a shop from at least 1666 until 1676. Michel became well known as a luthier in Paris and his shop was frequented by many famous players. The viol player, composer and teacher Jean Rousseau conducted his business there; Machy and Sainte-Colombe visited the shop regularly.

Collichon’s viols are among the earliest examples of fine 17th-century French craftsmanship. A bass viol by him was included in an inventory of instruments of another maker, Louis Guersan (25 January 1758), valued at 20 livres (the same value as viols by Bertrand and Barbey in the list). Six of Collichon’s bass viols are extant, with dates from ...